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Encyclopedia > Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

Suleiman I attributed to school of Titian c.1530
Reign 1520–1566 (46 years)
Coronation 1520
Full name Sultan Suleiman Khan
Titles Sultan of Sultans,
The Shadow of God on Earth (Caliph),
Caesar of all the lands of Rome
Born November 6, 1494(1494-11-06)
Birthplace Trabzon
Died September 5/6, 1566 (aged 71)
Place of death Szigetvár, Hungary
Buried Süleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul
Predecessor Selim I
Successor Selim II
Consort Hurrem Sultan (Roxelana)
Wives
Gülbahar Sultan
Royal House House of Osman
Father Selim I
Mother Hafsa Hatun

Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: سليمان Sulaymān, Turkish: Süleyman; almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) (November 6, 1494September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566. He is known in the West as Suleiman the Magnificent[1] and in the East, as the Lawgiver (in Turkish Kanuni; Arabic: القانونى‎, al‐Qānūnī), for his complete reconstruction of the Ottoman legal system. Suleiman became the pre-eminent monarch of 16th century Europe, presiding over the apex of the Ottoman Empire's military, political and economic power. Suleiman personally led Ottoman armies to conquer the Christian strongholds of Belgrade, Rhodes, and most of Hungary before his conquests were checked at the Siege of Vienna in 1529. He annexed most of the Middle East in his conflict with the Persians and large swaths of North Africa as far west as Algeria. Under his rule, the Ottoman fleet dominated the seas from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf.[2] For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Image File history File links EmperorSuleiman. ... Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: ), is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... Szigetvár (Croatian: , Serbian: or Sigetvar) is a town in Baranya County in southern Hungary. ... The Suleiman Mosque side view. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى SelÄ«m-i sānÄ«, Turkish:)(May 28, 1524 – December 12, 1574) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death. ... Roxelana Roxelana, Roxolana, Roxelane, Rossa, Ruziac, known also by her Turkish name of Khourrem (or Hürrem or Karima), meaning the cheerful one, (circa 1500 - April 18, 1558) was the wife of sultan Süleyman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire. ... House of Osman is the name to the administrative structure of the Ottoman Dynasty, which is part of state organization of the Ottoman Empire, however directly linked to dynasty. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Occident redirects here. ... The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... Arabic redirects here. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... // Combatants Austria with Bohemian, German & Spanish mercenaries Ottoman Empire Commanders Nicholas, Graf von Salm Suleiman I Strength over 16,000 [1] 120,000 [1] Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Vienna of 1529, as distinct from the Battle of Vienna in 1683, was the Ottoman Empires first attempt to... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Pakistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azeri[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


At the helm of an expanding empire, Suleiman personally instituted legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation, and criminal law. His canonical law (or the Kanuns) fixed the form of the empire for centuries after his death. Not only was Suleiman a distinguished poet and goldsmith in his own right; he also became a great patron of culture, overseeing the golden age of the Ottoman Empire's artistic, literary and architectural development.[3] Early on as the Ottoman Turks drove out the Byzantines from Anatolia and later pursued them into Europe, the pursuit was a part of the Jihad (or Holy War) against Christianity, and the first Ottoman rulers called themselves Gazi, or Holy Warriors. ... A page from the Dîvân-ı Fuzûlî, the collected poems of the 16th-century Ottoman poet Fuzûlî Turkish literature (Turkish: Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) is the collection of written and oral texts composed in the Turkish language, either in its Ottoman form or... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


In a break with Ottoman tradition, Suleiman married a harem girl Roxelana, who became Hürrem Sultan; her intrigues as queen in the court and power over the Sultan have become as famous as Suleiman himself. Their son, Selim II, succeeded Suleiman following his death in 1566 after 46 years of rule. For other uses, see Harem (disambiguation). ... Roxelana Roxelana, Roxolana, Roxelane, Rossa, Ruziac, known also by her Turkish name of Khourrem (or Hürrem or Karima), meaning the cheerful one, (circa 1500 - April 18, 1558) was the wife of sultan Süleyman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire. ... Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى SelÄ«m-i sānÄ«, Turkish:)(May 28, 1524 – December 12, 1574) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death. ...

Contents

Early life

Suleiman was born in Trabzon along the coast of the Black Sea, probably on November 6, 1494.[4] At the age of seven, he was sent to study science, history, literature, theology, and military tactics in the schools of the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. As a young man, he befriended Ibrahim, a slave who later became one of his most trusted advisers.[5] From the age of seventeen, young Suleiman was appointed as the governor of first Kaffa (Theodosia), then Sarukhan (Manisa) with a brief tenure at Edirne (Adrianople).[6] Upon the death of his father, Selim I (1465–1520), Suleiman entered Istanbul and acceded to the throne as the tenth Ottoman Sultan. An early description of Suleiman, a few weeks following his accession, was provided by the Venetian envoy Bartolomeo Contarini: "He is twenty-five years of age, tall, but wiry, and of a delicate complexion. His neck is a little too long, his face thin, and his nose aquiline. He has a shade of a moustache and a small beard; nevertheless he has a pleasant men, though his skin tends to pallor. He is said to be a wise Lord, fond of study, and all men hope for good from his rule."[7] Some historians claim that in his youth Suleiman had an admiration for Alexander the Great.[8][9] He was influenced by Alexander's vision of building a world empire that would encompass the east and the west, and this created a drive for his subsequent military campaigns in Asia and in Africa, as well as in Europe. Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: ), is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Ä°brahim Pasha Palace to the west of Sultanahmet Square, facing former Hippodrome, in Ä°stanbul, today Turkish-Islamic Art Museum - www. ... Kaffa is the name of several geographical locations: Crimean city of Kaffa or Caffa is currently known as Feodosiya; The Kingdom of Kaffa; The former province of Kaffa in Ethiopia This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Manisa is the capital of the Turkish province of Manisa. ... Adrianople redirects here. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Bartolomeo Contarini was a Venetian businessman who married the widowed duchess of Athens Chiara Zorzi in 1453 and governed the duchy in the name of her infant son, Francis I. Bartolomeo was the son of Priam, the castellan of Nauplia. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


Military campaigns

Conquests in Europe

See also: Ottoman wars in Europe

Upon succeeding his father, Suleiman began a series of military conquests, first putting down a revolt led by the Ottoman-appointed governor of Damascus in 1521. Suleiman soon made preparations for the conquest of Belgrade from the Kingdom of Hungary—something his great-grandfather Mehmed II had failed to achieve. Its capture was vital in eliminating the Hungarians who, following the defeats of the Serbs, Bulgarians and Byzantines, remained the only formidable force who could block further Ottoman gains in Europe. Suleiman encircled Belgrade and began a series of heavy bombardments from an island in the Danube. With a garrison of only 700 men, and receiving no aid from Hungary, Belgrade fell in August 1521.[10] The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Byzantine redirects here. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Danube River. ...

