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Encyclopedia > Sulfide

Formally, "sulfide" is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. Instead, sulfide combines with protons to form HS, which is variously called hydrogen sulfide ion, hydrosulfide ion, sulfhydryl ion, or bisulfide ion. At still lower pH's (<7), HS converts to H2S, hydrogen sulfide. Thus, the exact sulfur species obtained upon dissolving sulfide salts depends on the pH of the final solution. An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... Flash point -82. ...


Aqueous solutions of transition metal cations react with sulfide sources (H2S, NaSH, Na2S) to precipitate solid sulfides. Such inorganic sulfides typically have very low solubility in water and many are related to minerals. One famous example is the bright yellow species CdS or "chrome yellow". The black tarnish formed on sterling silver is Ag2S. Such species are sometimes referred to as salts. In fact the bonding in transition metal sulfides is highly covalent, which gives rise to their semiconductor properties, which in turn is related to the practical applications of many sulfide materials. In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... An ion is an atom or group of atoms with a net electric charge. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ...


In organic chemistry, "sulfide" usually refers to the linkage C-S-C, although the term thioether is less ambiguous. For example, the thioether dimethyl sulfide is CH3-S-CH3. Polyphenylene sulfide (see below) has the empirical formula C6H4S. Occasionally, the term sulfide refers to molecules containing the -SH functional group. For example, methyl suflide can mean CH3-SH. The preferred descriptor for such SH-containing compounds is thiol or mercaptan, i.e. methanethiol or methyl mercaptan. Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within the subject of chemistry. ... A thioether (also known as a sulfide) is a functional group in organic chemistry that has the structure R-S-R, where R is any organic group. ... Dimethyl sulfide causes that distinctive smell from your St. ... Sulfar fiber (1983) is a nonconductive fiber that has excellent resistance to chemical and thermal attack; it has changed industry with filter fabrics for coal boilers, papermaker felts, electrical insulation, specialty membranes, gaskets, and packings. ... In organic chemistry functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... In organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ...


Confusion arises from the different meanings of the term "disulfide". Molybdenum disulfide consists of separated sulfide centers, in association with molybdenum in the formal 4+ oxidation state. Iron disulfide on the other hand consists of S22−, or S-S, in association with iron in the formal 2+ oxidation state. Dimethyldisulfide has the connectivity CH3-S-S-CH3, whereas carbon disulfide has no S-S linkages, being S=C=S. In chemistry, a disulfide is an ion formed by sulfur atoms. ... Carbon disulfide (CS2) is a colorless liquid with a pleasant odor that is like the smell of chloroform. ...

Contents

Examples

Flash point -82. ...

Uses

General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Atomic mass 112. ... A photoresistor is an electronic component whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... In horticulture, lime sulfur (British spelling lime sulphur) is a mixture of calcium polysulfides formed by reacting calcium hydroxide with sulfur. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ... A gardener Gardening is the art of growing plants with the goal of crafting a purposeful landscape. ... Carbon disulfide (CS2) is a colorless liquid with a pleasant odor that is like the smell of chloroform. ... A solvent is a fluid phase (liquid, gas, or plasma) that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... Lead sulfide (British/Commonwealth English sulphide) is a chemical compound PbS, most often purified from the mineral galena. ... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. ... Molybdenum disulfide, also called molybdenum sulfide or molybdenum(IV) sulfide, with the formula MoS2, is a black crystalline sulfide of molybdenum. ... Molybdenite is a mineral of molybdenum disulfide, MoS2. ... Silver sulfide (or Silver sulphide in British English) is a black compound of silver. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... A contact is part of the active component of an electric switch. ... Flash point -82. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... The Kraft process is used in production of paper pulp and involves the use of caustic sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide to extract the lignin from the wood fiber in large vats called digesters. ... Piece of A4 paper Paper is a thin material produced by the amalgamation of plant fibres, which are subsequently held together without extra binder, largely by hydrogen bonds and to a large degree by fiber entanglement. ... Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... This page is about making leather. ... Nodding donkey pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 Petroleum (from Latin petrus &#8211; rock and oleum &#8211; oil), mineral oil, or crude oil, sometimes colloquially called black gold, is a thick, dark brown or greenish flammable liquid, which exists in the upper strata of some areas of the... The term heavy metal may have various more general or more specific meanings. ... Water pollution The major forms of pollution include: air pollution, the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Atomic mass 65. ... A lens. ... Table of Opticks, 1728 Cyclopaedia Optics ( appearance or look in ancient Greek) is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light and the interaction of light with matter. ... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of radio waves. ... Legend: γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves: EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultrahigh frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High frequency... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Atomic mass 65. ... Photoluminescence is a process in which a chemical compound absorbs a photon with a wavelength in the range of visible electromagnetic radiation, thus transitioning to a higher electronic energy state, and then radiates a photon back out, returning to a lower energy state. ... For animal and plant pigments, see Pigment, biology. ... Sulfar fiber (1983) is a nonconductive fiber that has excellent resistance to chemical and thermal attack; it has changed industry with filter fabrics for coal boilers, papermaker felts, electrical insulation, specialty membranes, gaskets, and packings. ... Sulfar fiber (1983) is a nonconductive fiber that has excellent resistance to chemical and thermal attack; it has changed industry with filter fabrics for coal boilers, papermaker felts, electrical insulation, specialty membranes, gaskets, and packings. ...

