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Encyclopedia > Sukkot
Sukkot
Official name Hebrew: סוכות or סֻכּוֹת
English translation: "Booths" or "Tabernacles"
Also called Festival of Ingathering (i.e. the harvest festival), The Festival,
Observed by Jews in Judaism
Type Jewish
Significance One of the three pilgrim festivals. God protected the Children of Israel in booths after the Exodus. Time of rejoicing with the end of judgment after Yom Kippur.
Begins 15th day of Tishrei
Ends 22nd day of Tishrei (until 21st in Israel)
2006 date sunset, October 6 to sunset, October 13 / 14
2007 date sunset, September 26 to sunset, October 3 / 4
2008 date sunset, October 13 to sunset, October 20 / 21
Observances Living in the sukkah, waving the Four Species, dancing hakafot in Synagogue.
Related to Shemini Atzeret (Eight Day of Assembly) and Simchat Torah (Rejoicing of/with the Torah), the three pilgrim festivals

Sukkot (Hebrew: סוכות or סֻכּוֹת, sukkōt ; "booths." Also transliterated as Succoth or Sukkos) and also known as the Feast of Booths, the Feast of Tabernacles, Tabernacles, the Season of Our Happiness, the Feast of Ingathering, or simply The Feast, is a Biblical pilgrimage festival that occurs in autumn on the 15th day of the month of Tishri (late September to late October). In Judaism it is one of the three major holidays known collectively as the Shalosh Regalim (three pilgrim festivals), when historically the Jewish populace traveled to the Temple in Jerusalem. “Hebrew” redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Three Pilgrim Festivals, known as the Shalosh Regalim in Hebrew, are three major festivals in Judaism when the Children of Israel living in ancient Israel and Judea, and later the Jews, were commanded by the Torah to make an actual physical pilgrimage to Jerusalem and participate in the festivities... The Children of Israel, or Bnei Yisrael (בני ישראל) in Hebrew (also Bnai Yisrael, Bnei Yisroel or Bene Israel) is a Biblical term for the Israelites. ... Exodus is the second book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... Yom Kippur (Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר ) is a Jewish holiday, known in English as the Day of Atonement. ... Tishrei (or Tishri) (IPA: ) (Hebrew: תִּשְׁרֵי‎ (תִּשְׁרִי‎) Standard () Tiberian () ; from Akkadian Beginning, from To begin) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year in the Hebrew calendar. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Four Species (note: in a kosher lulav, the aravah is placed on the left, the lulav in the center, and the hadassim on the right) The Four Species (Hebrew: ארבעה מינים) are three types of plants and one type of fruit which are held together and waved in a special ceremony... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: or Template:Lanh-he beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... Shemini Atzeret (שמיני עצרת - the Eighth [day] of Assembly) is a Jewish holiday celebrated on the 22nd day of the Hebrew month of Tishri. ... Simchat Torah (שמחת תורה) is a Hebrew term which means rejoicing with/of the Torah. It is a festivity that takes place on the Jewish holiday of Shemini Atzeret, or Eighth (day) of Assembly, which falls immediately after the 7-day holiday of Sukkot in the autumn (mid- to late-October). ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of God, traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... The Three Pilgrim Festivals, known as the Shalosh Regalim in Hebrew, are three major festivals in Judaism when the Children of Israel living in ancient Israel and Judea, and later the Jews, were commanded by the Torah to make an actual physical pilgrimage to Jerusalem and participate in the festivities... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Tishrei or Tishri (תִּשְׁרִי, תִּשְׁרֵי, Standard Hebrew Tišri, Tišre, Tiberian Hebrew Tišrî, Tišrê: from Akkadian tašrītu Beginning, from šurrû To begin... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jewish holiday, (or Yom Tom or chag or taanit in Hebrew) is a day that is holy to the Jewish people according to Judaism and is usually derived from the Hebrew Bible, specifically the Torah, and in some cases established by the rabbis in later eras. ... The Three Pilgrim Festivals, known as the Shalosh Regalim in Hebrew, are three major festivals in Judaism when the Children of Israel living in ancient Israel and Judea, and later the Jews, were commanded by the Torah to make an actual physical pilgrimage to Jerusalem and participate in the festivities... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ...

Contents

Derivation

The word Sukkot is the plural of the Hebrew word sukkah, meaning booth or hut. During this holiday, Jews are instructed to construct a temporary structure in which to eat their meals, entertain guests, relax, and even sleep. The sukkah is reminiscent of the type of huts in which the ancient Israelites dwelt during their 40 years of wandering in the desert after the Exodus from Egypt, and is intended to reflect God's benevolence in providing for all the Jews' needs in the desert. “Hebrew” redirects here. ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... Exodus is the second book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ...