Suleiman as a young man
Suleiman as a young man

News of the conquest of one of Christendom's major strongholds spread fear across Europe. As the ambassador of the Holy Roman Empire to Istanbul was to note, "The capture of Belgrade was at the origin of the dramatic events which engulfed Hungary. It led to the death of King Louis, the capture of Buda, the occupation of Transylvania, the ruin of a flourishing kingdom and the fear of neighbouring nations that they would suffer the same fate…"[11] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 342 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (345 × 605 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 342 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (345 × 605 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Louis Jagellion was born in 1506 as the son of (V)Ladislaus Jagiello, who died in 1516. ... Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ...


The road to Hungary and Austria lay open, but Suleiman diverted his attention to the Eastern Mediterranean island of Rhodes whose proximity to Asia Minor and the Levant had posed a perennial problem to Ottoman interests. In the summer of 1522, taking advantage of the navy he inherited from his father, Suleiman dispatched an armada of some 400 ships whilst personally leading an army of 100,000 across Asia Minor to a point opposite the island.[12] Following a siege of five months with brutal encounters, Rhodes capitulated and Suleiman allowed the Knights of Rhodes to depart and form their new base in Malta. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Knights Hospitaller Commanders Suleiman the Magnificent Mustafa Pasha Philippe Villiers de LIsle-Adam Strength 110,000 soldiers 10,000 janissaries 60,000 slaves 400 ships 600 knights 4,500 soldiers citizens Casualties 50,000 Unknown The Siege of Rhodes of 1522 was the second and ultimately... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care...


As relations between Hungary and the Ottoman Empire deteriorated, Suleiman resumed his campaign in Eastern Europe and on August 29, 1526, he defeated Louis II of Hungary (1506–26) at the Battle of Mohács. In its wake, Hungarian resistance collapsed and the Ottoman Empire became the pre-eminent power in Eastern Europe.[13] Upon encountering the lifeless body of King Louis, Suleiman is said to have lamented: "I came indeed in arms against him; but it was not my wish that he should be thus cut off while he scarcely tasted the sweets of life and royalty."[14][15] is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Louis Jagellion was born in 1506 as the son of (V)Ladislaus Jagiello, who died in 1516. ... This article is about the better-known Battle of Mohács of 1526. ...


Under Charles V and his brother Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, the Habsburgs reoccupied Buda and took Hungary. As a result, in 1529, Suleiman once again marched through the valley of the Danube and regained control of Buda and in the following autumn laid siege to Vienna. It was to be the Ottoman Empire's most ambitious expedition and the apogee of its drive towards the West. With a reinforced garrison of 16,000 men,[16] the Austrians inflicted upon Suleiman his first defeat, sowing the seeds of a bitter Ottoman-Habsburg rivalry which lasted until the 20th century.[17] A second attempt to conquer Vienna failed in 1532, with Suleiman retreating before reaching the city. In both cases, the Ottoman army was plagued by bad weather (forcing them to leave behind essential siege equipment) and was hobbled by overstretched supply lines.[18] For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... // Combatants Austria with Bohemian, German & Spanish mercenaries Ottoman Empire Commanders Nicholas, Graf von Salm Suleiman I Strength over 16,000 [1] 120,000 [1] Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Vienna of 1529, as distinct from the Battle of Vienna in 1683, was the Ottoman Empires first attempt to...


By the 1540s a renewal of the conflict in Hungary presented Suleiman with the opportunity to avenge the defeat suffered at Vienna. Some Hungarian nobles proposed that Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria (1519–64), who was ruler of neighbouring Austria and tied to Louis II's family by marriage, be King of Hungary, citing previous agreements that the Habsburgs would take the Hungarian throne if Louis died without heirs.[19] However, other nobles turned to the nobleman John Zápolya who, being supported by Suleiman, remained unrecognized by the Christian powers of Europe. In 1541 the Habsburgs once again engaged in conflict with the Ottomans, attempting to lay siege to Buda. With their efforts repulsed, and more Habsburg fortresses captured as a result,[20] Ferdinand and his brother Charles V were forced to conclude a humiliating five-year treaty with Suleiman. Ferdinand renounced his claim to the Kingdom of Hungary and was forced to pay a fixed yearly sum to the Sultan for the Hungarian lands he continued to control. Of more symbolic importance, the treaty referred to Charles V not as 'Emperor', but in rather plainer terms as the 'King of Spain', leading Suleiman to consider himself the true 'Caesar'.[21] Ferdinand in 1531, the year of his election as King of the Romans Ferdinand I (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was an Austrian monarch from the House of Habsburg. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... John I Zápolya (Hungarian: ; Croatian: ) or John Szapolyai (Hungarian: ) (2 February 1487 – July 22, 1540) was a voivode of Transylvania and, along with Archduke Ferdinand I, a claimant to the throne of the Kingdom of Hungary between 1526 and 1540. ...


With his main European rivals subdued, Suleiman had assured the Ottoman Empire a powerful role in the political landscape of Europe.


Conquests in Asia

Miniature depicting Suleiman the Magnificent marching with an army in Nakhchivan, summer 1554
Miniature depicting Suleiman the Magnificent marching with an army in Nakhchivan, summer 1554

As Suleiman stabilized his European frontiers, he now turned his attention to the ever present threat posed by the Shi'a Safavid dynasty of Persia (Iran). Two events in particular were to precipitate a recurrence of tensions. First, Shah Tahmasp had the Baghdad governor loyal to Suleiman killed and replaced with an adherent of the Shah, and second, the governor of Bitlis had defected and sworn allegiance to the Safavids.[22] As a result, in 1533, Suleiman ordered his Grand Vizier Ibrahim Pasha to lead an army into Asia where he retook Bitlis and occupied Tabriz without resistance. Having joined Ibrahim in 1534, Suleiman made a push towards Persia, only to find the Shah sacrificing territory instead of facing a pitched battle, resorting to harassment of the Ottoman army as it proceeded along the harsh interior.[23] When in the following year Suleiman and Ibrahim made a grand entrance into Baghdad, its commander surrendered the city, thereby confirming Suleiman as the leader of the Islamic world and the legitimate successor to the Abbasid Caliphs.[24] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (743x1024, 448 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Suleiman the Magnificent Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (743x1024, 448 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Suleiman the Magnificent Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... This article is about the autonomous region. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Pakistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azeri[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Tahmasp is the name of two Safavid shahs of Persia: Tahmasp I (1514 – 1576) Tahmasp II (c. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Bitlis is a city in Turkey, capital of Bitlis Province. ... Tabriz (Azeri and Persian: تبریز; is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ...


Attempting to defeat the Shah once and for all, Suleiman embarked upon a second campaign in 1548–1549. As in the previous attempt, Tahmasp avoided confrontation with the Ottoman army and instead chose to retreat, torching Azerbaijan in the process and exposing the Ottoman army to the harsh winter of the Caucasus.[23] Suleiman abandoned the campaign with temporary Ottoman gains in Tabriz and the Azerbaijan region of Iran, a lasting presence in the province of Van, and some forts in Georgia.[25] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان; Ä€zarbāijān; Azerbaijani: آذربایجان , Kurdish: Azirbaycan/Adirbaycan), also Iranian Azerbaijan, Iranian Azarbaijan, Persian Azerbaijan or Persian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Ä€zarbāijān-e Irān), is a region in northwestern Iran. ... Shows the Location of the Province Van Van is a province in eastern Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. ...