Natural occurrence

Many important metal ores are sulfides. Significant sulfide minerals include: Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily forms positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds. ... Iron ore (Banded iron formation) Manganese ore Lead ore Gold ore An ore is a volume of rock containing components or minerals in a mode of occurrence which renders it valuable for mining. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ...

Arsenopyrite is an iron arsenic sulfide (FeAsS). ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Atomic mass 74. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... Argentite, a mineral which belongs to the galena group, is cubic silver sulfide (Ag2S). ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... Chalcopyrite (sometimes called peacock pyrite) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ... Cinnabar, sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red mercury(II) sulfide (HgS), or native vermilion, the common ore of mercury. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 200. ... Galena is a lead ore. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ... Molybdenite is a mineral of molybdenum disulfide, MoS2. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Atomic mass 95. ... Pentlandite is a iron-nickel sulfide, (Fe,Ni)9S8. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nickel, Ni, 28 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 4, d Appearance lustrous, metallic Atomic mass 58. ... This article is about the mineral Pyrite or Fools Gold. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... Orpiment and Realgar Realgar is an arsenic sulfide mineral with formula: As4S4. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Atomic mass 74. ... Sphalerite sample Another sphalerite sample Sphalerite (ZnS) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Atomic mass 65. ... Stibnite, sometimes also called antimonite, is a sulfide mineral with the chemical composition Sb2S3. ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Atomic mass 121. ...

Safety

Many metal sulfides are so insoluble that they are probably not very toxic. Some metal sulfides, when exposed to a strong mineral acid, including gastric acids, will release toxic hydrogen sulfide. For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Gastric acid is, together with several enzymes and the intrinsic factor, one of the main secretions of the stomach. ...


Organic sulfides are highly flammable. When a sulfide burns, the fumes usually include toxic sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas. Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ...


Hydrogen sulfide, some of its salts, and almost all organic sulfides have a strong and putrid stench, as rotting biomass releases these. Mercaptans, in particular, are the strongest-smelling substances known. In organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ...


References

  • Meyer B, Ward K, Koshlap K, Peter L (1983). Second dissociation constant of hydrogen sulfide. Inorg Chem, 22:2345.

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Specialty Chemicals - Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LLC - Sulfides, Disulfides and Polysulfides (169 words)
Sulfide reagents can also be used to introduce organosulfur groups into target organic molecules.
In addition to their use as catalyst sulfidation agents, polysulfides are commonly used in the formulation of lubricant additives for extreme pressure functionality.
Agricultural Intermediates, Catalyst Sulfiding and Pyrolysis Furnace Additives
CERAC, inc. - Sulfides Product Data Sheet (674 words)
Sulfides are generally not thought of as high temperature materials, but at least 30 metallic sulfides display refractory properties which indicate potential uses at elevated temperatures.
Sulfides generally oxidize readily in moist air at ambient temperature or in dry air at elevated temperature.
Also, various sulfides have come under recent scrutiny as new battery materials, largely due to the relatively stable forms of metal sulfides in multiple oxidation states and to environmental acceptabilities.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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