Duration in Israel and in the Diaspora

In modern day Israel (and among Reform Jews), Sukkot is a 7-day holiday, with the first day celebrated as a full festival with special prayer services and holiday meals. Outside the land of Israel, the first two days are celebrated as full festivals. The remaining days are known as Chol HaMoed ("festival weekdays"). The seventh day of Sukkot is called Hoshanah Rabbah and has a special observance of its own. Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Chol HaMoed is a Hebrew phrase which means weekdays of the festival and refers to the intermediate days of one of the following Jewish Holidays: Passover, or Sukkot During Chol HaMoed the usual Yom Tov restrictions are relaxed, but not entirely eliminated. ...


Shemini Atzeret / Simchat Torah

The day immediately following Sukkot is a separate holiday known as Shemini Atzeret, "the Eighth (Day) of Assembly." Shemini Atzeret is a separate holiday.[1] In Israel, the celebration of Shemini Atzeret includes Simchat Torah. Outside the land of Israel, Shemini Atzeret is celebrated on the day after Sukkot and Simchat Torah is celebrated on the day after that, bringing the total days of festivities to eight in Israel and nine outside Israel. Shemini Atzeret (שמיני עצרת - the Eighth [day] of Assembly) is a Jewish holiday celebrated on the 22nd day of the Hebrew month of Tishri. ... Shemini Atzeret (שמיני עצרת - the Eighth [day] of Assembly) is a Jewish holiday celebrated on the 22nd day of the Hebrew month of Tishri. ... Simchat Torah (שמחת תורה) is a Hebrew term which means rejoicing with/of the Torah. It is a festivity that takes place on the Jewish holiday of Shemini Atzeret, or Eighth (day) of Assembly, which falls immediately after the 7-day holiday of Sukkot in the autumn (mid- to late-October). ...


Sukkot laws and customs

Muktza

Main article: Muktza
See also: 39 categories of activity prohibited on Shabbat

Many of the laws of Muktza that apply on the Sabbath also apply on Sukkot, such as the prohibition of engaging in commerce, lighting a fire, and completing an electric circuit. Other Sabbath prohibitions, however, are relaxed. With various differences based on one's religious orientation, one is permitted to cook (so long as the fire is pre-existing), smoke (again, so long as the fire is pre-existing), and carry material things beyond the home or eruv boundaries. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // The 39 categories of activity prohibited on Shabbat (or 39 melachot, or lamed tet avot melachot), are activities that Orthodox and Conservative Jews believe Jews are prohibited to do on Shabbat. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article concerns the Sabbath in Christianity. ... Eruv (‎, also spelt Eiruv or Erub, plural: Eruvin) is a Hebrew word meaning mixture, and refers to any of three procedures which allow certain activities in Jewish law which would otherwise be forbidden. ...


The relaxed rules derive from the specific tasks and duties that were permitted to be done on Sukkot in the Beit HaMikdash(Holy Temple) that were otherwise forbidden on the Sabbath. The Jerusalem Temple (Hebrew: beit ha-mikdash) was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ...


The applicable rules of Muktza only apply on the first day of Sukkot for those in Israel, and the first two days outside of Israel. For the remaining five days, known as Chol HaMoed (see below) other rituals are practiced, but Muktza does not apply.


When the first day or Sukkot falls on the Sabbath (or one of the first two days outside of Israel), the greater restrictions of the Sabbath take effect. As a practical matter, on the Sabbath, the rituals and blessings over the four species are not performed (see below).


Prayers

While customs vary greatly between different Jewish groups, some commonalities of prayers during Sukkot include the reading of the Torah every day, saying the Mussaf (additional) service during morning prayers, reading the Hallel, and adding special supplications into the Amidah and grace after meals. Mussaf The additional prayers offered on Shabbat, Rosh Chodesh, and Jewish Festivals in a traditional Jewish prayer service immediately following the regular morning service. ... Hallel (Hebrew: הלל Praise [God]) is part of Judaisms prayers, a verbatim recitation from Psalms 113-118, which is used for praise and thanksgiving that is recited by observant Jews on Jewish holidays. ... The Amidah (Standing), also called the Shemoneh Esrei (The Eighteen), is the central prayer in the Jewish liturgy that observant Jews recite each morning, afternoon, and evening. ...


On the first day of Sukkot (the first two days, outside of Israel), the prayer services are extended and very similar to those of the Sabbath.


The sukkah

Main article: Sukkah

The sukkah is a temporary building used for meals throughout the holiday. It can be built of any materials, but its roof must be of organic material and partially open to the sky. The decor of the interior of the sukkah may range from totally unornamented to lavishly decorated. The sukkah is a temporary dwelling that Jews use during the holiday of Sukkot. ...