In 1553 Suleiman began his third and final campaign against the Shah. Having initially lost territories in Erzurum to the Shah's son, Suleiman retaliated by recapturing Erzurum, crossing the Upper Euphrates and laying waste to parts of Persia. The Shah's army continued its strategy of avoiding the Ottomans, leading to a stalemate from which neither army made any significant gain. In 1554, a settlement was signed which was to conclude Suleiman's Asiatic campaigns. It included the return of Tabriz, but secured Baghdad, lower Mesopotamia, the mouths of the river Euphrates and Tigris, as well as part of the Persian Gulf.[26] The Shah also promised to cease all raids into Ottoman territory.[27] Theodosiopolis redirects here; it is also a name of the ancient city of Apros, Thrace. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


Mediterranean and North Africa

See also: Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, Italian War of 1542–1546‎, and Siege of Malta
Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha defeats the Holy League under the command of Andrea Doria at the Battle of Preveza in 1538

Having consolidated his conquests on land, Suleiman was greeted with the news that the fortress of Koroni in Morea (the modern Peloponnese) had been lost to Charles V's admiral, Andrea Doria. The presence of the Spanish in the Eastern Mediterranean concerned Suleiman, who saw it as an early indication of Charles V's intention to rival Ottoman dominance in the region. Recognizing the need to reassert the navy's preeminence in the Mediterranean, Suleiman appointed an exceptional naval commander in the form of Khair ad Din, known to Europeans as Barbarossa. Once appointed admiral-in-chief, Barbarossa was charged with rebuilding the Ottoman fleet, to such an extent that the Ottoman navy equalled in number those of all other Mediterranean countries put together.[28] In 1535 Charles V won an important victory against the Ottomans at Tunis, which together with the war against Venice the following year, led Suleiman to accept proposals from Francis I of France to form an alliance against Charles.[22] In 1538, the Spanish fleet was defeated by Barbarossa at the Battle of Preveza, securing the eastern Mediterranean for the Turks for 33 years until the defeat at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin PaÅŸa or Hızır Hayreddin PaÅŸa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy) (c. ... Combatants France, Ottoman Empire, Jülich-Cleves-Berg Kingdom of England, Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Saxony, Brandenburg The Italian War of 1542–46 was a late conflict in the Italian Wars which pitted Francis I of France and Suleiman I of the Ottoman Empire against the Holy Roman Emperor Charles... The Island of Malta The Siege of Malta was a significant military event during World War II that occurred between 1940 and 1942 on the island of Malta. ... Image File history File links Battle_of_Preveza_(1538). ... Image File history File links Battle_of_Preveza_(1538). ... Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin PaÅŸa or Hızır Hayreddin PaÅŸa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy) (c. ... For other uses, see Andrea Doria (disambiguation). ... The naval Battle of Preveza took place on 28 September 1538 near Preveza in northwest Greece and was an important victory for an Ottoman fleet commanded by Khair ad Din (Barbarossa) over a Spanish-Venetian fleet commanded by the great Genoese admiral Andrea Doria fleet despite the allies having a... Koroni (Κορώνη) is a municipality in Messenia, Greece. ... The Morea and surrounding states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The name Morea (Μωρέας) for Peloponnesos first appears in the 10th century in Byzantine chronicles. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... For other uses, see Andrea Doria (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Khair ad Din A statue in Barbaros Park near the ferry stop in BeÅŸiktaÅŸ Khair ad Din (circa 1475-1546) was an Ottoman-Turkish admiral and privateer who served in the Ottoman Empire and in the Barbary Coast. ... Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin PaÅŸa or Hızır Hayreddin PaÅŸa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy) (c. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Francis I of France (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... The naval Battle of Preveza took place on 28 September 1538 near Preveza in northwest Greece and was an important victory for an Ottoman fleet commanded by Khair ad Din (Barbarossa) over a Spanish-Venetian fleet commanded by the great Genoese admiral Andrea Doria fleet despite the allies having a... // Combatants Holy League: Spain  Republic of Venice Papal States Republic of Genoa Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Don John of Austria Ali Pasha † Strength 206 galleys, 6 galleasses 230 galleys, 56 galliots Casualties 8,000 dead or wounded, 12 galleys lost 20,000 dead or wounded...


East of Morocco, huge territories in North Africa were annexed. The Barbary States of Tripolitania, Tunisia, and Algeria became autonomous provinces of the Empire, serving as the leading edge of Suleiman's conflict with Charles V, whose attempt to drive out the Turks failed in 1541.[29] The piracy carried on thereafter by the Barbary pirates of North Africa can be seen in the context of the wars against Spain. For a short period Ottoman expansion secured naval dominance in the Mediterranean. Ottoman navies also controlled the Red Sea, and held the Persian Gulf until 1554, when their ships were defeated by the navy of the Portuguese Empire. The Portuguese had taken Ormus (in the Strait of Hormuz) in 1515 and would continue to vie with Suleiman's forces for control of Aden, in present-day Yemen.  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The states along the Barbary Coast, Algiers, Morocco, Tripoli, and Tunis, were collectively known as the Barbary States. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... The speedy deletion of this page is contested. ... Historical map of the area (1892) Map Of Strait of Hormuz Satellite image The Strait of Hormuz (Arabic: ‎, Persian: ‎) is a narrow, strategically important stretch of ocean between the Gulf of Oman in the southeast and the Persian Gulf in the southwest. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ...

The Siege of Malta in 1565: Arrival of the Turkish fleet, by Matteo Perez d' Aleccio
The Siege of Malta in 1565: Arrival of the Turkish fleet, by Matteo Perez d' Aleccio

In 1542, facing a common Hapsburg enemy, Francis I sought to renew the Franco-Ottoman alliance. As a result, Suleiman dispatched one hundred galleys[30] under Barbarossa to assist the French in the western Mediterranean. Barbarossa pillaged the coast of Naples and Sicily before reaching France where Francis made Toulon the Ottoman admirals naval headquarters. The same campaign had seen Barbarossa attack and capture Nice in 1543. By 1544, a peace between Francis I and Charles V had put a temporary end to the alliance between France and the Ottoman Empire. The siege of Malta - Arrival of the Turkish Fleet by Matteo Perez d Aleccio File links The following pages link to this file: Siege of Malta (1565) Matteo Perez d Aleccio ... The siege of Malta - Arrival of the Turkish Fleet by Matteo Perez d Aleccio File links The following pages link to this file: Siege of Malta (1565) Matteo Perez d Aleccio ... The siege of Malta - Arrival of the Turkish fleet The siege of Malta - Capture of St Elmo The siege of Malta - Flight of the Turks Matteo Perez dAleccio (1547-1616) was an Italian painter of devotional, historical and maritime subjects. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Panorama of Toulon area. ... This article is about the French city. ...


