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Encyclopedia > Sulfonamide

In chemistry, the sulfonamide functional group is -S(=O)2-NH2, a sulfone group connected to an amine group. Multicolored chemicals are frequent hallmarks of chemistry. ... In organic chemistry functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... A sulfone is a chemical compound containing a sulfonyl functional group attached to two carbon atoms. ... Ammonia Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ...

A sulfonamide (compound) is a compound that contains this group. The general formula is RSO2NH2, where R is some organic group. For example, "methanesulfonamide" is CH3SO2NH2. Any sulfonamide can be considered as derived from a sulfonic acid by replacing a hydroxyl group with an amine group. It has been suggested that Sulfonic acid/Temp be merged into this article or section. ... Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ...

In medicine, the term "sulfonamide" is sometimes used as a synonym for sulfa drug, a derivative or variation of sulfanilamide. Medicine is the branch of health science and the sector of public life concerned with maintaining human health or restoring it through the treatment of disease and injury. ... Sulfonamides, also known as sulfa drugs, are synthetic antimicrobial agents derived from sulfonic acid. ...

Sulfonamides have a static effect on bacterial growth as they interfere with DNA replication. This is possible as the sulfonamide drugs are structurally similar to that of Italic textparaItalic textamino benzoic acid. This allows them to intefere with the use of PABA in bacteria. Sulfonamides are not however an antibiotic as they are completely synthetic. Due the competitive enzyme inhibition that results the bacteria are unable to synthesise folic acid which is fundamental in DNA replication.

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Sulfonamide - definition of Sulfonamide in Encyclopedia (383 words)
Sulfonamides, also known as sulfa drugs, are synthetic antimicrobial agents derived from sulfonic acid.
Many thousands of permutations of the sulfanilamide structure have been created since its discovery (by one account, over 5400 permutations by 1945), usually by the substitution of another functional group for a single amide hydrogen.
Certain sulfonamides (sulfadiazine or sulfamethoxazole) are sometimes mixed with the drug trimethoprim, which acts against dihydrofolate reductase.
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