The four species

Main article: Four Species
The Tosher Rebbe of Montreal, Canada waving the Four Species during Hallel

On each of the seven days of Sukkot, the Torah requires the Jew to take Four Species of plants and to grasp and shake them in a specific manner. These species are: the lulav (date palm frond), hadass (bough of a myrtle tree), aravah (willow branch)— these three are actually bound together and collectively referred to as the lulav—and the etrog (a citron, a lemon-like citrus fruit). These plants are usually sold in religious communities during the days preceding the festival. However, in some Reform communities where these plants are not available locally, other plants such as reeds are substituted for one or more of the four species. The Four Species (note: in a kosher lulav, the aravah is placed on the left, the lulav in the center, and the hadassim on the right) The Four Species (Hebrew: ארבעה מינים) are three types of plants and one type of fruit which are held together and waved in a special ceremony... The Tosher Rebbe of Montreal, Canada shaking the Four species during Sukkot while praying Hallel This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Tosher Rebbe of Montreal, Canada shaking the Four species during Sukkot while praying Hallel This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Hallel (Hebrew: הלל Praise [God]) is part of Judaisms prayers, a verbatim recitation from Psalms 113-118, which is used for praise and thanksgiving that is recited by observant Jews on Jewish holidays. ... The Four Species (note: in a kosher lulav, the aravah is placed on the left, the lulav in the center, and the hadassim on the right) The Four Species (Hebrew: ארבעה מינים) are three types of plants and one type of fruit which are held together and waved in a special ceremony... The rabbi of Zidichov waving The Lulav Lulav (Hebrew: ) is a ripe, green, closed frond of the date palm tree. ... Binomial name Phoenix dactylifera L. The Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... Palm fronds Palm branches, or palm fronds, usually refer to the leaves of the Arecaceae (sometimes known by the names Palmae). ... Hadass (Hebrew: הדס, pl. ... Species Myrtus communis L. Myrtus nivellei Batt. ... Aravah (Hebrew: ערבה, pl. ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... Etrog (Hebrew: אתרוג) is one of several varieties of citron, a citrus fruit of the orange and lemon family (). It is one of the Four Species used in a special waving ceremony during the Jewish holiday of Sukkot. ... Binomial name L. For other uses, see Citron (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Phragmites australis (Cav. ...


Some rabbinic authorities hold that the Four Species are meant to reflect four categories of plants that grow in Israel: those with a good taste and pleasant fragrance (the etrog), those with a good taste and no fragrance (the palm), those with a pleasant fragrance and no taste (the haddasim), and those with neither taste nor fragrance (the aravah). By taking all four, Jews symbolically request that God provide sufficient rain for all types of plants and crops to grow and thrive.


The Four Species are waved as follows: The first three species are held in the right hand, while the etrog is held in the left hand. The user holds his or her hands apart while saying the special blessing, "Blessed are You, God our Lord, King of the Universe, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us to take the lulav". Then the user brings his or her hands together so that the etrog touches the lulav bundle, and points and gently shakes the Four Species three times in each of the four directions, as well as up and down. Symbolically, this ceremony is a prayer for adequate rainfall for all the vegetation of the earth in the coming year.


In Orthodox circles, the mitzvah of waving the lulav and etrog is mandatory each day of Sukkot (except Shabbat) for men and boys over the age of bar mitzvah. Although women are not obligated to wave the lulav and etrog, they may do so if they choose, and traditionally, Orthodox women are considered to have taken the obligation upon themselves and perform it as their male counterparts. In Conservative and Reform circles, all Jews over the age of b'nai mitzvah perform the waving ceremony. Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... When a Jewish child reaches the age of maturity (12 years and one day for girls, 13 years and one day for boys) that child becomes responsible for him/herself under Jewish law; at this point a boy is said to become Bar Mitzvah (בר מצו&#1493... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Celebration of Bar Mitzvah at the Western Wall in Jerusalem. ...


The waving ceremony is usually done in the synagogue during the daily prayer services, although it can also be done in the privacy of one's home or sukkah. During the first six days of Sukkot, all the worshippers in the synagogue leave their seats and make a complete circuit around the sanctuary in a procession with their lulavs. The lulav and etrog are shaken during the recital of Hallel. On the seventh day of the holiday, known as Hoshanah Rabbah, the worshippers make seven circuits around the sanctuary. A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: or Template:Lanh-he beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... Hallel (Hebrew: הלל Praise [God]) is part of Judaisms prayers, a verbatim recitation from Psalms 113-118, which is used for praise and thanksgiving that is recited by observant Jews on Jewish holidays. ... In Judaism, Hoshanah Rabbah (הושענא רבא in Aramaic, Great Hoshanah) is the seventh day of Sukkot. ...