Elsewhere in the Mediterranean, when the Knights Hospitallers were re-established as the Knights of Malta in 1530, their actions against Muslim navies quickly drew the ire of the Ottomans who assembled another massive army in order to dislodge the Knights from Malta. The Ottomans invaded in 1565, undertaking the Great Siege of Malta, which began on May 18 and lasted until September 8, and is portrayed vividly in the frescoes of Matteo Perez d'Aleccio in the Hall of St. Michael and St. George. At first it seemed that this would be a repeat of the battle on Rhodes, with most of Malta's cities destroyed and half the Knights killed in battle; but a relief force from Spain entered the battle, resulting in the loss of 30,000 Ottoman troops.[31] The Knights Hospitaller (also known as Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta, Cavaliers of Malta, and the Order of St. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Knights Hospitaller Spanish Empire Commanders Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha Piyale Pasha Turgut Reis † Salih Reis Uluç Ali Reis Jean de Valette Strength 22,000-48,000 6,100-8,500 Casualties < 2,500 - 3,500 2,500, plus 7,000 civilians, and 500 slaves The Siege of... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The siege of Malta - Arrival of the Turkish fleet The siege of Malta - Capture of St. ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ...


Administrative reforms

A bas-relief of Suleiman adorning the interior of the U.S. House of Representatives. It is one of 23 commemorating famous lawmakers throughout history.
A bas-relief of Suleiman adorning the interior of the U.S. House of Representatives. It is one of 23 commemorating famous lawmakers throughout history.

Whilst Sultan Suleiman was known as "the Magnificent" in the West, he was always Kanuni Suleiman or "The Lawgiver" to his own Ottoman subjects. As the historian Lord Kinross notes, "Not only was he a great military campaigner, a man of the sword, as his father and great-grandfather had been before him. He differed from them in the extent to which he was also a man of the pen. He was a great legislator, standing out in the eyes of his people as a high-minded sovereign and a magnanimous exponent of justice".[32] The overriding law of the empire was the Shari'ah, or Sacred Law, which as the divine law of Islam was outside of the Sultan's powers to change. Yet an area of distinct law known as the Kanuns (canonical legislation) was dependent on Suleiman's will alone, covering areas such as criminal law, land tenure and taxation.[33] He collected all the judgments that had been issued by the nine Ottoman Sultans who preceded him. After eliminating duplications and choosing between contradictory statements, he issued a single legal code, all the while being careful not to violate the basic laws of Islam.[34] It was within this framework that Suleiman sought to reform the legislation to adapt to a rapidly changing empire. When the Kanun laws attained their final form, the code of laws became known as the kanun‐i Osmani, or the "Ottoman laws". Suleiman's legal code was to last more than three hundred years.[35] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... John Balfour (1904-1976), 3rd Baron of Kinross, was a writer noted for his biography of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and other works in Islamic historiography. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Suleiman gave particular attention to the plight of the rayas, Christian subjects who worked the land of the Sipahis. His Kanune Raya, or "Code of the Rayas", reformed the law governing levies and taxes to be paid by the rayas, raising their status above serfdom to the extent that Christian serfs would migrate to Turkish territories to benefit from the reforms.[36] The Sultan also played a role in protecting the Jewish subjects of his empire for centuries to come. In late 1553 or 1554, on the suggestion of his favorite doctor and dentist, the Spanish Jew Moses Hamon, the Sultan issued a firman formally denouncing blood libels against the Jews.[37] Furthermore, Suleiman enacted new criminal and police legislation, prescribing a set of fines for specific offences, as well as reducing the instances requiring death or mutilation. In the area of taxation, taxes were levied on various goods and produce, including animals, mines, profits of trade, and import-export duties. In addition to taxes, officials who had fallen into disrepute were likely to have their land and property confiscated by the Sultan. A dhimmi (also zimmi, Arabic ذمي, usually translated as protected) is a non-Muslim subject of a state where Islamic law is implemented. ... Woodcut by Melchior Lorch (1646), originally engraved in 1576. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... Moses Hamon (c. ... Blood Libels is the third full-length album by french black metal band Antaeus. ...


Education was another important area for the Sultan. Schools attached to mosques and funded by religious foundations provided a largely free education to Muslim boys in advance of the Christian countries of the time.[38] In his capital, Suleiman increased the number of mektebs (primary schools) to fourteen, teaching children to read and write as well as the principles of Islam. Children wishing further education could proceed to one of eight medreses (colleges), whose studies included grammar, metaphysics, philosophy, astronomy, and astrology.[38] Higher medreses provided education of university status, whose graduates became imams or teachers. Educational centers were often one of many buildings surrounding the courtyards of mosques, others included libraries, refectories, fountains, soup kitchens and hospitals for the benefit of the public. Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ...


Cultural achievements

Tughra of Suleiman the Magnificent
Tughra of Suleiman the Magnificent

Under Suleiman's patronage, the Ottoman empire entered the golden age of its cultural development. Hundreds of imperial artistic societies (called the Ehl-i Hiref, "Community of the Talented") were administered at the Imperial seat, the Topkapı Palace. After an apprenticeship, artists and craftsmen could advance in rank within their field and were paid commensurate wages in quarterly annual installments. Payroll registers that survive testify to the breadth of Suleiman's patronage of the arts, the earliest of documents dating from 1526 list 40 societies with over 600 members. The Ehl-i Hiref attracted the empire's most talented artisans to the Sultan's court, both from the Islamic world and recently conquered territories in Europe, resulting in a blend of Islamic, Turkish and European cultures.[39] Artisans in service of the court included painters, book binders, furriers, jewellers and goldsmiths. Whereas previous rulers had been influenced by Persian culture (Suleiman's father, Selim I, wrote poetry in Persian), Suleiman's patronage of the arts had seen the Ottoman Empire assert its own artistic legacy.[40] Image File history File links The tughra of Suleiman the Magnificient. ... Image File history File links The tughra of Suleiman the Magnificient. ... The tughra of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire. ... Early on as the Ottoman Turks drove out the Byzantines from Anatolia and later pursued them into Europe, the pursuit was a part of the Jihad (or Holy War) against Christianity, and the first Ottoman rulers called themselves Gazi, or Holy Warriors. ... Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Suleiman himself was an accomplished poet, writing in Persian and Turkish under the nom de plume Muhibbi (Lover). Some of Suleiman's verses have become Turkish proverbs, such as the well-known Everyone aims at the same meaning, but many are the versions of the story. When his young son Mehmed died in 1543, he composed a moving chronogram to commemorate the year: Peerless among princes, my Sultan Mehmed.[41][42] In addition to Suleiman's own work, many great talents enlivened the literary world during Suleiman's rule, including Fuzuli and Baki. The literary historian E. J. W. Gibb observed that "at no time, even in Turkey, was greater encouragement given to poetry than during the reign of this Sultan".[41] Suleiman's most famous verse is: A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ... A chronogram is a sentence or inscription in which the capital letters, interpreted in Roman numerals, stand for a particular date if rearranged. ... Fuzûlî (1494?–1556), a Divan poet of Azeri origin Mehmed bin Süleyman Fuzuli, most commonly referred to as Fuzuli, was born around 1494 in Iran (Safavid era), although his actual date of birth is unknown. ... Baki can be: Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan (alternate spelling) Baki, Somalia, the capital of the Awdal region The Baki people, a tribe from the Centre and East Provinces of Cameroon The Baki language spoken on the island of Epi in Vanuatu A fictional country consisting of a small Pacific...

Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, built by Mimar Sinan, Suleiman's chief architect
Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, built by Mimar Sinan, Suleiman's chief architect

The people think of wealth and power as the greatest fate,
But in this world a spell of health is the best state.
What men call sovereignty is a worldly strife and constant war;
Worship of God is the highest throne, the happiest of all estates.[43] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 589 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) La Moschea di Solimano il Magnifico ad Istanbul, vista dal cortile antistante. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 589 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) La Moschea di Solimano il Magnifico ad Istanbul, vista dal cortile antistante. ... The Suleiman Mosque side view. ... Sinan should no be confused with Sinan Pasha. ...

Suleiman also became renowned for sponsoring a series of monumental architectural developments within his empire. The Sultan sought to turn Istanbul into the center of Islamic civilization by a series of projects, including bridges, mosques, palaces and various charitable and social establishments. The greatest of these were built by the Sultan's chief architect, Mimar Sinan, under whom Ottoman architecture reached its zenith. Sinan became responsible for over three hundred monuments throughout the empire, including his two masterpieces, the Süleymaniye and Selimiye mosques—the latter built in Edirne in the reign of Suleiman's son Selim II. Suleiman also restored the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and the Jerusalem city walls (which are the current walls of the Old City of Jerusalem), renovated the Kaaba in Mecca, and constructed a complex in Damascus.[44] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sinan should no be confused with Sinan Pasha. ... The Suleiman Mosque side view. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Adrianople redirects here. ... Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى SelÄ«m-i sānÄ«, Turkish:)(May 28, 1524 – December 12, 1574) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount The Dome of the Rock, (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... The Old City is a 0. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


Personal life

Hurrem Sultan

Hürrem Sultan (Roxolana)
Hürrem Sultan (Roxolana)

Suleiman was infatuated with Hurrem Sultan, a harem girl of Ruthenian origin. In the West foreign diplomats, taking notice of the palace gossip about her, called her "Russelazie" or "Roxolana", referring to her Slavic origins.[45] The daughter of an Orthodox Ukrainian priest,[26] she was captured and rose through the ranks of the Harem to become Suleiman's favourite. Breaking with two centuries of Ottoman tradition,[46] a former concubine had thus become the legal wife of the Sultan, much to the astonishment of observers in the palace and the city.[47] He also allowed Hurrem Sultan to remain with him at court for the rest of her life, breaking another tradition—that when imperial heirs came of age, they would be sent along with the imperial concubine who bore them to govern remote provinces of the Empire, never to return unless their progeny succeeded to the throne.[48] Aleksandra Lisowska aka Khourrem wife of Suleyman the Great This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Aleksandra Lisowska aka Khourrem wife of Suleyman the Great This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Roxelana Roxelana, Roxolana, Roxelane, Rossa, Ruziac, known also by her Turkish name of Khourrem (or Hürrem or Karima), meaning the cheerful one, (circa 1500 - April 18, 1558) was the wife of sultan Süleyman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire. ... In traditional Arab culture, the harîm حريم (cf. ... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Look up Favorite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Under his pen name, Muhibbi, Suleiman composed this poem for Roxolana:

"Throne of my lonely niche, my wealth, my love, my moonlight.
My most sincere friend, my confidant, my very existence, my Sultan, my one and only love.
The most beautiful among the beautiful…
My springtime, my merry faced love, my daytime, my sweetheart, laughing leaf…
My plants, my sweet, my rose, the one only who does not distress me in this world…
My Istanbul, my Caraman, the earth of my Anatolia
My Badakhshan, my Baghdad and Khorasan
My woman of the beautiful hair, my love of the slanted brow, my love of eyes full of mischief…
I'll sing your praises always
I, lover of the tormented heart, Muhibbi of the eyes full of tears, I am happy."[49] Mihrab (in Persian مهراب or محراب, in Arabic ألمحراب pl. ... Karaman is a town in south central Turkey, located north of the Taurus Mountains, ca 100 km south of Konya. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Badakhshan is a region comprising parts of northeastern Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ...

Ibrahim Pasha

Agostino Veneziano's engraving of Suleiman the Magnificent.[50] Note the 4 tiers on the helmet (which he had commissioned from Venice, symbolizing his imperial power, and excelling the 3-tiered papal tiara).[51] This was a most untypical piece of headgear for an Ottoman sultan, which he probably never normally wore, but which he placed beside him when receiving visitors, especially ambassadors. It was crowned with an enormous feather.[52]

Pargalı İbrahim Pasha was the boyhood friend of Suleiman. Ibrahim was originally Greek Orthodox and when young was educated at the Palace School under the devshirme system. Suleiman made him the royal falconer, then promoted him to first officer of the Royal Bedchamber.[53] Ibrahim Pasha rose to Grand Vizier in 1523 and commander-in-chief of all the armies. Suleiman also conferred upon Ibrahim Pasha the honor of beylerbey of Rumelia, granting Ibrahim authority over all Turkish territories in Europe, as well as command of troops residing within them in times of war. According to a 17th century chronicler, Ibrahim had asked Suleiman not to promote him to such high positions, fearing for his safety; to which Suleiman replied that under his reign no matter what the circumstance, Ibrahim would never be put to death.[54] Engraving by Veneziano of Alcibiades Agostino Veneziano, (Venetian Agostino) whose real name was Agostino de Musi, (Venice ca. ... Hercules fighting the Centaurs , engraving by Sebald Beham Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, or in Latin as the Triregnum, and in Italian as the Triregno, is the three-tiered jewelled papal crown, supposedly of Byzantine and Persian origin, that is a prominent symbol of the papacy. ... Ä°brahim Pasha Palace to the west of Sultanahmet Square, facing former Hippodrome, in Ä°stanbul, today Turkish-Islamic Art Museum - www. ... Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: HellÄ“northódoxÄ“ EkklÄ“sía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Palace school was part of House of Ottoman system that is designated to educate (rise) Ottoman Empires governing elite. ... Devshirmeh (Turkish devşirme) refers to the system used by the Ottoman sultans to tax newly conquered states, and build a loyal slave army and class of administrators: the Janissaries. ... Flying a Saker Falcon A Goshawk A Hobby Falconry or hawking is an art or sport which involves the use of trained raptors (birds of prey) to hunt or pursue game for humans. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (turkish: Rum: Roman El: Land Rumeli: Lands of Rome), the area that was the East Roman or Byzantine Empire, a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ...


