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Encyclopedia > Sulfate
The sulfate anion, SO42−
The sulfate anion, SO42−
The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion
The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion

In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 604 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 1091 pixel, file size: 144 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 604 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 1091 pixel, file size: 144 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 790 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 835 pixel, file size: 53 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 790 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 835 pixel, file size: 53 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... IUPAC logo The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (Pronounced as eye-you-pack) is an international non-governmental organization established in 1919 devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... A magnified crystal of salt In chemistry, salt is a term used for ionic compounds composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...

Contents

Chemical properties

The sulfate ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula SO42− and a molecular mass of 96.06 daltons; it consists of one central sulfur atom surrounded by four equivalent oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. The sulfate ion carries a negative two charge and is the conjugate base of the hydrogen sulfate (also known as bisulfate) ion, HSO4, which is the conjugate base of H2SO4, sulfuric acid. An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas coloured yellow A polyatomic ion is a molecule that bears ionic groups, that is, a molecule with a charge. ... An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is a simple expression of the relative number of each type of atom (called a chemical element) in it. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The unified atomic mass unit (u), or Dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular masses. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... A tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra) is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each vertex. ... Look up charge in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Within the Brønsted-Lowry (protonic) theory of acids and bases, a conjugate acid is the acid member, HX, of a pair of two compounds that transform into each other by gain or loss of a proton. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Sulfate compounds arise when cations combine with the anion SO42−. Often this combination results in an ionic compound, although sulfates can engage in covalent bonding with most elements. The metal complex PtSO4P(C6H5)32 is clearly covalent Pt-O bonding. Dialkylsulfates, such as dimethylsulfate are covalent, distillable species. Many sulfate salts are highly soluble in water. Exceptions include calcium sulfate, strontium sulfate, and barium sulfate, which are poorly soluble. The barium derivative is useful in the gravimetric analysis of sulfate: one adds a solution of, perhaps, barium chloride to a solution containing sulfate ions. The appearance of a white precipitate, which is barium sulfate, indicates that sulfate anions are present. A cation is an ion with positive charge. ... An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... Dimethyl sulfate is a chemical compound with formula (CH3O)2SO2. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Calcium sulphate is a common laboratory and industrial chemical. ... Celestite (SrSO4) is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate. ... Granulated Barium Sulfate Barium sulfate (or barium sulphate) is the white crystalline solid with the formula BaSO4. ... Gravimetry is the measurement of gravitational force, weight, or density. ... Barium chloride is the chemical compound with the formula BaCl2. ... Granulated Barium Sulfate Barium sulfate (or barium sulphate) is the white crystalline solid with the formula BaSO4. ...


Uses

Sulfates are important in both the chemical industry and biological systems:

A valve-regulated, sometimes called sealed, lead acid battery Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. ... A black smoker in the Atlantic Ocean Black smokers are a type of hydrothermal vent found on the ocean floor. ... Copper (II) sulfate (CuSO4) is the most common copper salt, made by the action of sulfuric acid on the base copper oxide. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Magnesium sulfate (or sulphate) is a chemical compound containing magnesium and sulfate, with the formula MgSO4. ... Magnesium sulfate (commonly called Epsom salts in hydrated form) is a chemical compound with the formula MgSO4·7H2O. Origin Epsom salt was originally prepared by boiling down mineral waters at Epsom, England and afterwards prepared from sea water. ... It has been suggested that Selenite be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... This article is about the building material. ... A counter ion is an ion, the presence of which allows the formation of an overall neutrally charged species. ... A cation is an ion with positive charge. ...

Sulfur oxoanions

General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... A space-filling model of the peroxomonosulfate anion The structure of the peroxomonosulfate anion The peroxomonosulfate ion, SO52−, is a sulfur oxoanion. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Sulfites (also sulphite) are compounds that contain the sulfite ion SO32−. They are often used as preservatives in wines (to prevent spoilage and oxidation), dried fruits, and dried potato products. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... SO22− hyposulfite ion Hyposulfite, SO22−, is a polyatomic ion, in which more than one atom are bonded together to form a charged species, which most often is treated as, in effect, a charged molecule. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... A space-filling model of the peroxodisulfate anion The structure of the peroxodisulfate anion The peroxodisulfate ion, S2O82−, is a sulfur oxoanion. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The structure of the dithionate anion A ball-and-stick model of the dithionate anion The dithionate anion, S2O62−, is a sulfur oxoanion derived from dithionic acid, H2S2O6. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Sodium dithionite (aka sodium hydrosulfite) is a toxic, white crystalline powder with a weak sulfurous odor. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The structure of the tetrathionate anion The tetrathionate anion, S4O62−, is a sulfur oxoanion derived from the compound tetrathionic acid, H2S4O6. ...

Environmental effects

Sulfates occur as microscopic particles (aerosols) resulting from fossil fuel and biomass combustion. They increase the acidity of the atmosphere and form acid rain. Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons, primarily coal and petroleum (fuel oil or natural gas), formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals[1] by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earths crust over hundreds of millions of years[2]. The theory that hydrocarbons were formed from these... See biomass (ecology) for the use of the term in ecology, where it refers to the cumulation of living matter Switchgrass, a tough plant used in the biofuel industry in the United States Rice chaff. ... “Air” redirects here. ... The term acid rain Since the industrial revolution, emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere have increased. ...


Main effects on climate

The first (direct) effect is to scatter light, effectively increasing the Earth's albedo. This effect is moderately well understood and leads to a cooling from the negative radiative forcing of about 0.5 W/m2 relative to pre-industrial values,[1] partially offsetting the larger (about 2.4 W/m2) warming effect of greenhouse gases. The effect is strongly spatially non-uniform, being largest downstream of large industrial areas. Albedo is the ratio of reflected to incident electromagnetic radiation. ... The generalised concept of radiative forcing in climate science is any change in the radiation (heat) entering the climate system or changes in radiatively active gases. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...


The first indirect effect is also known as the Twomey effect. Sulfate aerosols can act as cloud condensation nuclei and this leads to greater numbers of smaller droplets of water. Lots of smaller droplets can diffuse light more efficiently than just a few larger droplets. Twomey effect - describes how cloud condensation nuclei from anthropogenic pollution may increase the amount of solar radiation reflected by clouds. ... Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh - NASA Cloud condensation nuclei or CCNs (also known as cloud seeds) are small particles (typically 0. ...


The second indirect effect is the further knock-on effects of having more cloud condensation nuclei. It is proposed that these include the suppression of drizzle, increased cloud height (Pincus & Baker 1994), to facilitate cloud formation at low humidities and longer cloud lifetime (Albrecht 1989). Sulfate may also result in changes in the particle size distribution, which can affect the clouds radiative properties in ways that are not fully understood. Chemical effects such as the dissolution of soluble gases and slightly soluble substances, surface tension depression by organic substances and accommodation coefficient changes are also included in the second indirect effect [2]. For other uses, see Cloud (disambiguation). ... Humidity is the amount of water vapor in air. ...


The indirect effects probably have a cooling effect, perhaps up to 2 W/m2, although the uncertainty is very large.


Sulfates are therefore implicated in global dimming, which may have acted to offset some of the effects of global warming. Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earths surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in 1950s. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


See also

A sulfonate anion consists of sulfur double bonded to two oxygens and bonded to an R group and an oxygen anion. ...

References

  1. ^ Figure 3: The global mean radiative forcing of the climate system for the year 2000, relative to 1750. Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis. IPCC.
  2. ^ Chemical Amplification (or dampening) of the Twomey Effect: Conditions derived from droplet activation theory. T.A. Rissman, A. Nenes, J.H. Seinfeld.
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