Etrogim being sold in a market in Tel Aviv
Etrogim being sold in a market in Tel Aviv

The mitzvah derives from the commandment in the Book of Leviticus: "And you shall take for yourself on the first day the fruit of goodly (meaning of Hebrew uncertain, but modern Hebrew "citrus") trees, branches of palm trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook" (Lev. 23:40). The use to which these species are to be put is not indicated; this gave rise to divergent interpretations at a later time. Two breakaway sects, the Sadducees and the Karaites, maintained that they were meant for building the sukkah, as would appear from Neh. 8:14-18, while their opponents contended that they were to be carried in the synagogue procession. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 280 KB) Sukots holy fruits market in Tel Aviv. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 280 KB) Sukots holy fruits market in Tel Aviv. ... Etrog (Hebrew: אתרוג) is one of several varieties of citron, a citrus fruit of the orange and lemon family (). It is one of the Four Species used in a special waving ceremony during the Jewish holiday of Sukkot. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The sect of the Sadducees (or Zadokites and other variants) - which may have originated as a political party - was founded in the 2nd century BC and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century AD. Their rivals, the Pharisees, are said to have originated in the same time period, but... Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmuds) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ...


Chol HaMo'ed

Main article: Chol HaMoed

The second through seventh days of Sukkot (third through seventh days outside the land of Israel) are called Chol HaMo'ed (חול המועד - lit. "festival weekdays"). These days are considered by Halakha to be more than regular weekdays but less than festival days. In practice, this means that all activities that are needed for the holiday—such as buying and preparing food, cleaning the house in honor of the holiday, or traveling to visit other people's sukkahs or on family outings—are permitted by Jewish law. Activities that will interfere with relaxation and enjoyment of the holiday—such as laundering, mending clothes, engaging in labor-intensive activities—are not permitted. Observant Jews typically treat Chol HaMo'ed as a vacation period, eating nicer than usual meals in their sukkah, entertaining guests, visiting other families in their sukkahs, and taking family outings. Chol HaMoed is a Hebrew phrase which means weekdays of the festival and refers to the intermediate days of one of the following Jewish Holidays: Passover, or Sukkot During Chol HaMoed the usual Yom Tov restrictions are relaxed, but not entirely eliminated. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ...


On the Shabbat which falls during the week of Sukkot (in the event when the first day of Sukkot is on Shabbat, Ecclesiastes is read in Israel while diaspora communities read it the following Shabbat which is Shemini Azeret)( or during Chol HaMo'ed), the Book of Ecclesiastes is read during morning synagogue services. This Book's emphasis on the ephermeralness of life ("Vanity of vanities, all is vanity...") echoes the theme of the sukkah, while its emphasis on death reflects the time of year in which Sukkot occurs (the "autumn" of life). The second to last verse reinforces the message that adherence to God and His Torah is the only worthwhile pursuit. This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Ecclesiastes, Qohelet in Hebrew, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: or Template:Lanh-he beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of God, traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ...


Hoshanot

In the synagogue, each day of Sukkot, the worshippers parade around the synagogue carrying their lulavim and etrogim and reciting Psalm 118:25 (Anna, Adonay, hoshi'a na..", "We beseech you, O Lord, save us..." followed by special prayers.)


This ceremony commemorates the Aravah (willow) ceremony in the days of the Temple in Jerusalem, in which willow branches were piled beside the altar, with their tops branching over it, and worshipers paraded around the altar reciting the same verse. Aravah (Hebrew: ערבה, pl. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ...


Simchat Beit HaShoeivah

In the days of the Temple in Jerusalem, a unique service was performed every morning throughout the Sukkot holiday: the Nisuch HaMayim (נסוך המים—lit. "pouring of the water") or Water Libation Ceremony. According to the Talmud, Sukkot is the time of year in which God judges the world for rainfall; therefore this ceremony, like the taking of the Four Species, invokes God's blessing for rain in its proper time. The water for the libation ceremony was drawn from the pool of Shiloah in the City of David, and the joy that accompanied this procedure was palpable. (This is the source for the verse in Isaiah: "And you shall draw waters with joy from the wells of salvation" (Isa. 12:3). Vizhnitz Simchas Beis HaShoeivah in Bnei Brak on October 9, 2006 In the days of the Temple in Jerusalem, a unique service was performed every morning throughout the Sukkot holiday: the Nisuch HaMayim (נסוך המים—lit. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... The Four Species (note: in a kosher lulav, the aravah is placed on the left, the lulav in the center, and the hadassim on the right) The Four Species (Hebrew: ארבעה מינים) are three types of plants and one type of fruit which are held together and waved in a special ceremony... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Silwan. ...