Yet Ibrahim eventually fell from grace with the Sultan. During his thirteen years as Grand Vizier, his rapid rise to power and vast accumulation of wealth had made Ibrahim many enemies among the Sultan's court. Reports had reached the Sultan of Ibrahim's impudence during a campaign against the Persian Safavid empire: in particular his adoption of the title serasker sultan was seen as a grave affront to Suleiman.[55]


Suleiman's suspicion of Ibrahim was worsened by a quarrel between the latter and the Minister of Finance Iskender Chelebi. The dispute ended in the disgrace of Chelebi on charges of intrigue, with Ibrahim convincing Suleiman to sentence the Minister to death. Before his death however, Chelebi's last words were to accuse Ibrahim of conspiracy against the Sultan.[55] These dying words convinced Suleiman of Ibrahim's disloyalty,[55] and on March 15, 1536 Ibrahim's lifeless body was discovered in the Topkapi palace. is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


Succession

Suleiman's two wives had borne him eight sons, four of whom survived past the 1550s. They were Mustafa, Selim, Bayezid, and Jihangir. Of these, only Mustafa was not Hurrem Sultan's son, but rather Gülbahar Sultan's ("Rose of Spring"), and therefore preceded Hurrem's children in the order of succession. Hurrem was aware that should Mustafa become Sultan her own children would be strangled. Yet Mustafa was recognised as the most talented of all the brothers and was supported by Pargalı İbrahim Pasha, who was by this time Suleiman's Grand Vizier. The Austrian ambassador Busbecq would note "Suleiman has among his children a son called Mustafa, marvellously well educated and prudent and of an age to rule, since he is 24 or 25 years old; may God never allow a Barbary of such strength to come near us", going on to talk of Mustafa's "remarkable natural gifts".[56] Sehzade Mustafa (Suleimans first born son by Gulbahar Sultan) was the legitimate heir to the Ottoman throne. ... Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى SelÄ«m-i sānÄ«, Turkish:)(May 28, 1524 – December 12, 1574) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death. ... Ä°brahim Pasha Palace to the west of Sultanahmet Square, facing former Hippodrome, in Ä°stanbul, today Turkish-Islamic Art Museum - www. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... Ogier Ghislain de Busbecq from a 17th century engraving Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq (1520 or 1521-October 28, 1592; Latin: Augerius Gislenius Busbequius; sometimes Augier Ghislain de Busbecq) was a writer, herbalist and diplomat in the employ of three generations of Austrian monarchs. ...

Portrait of Suleiman by Nigari towards the end of his reign in 1560
Portrait of Suleiman by Nigari towards the end of his reign in 1560

Hurrem is usually held at least partly responsible for the intrigues in nominating a successor. Although she was Suleiman's wife, she exercised no official public role as her contemporary in England, Anne Boleyn, had done.[57] This did not, however, prevent Hurrem from wielding powerful political influence. Since the Empire lacked any formal means of nominating a successor, succession usually involved the death of competing princes in order to avert civil unrest and rebellions. In attempting to avoid the execution of her sons, Hurrem used her influence to eliminate those who supported Mustafa's accession to the throne.[58] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (690x925, 101 KB) Sultan Suleiman nach der Schlacht von Mohács zeitgenössisch Istanbul, Topkapi Sarayi Museum File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Suleiman the Magnificent Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (690x925, 101 KB) Sultan Suleiman nach der Schlacht von Mohács zeitgenössisch Istanbul, Topkapi Sarayi Museum File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Suleiman the Magnificent Metadata... Anne Boleyn, 1st Marquess of Pembroke[1] (1501/1507–19 May 1536) was a Queen Consort of England, the second wife of King Henry VIII and the mother of Queen Elizabeth I. Henrys marriage to Anne, and her subsequent execution, made her a key player in the political and...


Thus in power struggles apparently instigated by Hurrem,[59] Suleiman had Ibrahim murdered and replaced with her sympathetic son-in-law, Rustem Pasha. By 1552, when the campaign against Persia had begun with Rustem appointed commander-in-chief of the expedition, intrigues against Mustafa began. Rustem sent one of Suleiman's most trusted men to report that since Suleiman was not at the head of the army, the soldiers thought the time had come to put a younger prince on the throne; at the same time he spread rumors that Mustafa had proved receptive to the idea. Angered by what he came to believe were Mustafa's plans to claim the throne, the following summer Suleiman summoned him to his tent, stating he would "be able to clear himself of the crimes he was accused of and would have nothing to fear if he came".[60]


Mustafa was confronted with a choice: either he appeared before his father at the risk of being killed; or, if he refused to attend, he would be accused of betrayal. In the end, Mustafa chose to enter his father's tent, confident that the support of the army would protect him. Busbecq, who claims to have received an account from an eyewitness, describes Mustafa's final moments. As Mustafa entered his father's tent, Suleiman's Eunuchs attacked Mustafa, with the young prince putting up a brave defence. Suleiman, separated from the struggle only by the linen hangings of the tent, peered through the chamber of his tent and "directed fierce and threatening glances upon the mutes, and by menacing gestures sternly rebuked their hesitation. Thereupon, the mutes in their alarm, redoubling their efforts, hurled the unhappy Mustafa to the ground and, throwing the bowstring round his neck, strangled him."[61] European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912. ...


Jihangir is said to have died of grief a few months after the news of his half-brother's murder.[62] The two surviving brothers, Bayezid and Selim, were given command in different parts of the empire. Within a few years, however, civil war broke out between the brothers, each supported by his loyal forces.[63] With the aid of his father's army, Selim defeated Bayezid in Konya in 1559, leading the latter to seek refuge with the Persians along with his four sons. Following diplomatic exchanges, the Sultan demanded from the Persian Shah that Bayezid be either extradited or executed. In return for large amounts of gold, the Shah allowed a Turkish executioner to strangle Bayezid and his four sons,[62] clearing the path for Selim's succession to the throne seven years later. On September 5/6, 1566,[64] Suleiman, who had set out from Istanbul to command an expedition to Hungary, died before an Ottoman victory at the Battle of Szigetvár in Hungary.[65] Konya (Ottoman Turkish: ; also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically also known as Iconium (Latin), Greek: Ikónion) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... The Battle of Szigetvár (also Battle of Siget) was a siege of the small fort located in Szigetvár, Hungary between 6 August and 8 September 1566, fought between the defending forces of the Habsburg Monarchy under the leadership of the Hungarian Zrínyi Miklós croatian ban and...


Legacy

Suleiman I's conquests were followed by continuous territorial expansion until the Empire's peak in 1683
Suleiman I's conquests were followed by continuous territorial expansion until the Empire's peak in 1683

At the time of Suleiman's death the Ottoman Empire, with its unrivaled military strength, economic riches and territorial extent, was the world's foremost power.[66] Suleiman's conquests had brought under the control of the Empire the major Muslim cities (Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Damascus, and Baghdad), many Balkan provinces (reaching present day Croatia and Austria), and most of North Africa. His expansion into Europe had given the Ottoman Turks a powerful presence in the European balance of power. Indeed, such was the perceived threat of the Ottoman Empire under the reign of Suleiman that ambassador Busbecq warned of Europe's imminent conquest: "On [the Turks'] side are the resources of a mighty empire, strength unimpaired, habituation to victory, endurance of toil, unity, discipline, frugality and watchfulness... Can we doubt what the result will be?...When the Turks have settled with Persia, they will fly at our throats supported by the might of the whole East; how unprepared we are I dare not say."[67] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 637 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,966 × 1,850 pixels, file size: 327 KB, MIME type: image/png) Source Self drawn, mainly based on , also en:List of Ottoman Empire dominated territories, Image:Ottoman 1683. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 637 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,966 × 1,850 pixels, file size: 327 KB, MIME type: image/png) Source Self drawn, mainly based on , also en:List of Ottoman Empire dominated territories, Image:Ottoman 1683. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Ogier Ghislain de Busbecq from a 17th century engraving Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq (1520 or 1521-October 28, 1592; Latin: Augerius Gislenius Busbequius; sometimes Augier Ghislain de Busbecq) was a writer, herbalist and diplomat in the employ of three generations of Austrian monarchs. ...


Suleiman's legacy was not, however, merely in the military field. The French traveler Jean de Thévenot a century later bears witness to the "strong agricultural base of the country, the well being of the peasantry, the abundance of staple foods, and the pre-eminence of organization in Suleiman's government".[68] The administrative and legal reforms which earned him the name Law Giver ensured the Empire's survival long after his death, an achievement which "took many generations of decadent heirs to undo".[69] Jean de Thévenot (June 16, 1633 - November 28, 1667) was a French traveller in the East, who wrote extensively about his journeys. ...


Through his personal patronage, Suleiman also presided over the Golden Age of the Ottoman Empire, representing the pinnacle of the Ottoman Turks' cultural achievement in the realm of architecture, literature, art, theology and philosophy.[70][71] Today the skyline of the Bosphorus, and of many cities in modern Turkey and the former Ottoman provinces, are still adorned with the architectural works of Mimar Sinan. One of these, the Süleymaniye Mosque, is the final resting place of Suleiman and Hurrem Sultan: they are buried in separate domed mausoleums attached to the mosque. Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... Sinan should no be confused with Sinan Pasha. ... The Suleiman Mosque side view. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Merriman.
  2. ^ Mansel, 61.
  3. ^ Atıl, 24.
  4. ^ Clot, 25.
  5. ^ Barber, Noel (1973). The Sultans. New York: Simon & Schuster, 36. 
  6. ^ Clot, 28.
  7. ^ Kinross, 175.
  8. ^ Lamb, 14.
  9. ^ Barber, 23.
  10. ^ Imber, 49.
  11. ^ Clot, 39.
  12. ^ Kinross, 176.
  13. ^ Kinross, 187.
  14. ^ Severy, 580
  15. ^ Embree, Suleiman The Magnificent.
  16. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (2003). The Ottoman Empire 1326 – 1699. New York: Osprey Publishing, 50. 
  17. ^ Imber, 50.
  18. ^ Labib, 444.
  19. ^ Imber, 52.
  20. ^ Imber, 53.
  21. ^ Imber, 54.
  22. ^ a b Imber, 51.
  23. ^ a b Sicker, 206.
  24. ^ Clot, 93.
  25. ^ 1548–49
  26. ^ a b Kinross, 236.
  27. ^ 1553–55
  28. ^ Clot, 87.
  29. ^ Kinross, 227.
  30. ^ Kinross, 53.
  31. ^ The History of Malta
  32. ^ Kinross, 205.
  33. ^ Imber, 244.
  34. ^ Greenblatt, 20.
  35. ^ Greenblatt, 21.
  36. ^ Kinross, 210.
  37. ^ Mansel, 124.
  38. ^ a b Kinross, 211.
  39. ^ Atıl, The Golden Age of Ottoman Art, 24–33.
  40. ^ Mansel, 70.
  41. ^ a b Halman, Suleyman the Magnificent Poet
  42. ^ Muhibbî (Kanunî Sultan Süleyman)(Turkish) In Turkish the chronogram reads شهزاده‌لر گزيده‌سی سلطان محمدم(Şehzadeler güzidesi Sultan Muhammed’üm), in which the Arabic Abjad numerals total 950, the equivalent in the Islamic calendar of 1543 AD.
  43. ^ Mansel, 84.
  44. ^ Atıl, 26.
  45. ^ Ahmed, 43.
  46. ^ Kinross, 236.
  47. ^ Mansel, 86.
  48. ^ Imber, 90.
  49. ^ A 400 Year Old Love Poem
  50. ^ Agostino never saw the Sultan, but probably did see and sketch the helmet in Venice.
  51. ^ The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1968. "Turquerie" The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series 26 (5): 229.
  52. ^ Levey, 65.
  53. ^ Mansel, 87.
  54. ^ Clot, 49.
  55. ^ a b c Kinross, 230.
  56. ^ Clot, 155.
  57. ^ Mansel, 85.
  58. ^ Mansel, 84.
  59. ^ Mansel, 87.
  60. ^ Clot, 157.
  61. ^ Kinross, 239.
  62. ^ a b Mansel, 89.
  63. ^ Kinross, 240.
  64. ^ Yapp, Suleiman I
  65. ^ Imber, 60.
  66. ^ Clot, 298.
  67. ^ Lewis, 10.
  68. ^ Ahmed, 147.
  69. ^ Lamb, 325.
  70. ^ Atıl, 24.
  71. ^ Russell, The Age of Sultan Suleyman.

Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... One of the Men-at-Arms Series. ... The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Hindu-Arabic numerals from the 8th century, and in parallel with the latter until Modern times. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate...

References

Printed Sources
  • Ahmed, Syed Z (2001). The Zenith of an Empire : The Glory of the Suleiman the Magnificent and the Law Giver. A.E.R. Publications. ISBN 978-0971587304. 
  • Atıl, Esin (1987). The Age of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art. ISBN 978-0894680984. 
  • Atıl, Esin (July/August 1987). "The Golden Age of Ottoman Art". Saudi Aramco World 38 (4): 24–33. Houston, Texas: Aramco Services Co. ISSN 1530-5821. Retrieved on 2007-04-18. 
  • Barber, Noel (1976). Lords of the Golden Horn : From Suleiman the Magnificent to Kamal Ataturk. London: Pan Books. ISBN 978-0330247351. 
  • Clot, André (1992). Suleiman the Magnificent : The Man, His Life, His Epoch. London: Saqi Books. ISBN 978-0863561269. 
  • Greenblatt, Miriam (2003). Süleyman the Magnificent and the Ottoman Empire. New York: Benchmark Books. ISBN 978-0761414896. 
  • Imber, Colin (2002). The Ottoman Empire, 1300–1650 : The Structure of Power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0333613863. 
  • Kinross, Patrick (1979). The Ottoman centuries : The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. New York: Morrow. ISBN 978-0688080938. 
  • Labib, Subhi (November 1979). "The Era of Suleyman the Magnificent: Crisis of Orientation". International journal of Middle East studies 10 (4): 435–451. London: Cambridge University Press. ISSN 0020-7438. 
  • Lamb, Harold (1951). Suleiman, the Magnificent, Sultan of the East. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. OCLC 397000. 
  • Levey, Michael (1975). The World of Ottoman Art. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0500270651. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (2002). What Went Wrong? : Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response. London: Phoenix. ISBN 978-0753816752. 
  • Mansel, Phillip (1998). Constantinople : City of the World's Desire, 1453–1924. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 978-0312187088. 
  • Merriman, Roger Bigelow (1944). Suleiman the Magnificent, 1520–1566. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. OCLC 784228. 
  • Severy, Merle (November 1987). "The World of Süleyman the Magnificent". National geographic 172 (5): 552–601. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. ISSN 0027-9358. 
  • Sicker, Martin (2000). The Islamic World In Ascendancy : From the Arab Conquests to the Siege of Vienna. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. ISBN 978-0275968922. 
  • "Suleiman The Lawgiver" (March/April 1964). Saudi Aramco World 15 (2): 8–10. Houston, Texas: Aramco Services Co. ISSN 1530-5821. Retrieved on 2007-04-18. 
On-line sources

ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Noel Barber (1909-1988) was a British novelist and journalist. ... John Patrick Balfour, 3rd Baron Kinross, (1904-1976), was a writer noted for his biography of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and other works in Islamic historiography. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Harold Albert Lamb (1892 - April 9, 1962) was an American historian and novelist. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Sir Michael Vincent Levey MVO (born 1927) is a British art historian and former director of the National Gallery, London. ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Bridge, Anthony (1983). Suleiman the Magnificent, Scourge of Heaven. New York: F. Watts. OCLC 9853956. 
  • Downey, Fairfax Davis. The Grand Turke, Suleyman the Magnificent, sultan of the Ottomans. New York: Minton, Balch & Company. OCLC 25776191. 
  • Hooker, Richard. The Ottomans: Suleyman. Retrieved on 2007-09-02.
  • Lybyer, Albert Howe (1913). The government of the Ottoman empire in the time of Suleiman the Magnificent. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. OCLC 1562148. 