Afterwards, every night in the outer Temple courtyard, tens of thousands of spectators would gather to watch the Simchat Beit HaShoeivah (Rejoicing at the Place of the Water-Drawing), as the most pious members of the community danced and sang songs of praise to God. The dancers would carry lighted torches, and were accompanied by the harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets of the Levites. According to the Mishnah tractate Sukkah, "He who has not seen the rejoicing at the Place of the Water-Drawing has never seen rejoicing in his life." Throughout Sukkot, the city of Jerusalem teemed with Jewish families who came on the holiday pilgrimage and joined together for feasting and Torah study. A mechitza (partition separating men and women) was erected for this occasion. The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of God, traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... A mechitza (מחיצה--means partition, from the Hebrew word divide) is a physical divider placed between the mens and womens sections in Orthodox synagogues and at celebrations. ...


Nowadays, this event is recalled via a Simchat Beit HaShoeivah gathering of music, dance, and refreshments. This event takes place in a central location such as a synagogue, yeshiva, or place of study. Refreshments are served in the adjoining sukkah. Live bands often accompany the dancers. The festivities usually begin late in the evening, and can last long into the night. A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: or Template:Lanh-he beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ...


Hoshanah Rabbah

Main article: Hoshanah Rabbah

The seventh day of Sukkot is known as Hoshanah Rabbah (הושענא רבא, Great Supplication). This day is marked by a special synagogue service, the Hoshanah Rabbah (Great Hoshanah), in which seven circuits are made by the worshippers with their lulav and etrog, while the congregation recites Psalm 118:25 and additional prayers. It is customary in some communities for all the scrolls of the Torah to be removed from the ark and lead this procession. In addition, a bundle of five aravah branches is taken and beaten against the ground, accompanied by a series of liturgical verses ending with, "Kol mevasser, mevasser ve-omer" (A voice brings news, brings news and says)—expressing hope for the speedy coming of the Messiah. The reasons for the latter custom are rooted in Kabbalah. In Judaism, Hoshanah Rabbah (הושענא רבא in Aramaic, Great Hoshanah) is the seventh day of Sukkot. ... In Judaism, Hoshanah Rabbah (הושענא רבא in Aramaic, Great Hoshanah) is the seventh day of Sukkot. ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: or Template:Lanh-he beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... Aravah (Hebrew: ערבה, pl. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oi on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ...


Abudarham speaks of the custom of reading the Torah on the night of Hoshanah Rabbah, out of which has grown the modern custom of meeting socially on that night and reading from Deuteronomy, Psalms, and passages from the Zohar; reciting Kabbalistic prayers; and eating refreshments. In Orthodox Jewish circles, men will stay up all night learning Torah. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi) (originally meaning songs sung to a harp, from psallein play on a stringed instrument, Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... The Zohar (Hebrew: זהר Splendor, radiance) is widely considered the most important work of Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Orthodox Judaism is one of the three major branches of Judaism. ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of God, traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ...


Among Sephardic Jews, prayers known as "Selihot" (forgiveness) are recited before the regular morning service (these are the same prayers recited before Rosh Hashanah). In Amsterdam and in a few places in England, America, and elsewhere, the shofar is also sounded in connection with the processions. The latter practice reflects the idea that Hoshanah Rabbah is the end of the high holiday season, when the world is judged for the coming year. In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the... Look up Rosh Hashanah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A shofar made from the horn of a kudu, in the Yemenite Jewish style. ...


Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah

Main articles: Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah

The holiday of Shemini Atzeret (שמיני עצרת - lit. "the Eighth [day] of Assembly") is a separate festival that follows immediately after Sukkot, on the eighth day (eighth and ninth days outside the land of Israel). The family returns indoors to eat and sleep in their house, special synagogue services are held, and holiday meals are served. However, outside of Israel many have the custom to still eat in the Sukkah on Shemini Atzeret, but not on Simchat Torah. Shemini Atzeret (שמיני עצרת - the Eighth [day] of Assembly) is a Jewish holiday celebrated on the 22nd day of the Hebrew month of Tishri. ... Simchat Torah (שמחת תורה) is a Hebrew term which means rejoicing with/of the Torah. It is a festivity that takes place on the Jewish holiday of Shemini Atzeret, or Eighth (day) of Assembly, which falls immediately after the 7-day holiday of Sukkot in the autumn (mid- to late-October). ...