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Suleiman the Magnificent
Born: November 6, 1494 Died: September 5, 1566
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Selim I
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Sep 22, 1520 – Sep 5, 1566
Succeeded by
Selim II
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Selim I
Caliph of Islam
Sep 22, 1520 – Sep 5, 1566
Succeeded by
Selim II
Persondata
NAME Suleyman I
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Suleiman the Magnificent
SHORT DESCRIPTION Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
DATE OF BIRTH November 6, 1494
PLACE OF BIRTH Trabzon
DATE OF DEATH September 6, 1566
PLACE OF DEATH Szigetvar, Hungary

The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى SelÄ«m-i sānÄ«, Turkish:)(May 28, 1524 – December 12, 1574) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... -1... Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى SelÄ«m-i sānÄ«, Turkish:)(May 28, 1524 – December 12, 1574) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into many small states. ... Events Osman I declares the independence of the Ottoman Principality The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Orhan (Turkish: also Orhan Gazi or Orkhan) (1284–1359), was the second bey (chief) of the newborn Ottoman Empire (at the time known as the Osmanli tribe) from 1326 to 1359. ... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... Sultan Mehmet I Mehmed I Çelebi (nicknamed Kirisci, the Executioner) (1389 – May 26, 1421) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Murad II (June 1404, Amasya – February 3, 1451, Edirne) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānÄ«, Turkish:) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... This article is in need of attention. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Sultan Beyazid II Bayezid II (1447/48 – May 26, 1512) (Arabic: بايزيد الثاني) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى SelÄ«m-i sānÄ«, Turkish:)(May 28, 1524 – December 12, 1574) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death. ... Murad III Murad III (July 4, 1546 – January 15, 1595) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death. ... Mehmed III Mehmed III (May 26, 1566 – December 22, 1603) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1595 until his death. ... Ahmed I (Ottoman Turkish: احمد اول Aḥmed-i evvel) (April 18, 1590 – November 22, 1617) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1603 until his death. ... Mustafa I (1592 – January 20, 1639) (Arabic: مصطفى الأول) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1617 to 1618 and from 1622 to 1623. ... Osman II (also known as Genç Osman – meaning Young Osman – in Turkish) (in Arabic عثمان الثاني) (November 3, 1604 – May 20, 1622) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1618 until his death on 20 May 1622. ... Murad IV (Arabic: مراد الرابع) (June 16, 1612 – February 9, 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. ... Sultan Ibrahim I Ibrahim I (November 5, 1615 – August 12, 1648) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1640–1648. ... Sultan Mehmed IV Mehmed IV (also known as Dördüncü, fourth, and Avci, hunter) (January 2, 1642–1693) (Arabic: محمد الرابع) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. ... The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Suleiman II (April 15, 1642 – 1691) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1687 to 1691. ... Ahmed II (in Arabic أحمد الثانى) (February 25, 1643 – 1695) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1691 to 1695. ... Sultan Mustafa II Mustafa II (February 6, 1664 – December 28, 1703) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1695 to 1703. ... Sultan Ahmed III Köçeks at a fair. ... Sultan Mahmud I Mahmud I (August 2, 1696 – December 13, 1754) was the sultan of the Ottoman empire from 1730 to 1754. ... Osman III (Ottoman Turkish: عثمان ثالث ‘Osmān-i sālis) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1754 to 1757. ... Sultan Mustafa III Mustafa III (January 28, 1717 – January 21, 1774) was the sultan of the Ottoman empire from 1757 to 1774. ... Sultan Abdul Hamid I Abd-ul-Hamid I (March 20, 1725 – April 7, 1789), also known as Abdulhamid, Abdul Hamid or Abdul-Hamid, was the 27th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Sultan Selim III Selim III (December 24, 1761 – July 28/29, 1808) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1789–1807). ... Sultan Mustafa IV Mustafa IV (September 8, 1779 – November 15, 1808) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1807 to 1808. ... The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Graphical timeline Decline of the Ottoman Empire covers the military and political events between 1828 to 1908. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اول ‘Abdü’l-MecÄ«d-i evvel) (April 23, 1823 – June 25, 1861) was the 31st sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on July 2, 1839. ... Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz Abd-ul-aziz (February 9, 1830 – 1876) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1861 to May 30, 1876. ... Sultan Mehmed Murad V (September 21, 1840 – August 29, 1904) (Arabic: مراد الخامس) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire who reigned from May 30, 1876 to August 31 of the same year. ... Abdülhamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی , Turkish: ) (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article describes the process of dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, in particular its final years in the early part of the 20th century. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sultan Mehmed V Mehmed V (sometimes also Mahommed V; known as Mehmed V ReÅŸad (or ReÅŸat) or Reshid Effendi) (November 2, 1844 – July 3, 1918) was the 39th Ottoman Sultan. ... Mehmed VI (Arabic: محمد السادس), original name Mehmed Vahdettin or Mehmed Vahideddin, (January 14, 1861 – May 16, 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918–1922. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: ), is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... Szigetvár (Serbian: or Sigetvar) is a town in Baranya County in southern Hungary. ...


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Knights Hospitallers- Suleiman the Magnificent (234 words)
Suleiman was born November 6, 1494, and he died September 6, 1566.
His father was Selim, the leader of the Ottomans before Suleiman, had conquered the two holy cities of Mecca and Medina.
Suleiman tired of this rivalry and decided to unify the two.
Suleiman the Magnificent - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2916 words)
Suleiman I (Modern Turkish: Süleyman; Arabic: سليمان‎ Sulaymān) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth Osmanli Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and its longest-serving, reigning from 1520 to 1566.
Suleiman was so taken with the city of Jerusalem and its plight (having suffered centuries of neglect under Mameluke rule), that he ordered the construction of a magnificent surrounding fortress-wall that still stands around the Old City.
Suleiman's son Bayezid suppressed a major revolt in Macedonia and Thrace, led by a man purporting to be Suleiman's son Mustafa: "This Mustafa gathered around him discontented holders of timars (military fiefs), peasants, and members of the religious establishment unhappy with the dominance of the devshirme (slave) class in Istanbul."
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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