Shemini Atzeret is a separate holiday in respect to six specific issues. However, it is considered part of an eight-day holiday regarding a seventh issue. These issues are explained in the Talmud, Tractate Rosh Hashanah 4b. There is a dispute amongst the commentaries regarding what those six issues are. Two of the main opinions are Rashi and Tosafot. Shemini Atzeret (שמיני עצרת - the Eighth [day] of Assembly) is a Jewish holiday celebrated on the 22nd day of the Hebrew month of Tishri. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Rosh Ha Shanah is the name of a treatise in the Talmud. ... Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Tosafists were medieval rabbis who collected commentaries on the Talmud, and appear in virtually every edition since it was first printed. ...


In Israel, Shemini Atzeret lasts for one day and the festivities of Simchat Torah (שמחת תורה) coincide with it. Outside of Israel, Shemini Atzeret lasts for two days and the festivities of Simchat Torah fall on the second day. Simchat Torah (lit. "the joy of the Torah") is an especially happy day on which the very last portion of the Torah is read in the synagogue during morning services and, in order to convey the idea that Torah study never ends, the very first portion of the Torah (the beginning of Genesis) is read immediately after. All the men and boys, and in more liberal congregations all the women and girls, over the age of bar mitzvah are called up to the Torah for an aliyah, and all the children under the age of bar mitzvah are also given an "aliyah" called Kol HaNa'arim (all the children)—the youngsters crowd around the reader's table while men hold up a large tallit to include them all in the aliyah. The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of God, traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... When a Jewish child reaches the age of maturity (12 years and one day for girls, 13 years and one day for boys) that child becomes responsible for him/herself under Jewish law; at this point a boy is said to become Bar Mitzvah (בר מצו&#1493... The Jewish ritual of Torah reading (in Hebrew: קריאת התורה, Kriat HaTorah; Reading [of] the Torah) involves the public reading of a set of passages from a Torah scroll. ... The tallit (Modern Hebrew: ) or tallet(h) (Sephardi Hebrew: ), also called talles (Yiddish), is a prayer shawl cloak that is worn during the morning Jewish services (the Shacharit prayers) in Judaism, during the Torah service, and on Yom Kippur. ...


Both during the night service and the morning service in Orthodox synagogues, all the Torah scrolls are removed from the ark and all the worshippers engage in rounds of spirited dancing. Seven official circuits around the reader's table (called "hakafot") are made, although the dancing can go on for hours.


In the Former Soviet Union, Simchat Torah was the day on which Jews gathered in the street outside the synagogue to dance and proclaim their Jewishness openly. Refuseniks were often inspired by that Simchat Torah celebration to pursue other Jewish religious practices in secret, despite Communist oppression. Refusenik (Hebrew: , transliterated: mesorav); or Otkaznik (Russian: , from отказ, i. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


The holiday in Hebrew Scripture

In the Hebrew Scriptures, Sukkot is called:

  • “The Feast of Tabernacles (or Booths)” (Lev. 23:34; Deut. 16:13-16; 31:10; Zech. 14:16-19; Ezra 3:4; 2 Chron. 8:13)
  • “The Feast of Ingathering” (Ex. 23:16, 34:22)
  • “The Feast” or “the festival” (1 Kings 8:2, 8:65; 12:32; 2 Chron. 5:3; 7:8)
  • “The Feast of the Lord” (Lev. 23:39; Judges 21:19)
  • “The festival of the seventh month” (Ezek. 45:25; Neh. 8:14)
  • “A holy convocation” or “a sacred occasion” (Num. 29:12)

In later Hebrew literature it is called “chag,” or "[the] festival." Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Book of Zechariah is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh attributed to the prophet Zechariah. ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... Exodus is the second book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... The Books of Kings (Hebrew: Sefer Melachim ספר מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanach and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ...


Sukkot was agricultural in origin. This is evident from the name "The Feast of Ingathering," from the ceremonies accompanying it, and from the season and occasion of its celebration: "At the end of the year when you gather in your labors out of the field" (Ex. 23:16); "after you have gathered in from your threshing-floor and from your winepress" (Deut. 16:13). It was a thanksgiving for the fruit harvest (compare Judges 9:27). And in what may explain the festival’s name, Isaiah reports that grape harvesters kept booths in their vineyards (Isa. 1:8). Coming as it did at the completion of the harvest, Sukkot was regarded as a general thanksgiving for the bounty of nature in the year that had passed. Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... A vineyard A vineyard is a place where grapes are grown for making wine, raisins, or table grapes. ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ...


Sukkot became one of the most important feasts in Judaism, as indicated by its designation as “the Feast of the Lord” (Lev. 23:39; Judges 21:19) or simply “the Feast” (1 Kings 8:2, 65; 12:32; 2 Chron. 5:3; 7:8). Perhaps because of its wide attendance, Sukkot became the appropriate time for important state ceremonies. Moses instructed the children of Israel to gather for a reading of the Law during Sukkot every seventh year (Deut. 31:10-11). King Solomon dedicated the Temple in Jerusalem on Sukkot (1 Kings 8; 2 Chron. 7). And Sukkot was the first sacred occasion observed after the resumption of sacrifices in Jerusalem after the Babylonian captivity (Ezra 3:2-4). Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... It has been suggested that Sulayman be merged into this article or section. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ...


In the time of Nehemiah, after the Babylonian captivity, the Israelites celebrated Sukkot by making and dwelling in booths, a practice of which Nehemiah reports: “the Israelites had not done so from the days of Joshua” (Neh. 8:13-17). In a practice related to that of the Four Species, Nehemiah also reports that the Israelites found in the Law the commandment that they “go out to the mountains and bring leafy branches of olive trees, pine trees, myrtles, palms and [other] leafy trees to make booths” (Neh. 8:14-15). In Leviticus, God told Moses to command the people: “On the first day you shall take the product of hadar trees, branches of palm trees, boughs of leafy trees, and willows of the brook” (Lev. 23:40), and “You shall live in booths seven days; all citizens in Israel shall live in booths, in order that future generations may know that I made the Israelite people live in booths when I brought them out of the land of Egypt” (Lev. 23:42-43). Numbers, however, indicates that while in the wilderness, the Israelites dwelt in tents (Num. 11:10; 16:27). Some secular scholars consider Leviticus 23:39-43 (the commandments regarding booths and the four species) to be an insertion by a late redactor. (E.g., Richard Elliott Friedman. The Bible with Sources Revealed, 228-29. New York: HarperSanFrancisco, 2003.) Nehemiah or Nechemya (נְחֶמְיָה Comforted of/is the LORD (YHWH), Standard Hebrew Nəḥemya, Tiberian Hebrew Nəḥemyāh, ) is a major figure in the post-exile history of the Jews as recorded in the Bible, and is believed to be the primary author of the Book of Nehemiah. ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... The Four Species (note: in a kosher lulav, the aravah is placed on the left, the lulav in the center, and the hadassim on the right) The Four Species (Hebrew: ארבעה מינים) are three types of plants and one type of fruit which are held together and waved in a special ceremony... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ... Species Myrtus communis L. Myrtus nivellei Batt. ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... The Torah redactor (R) is, according to the documentary hypothesis, the figure who assembled hypothetical source texts of the Torah—the Deuteronomist text (D), the Priestly text P, and JE (an earlier joining of the Jahwist text [J] and the Elohist text [E])—into a single work. ... Richard Elliot Friedman is a writer and Professor of Hebrew and Comparative Literature at UCSD. He is also Katzin Professor of Jewish Civilization: Hebrew Bible; Near Eastern Languages and Literatures. ...


Jeroboam son of Nebat, King of the northern Kingdom of Israel, whom Kings describes as practicing “his evil way” (1 Kings 13:33), celebrated a festival on the fifteenth day of the eighth month, one month after Sukkot, “in imitation of the festival in Judah” (1 Kings 12:32-33). “While Jeroboam was standing on the altar to present the offering, the man of God, at the command of the Lord, cried out against the altar” in disapproval (1 Kings 13:1). The United Kingdom of Solomon breaks up, with Jeroboam ruling over the Northern Kingdom of Israel (in green on the map). ... 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... The Books of Kings (Hebrew: Sefer Melachim ספר מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


According to Zechariah (Zech. 14:16-19), Sukkot in the messianic era will become a universal festival, and all nations will make pilgrimages annually to Jerusalem to celebrate the feast there. (A modern interpretation of this resulted in a recent holiday celebrated in Jerusalem by non-Jews, "The Feast of Tabernacles".) Sukkot is here associated with the granting of rain, an idea further developed in later Jewish literature. Zechariah as depicted on Michelangelos ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Zechariah or Zecharya (זְכַרְיָה Renowned/Remembered of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) was a person in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ...


Observance of Sukkot is detailed in Mishnah, Tosefta, Jerusalem Talmud, and Babylonian Talmud in tractate Sukkah, part of the order Moed (Festivals). (Mishnah Sukkah 1:1–5:8; Tosefta Sukkah 1:1–4:28; Jerusalem Talmud Sukkah 1a–; Babylonian Talmud Sukkah 2a–56b.) The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The Tosefta is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. ... The Jerusalem Talmud (In Hebrew Talmud Yerushalmi, in short known as the Yerushalmi), also known as the Palestinian Talmud, like its Babylonian counterpart (see Babylonian Talmud), is a collection of Rabbinic discussions elaborating on the Mishnah. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Sukkah (Hebrew: סוכה, hut) is a book of the Mishnah and Talmud. ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ...


Sukkot as a place name

The name Sukkot appears in a number of places in the Hebrew Bible as a location:

  • Sukkot is Egyptian for the place of entering into the darkness. It's the place where the Sons of Israel went to retrieve the bones of Joseph from his tomb at Karnak before leaving Egypt. It is the first encampment of the Israelites after leaving the Temple of Ramesses at Medinet Habu (Exodus 12:37).
  • Succoth is a city east of the Jordan River, identified with Tell Deir Άlla, a high mound, a mass of debris, in the plain north of Jabbok and about one mile from it (Josh. 13:27). This is where Jacob, on his return from Padan-aram after his interview with Esau, built a house for himself and made sukkot (booths) for his cattle (Gen. 32:17, 30; 33:17).
  • The princes of Succoth (Sukkot) refused to afford help to Gideon and his men when they followed one of the bands of the fugitive Midianites after the great victory at Gilboa. After routing this band, Gideon on his return visited the rulers of the city with severe punishment. "He took the elders of the city, and thorns of the wilderness and briers, and with them he taught the men of Succoth" (Judg. 8:13-16). Wright identifies this with Deir Άlla.
  • At this place were erected the foundries for casting the metal-work for the temple (1 Kings 7:46).

Deir Alla is a Jordanian site of a 1967 excavation that found a previously unknown prophecy by Balaam. ... Nahr ez-Zarqa / Jabbok Jabbok, pouring out, is a river on the east side of the Jordan River, one of the so-called torrent valleys. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... In the Bible, Padan-aram refers to the plain of Aram, or the plain of the highlands, (Gen. ... Gideon (גִּדְעוֹן, Standard Hebrew GidÊ»on, Tiberian Hebrew Giḏʻôn), also known as Jerubbaal, is a character that appears in the Book of Judges, in the Bible. ...

See also

Jewish holiday, (or Yom Tom or chag or taanit in Hebrew) is a day that is holy to the Jewish people according to Judaism and is usually derived from the Hebrew Bible, specifically the Torah, and in some cases established by the rabbis in later eras. ... All Jewish holidays begin at sundown on the evening before the date shown. ... The Four Species (note: in a kosher lulav, the aravah is placed on the left, the lulav in the center, and the hadassim on the right) The Four Species (Hebrew: ארבעה מינים) are three types of plants and one type of fruit which are held together and waved in a special ceremony... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth or Sukkos is a Biblical pilgrimage festival which occurs in autumn on the 15th day of the month of Tishri (mid- to late-October). ... This article is about motion pictures. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... The Feast of Tabernacles is an 8-day Biblical pilgrimage festival, also known as the Feast of Booths, the Feast of Tabernacles, or Tabernacles. ... Harvest festivals around the world Thanksgiving (United States), the holiday on the fourth Thursday in November. ...

References

  1. ^ Cf Talmud, Tractate Rosh Hashanah 4b, for rare cases where it is viewed as one
  • Sarna, Nahum M. “Exploring Exodus: The Oppression,” Biblical Archaeologist, Volume 49: 1986 (2001 electronic ed.)
  • Wright, G. Ernest. “Fresh Evidence for the Philistine Story,” Biblical Archaeologist, Volume 29: 1966 (2001 electronic ed.)
  • Kitov, Eliyahu (1978). The Book of Our Heritage. Jerusalem: Feldheim Publishers. ISBN 0-87306-152-7.

The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Rosh Ha Shanah is the name of a treatise in the Talmud. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Sukkot - Tabernacles - Judaica Guide (566 words)
Sukkot is the third of the three "Pilgrim Festivals" in the Jewish tradition (the other two are Passover and Shavuot).
While Passover is celebrated in memory of the exodus from Egypt, and Shavuot celebrates the giving of the Torah at Mt. Sinai, Sukkot is a celebration in memory of the huts in which Moses and the Israelites lived in the desert for 40 years.
Sukkot is also called "Chag Ha'Asif" ("The Holiday of the Harvest"), because it takes place at the time of year in which the crops were collected from the fields, and in ancient times some of them were brought to the temple.
Sukkot by aJudaica (289 words)
Sukkot is the festival of booths (huts) or the Harvest festival; it is a time for thanksgiving.
During Sukkot Jewish people eat outside in a special hut or booth called a sukkah.
In addition to the sukkah, the etrog (citron, lemon) and lulav (a palm branch with willow and myrtle attached) are key symbols of Sukkot and as such are used in a series of rituals.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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