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Encyclopedia > Sukhumi
Destroyed shop in Sukhumi
Destroyed shop in Sukhumi

Sukhumi (Georgian: სოხუმი, Sokhumi; Abkhaz: Аҟəа, Aqwa; Russian: Сухуми, Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. The city has a long and eventful history. It heavily suffered during the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict in the early 1990s. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 556 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sukhumi Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 556 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sukhumi Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Abkhaz is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken in Georgia and Turkey. ... Official languages Abkhaz, with Russian having co-official status and widespread use by government and other institutions Political status De facto independent Capital Sukhumi Capitals coordinates President Sergei Bagapsh Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab Independence  â€“ Declared  â€“ Recognition From Georgia  23 July 1992  none Currency Russian ruble Official languages Abkhaz and... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located within Russia. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Germans dancing on the Berlin Wall in late 1989, the symbol of the cold war divide falls down as the world unites in the 1990s. ...

Contents

Naming

In Georgian, the city is spelled Sokhum (Georgian: ), spelling used by some English sources as well, incuding Encyclopaedia Britannica[1] and MSN Encarta[2]. However, the most widely used name for the city is Sukhumi, a Russian transliteration of the city's official name. Another Abkhaz variant of the city's name, when they speak and write Russian, is Sukhum (Russian: Сухум, a spelling once preferred in Imperial Russia[3]). ... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...


General information

A satellite image of Sukhumi.
A satellite image of Sukhumi.

Sukhumi is located on a wide bay of the eastern coast of the Black Sea and serves as a port, rail junction and a holiday resort. It is known for its beaches, sanatoriums, mineral-water spas and semitropical climate. Sukhumi is also an important air link for Abkhazia, as the Sukhumi Dranda Airport is located nearby the city. Sukhumi contains a number of small-to-medium size hotels serving chiefly the Russian tourists. The city also maintains historic botanical gardens, established in 1840. Until 1992, it remained a multi-cultural city, where nine different languages were spoken. Image File history File links Suchumi. ... Image File history File links Suchumi. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Sukhumi Dranda Airport is located about 20km from the city of the same name, the capital of the Georgian breakaway region of Abkhazia. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


The city has a number of research institutes, the State University of Abkhazia and the Sukhumi Branch of the Tbilisi State University (currently functioning in Tbilisi). In Soviet times, it contained a renowned ape breeding station. From 1945 to 1954, the city's electron physics laboratory was involved in the Soviet program to develop nuclear weapons. Image:TSU2. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (and largest city) Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October Revolution   - Declared... Families Hylobatidae Hominidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, which includes humans. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


History

Image:Gamba - view of sukhum fortress.JPG
The Suhum-Kale fort in the early 19th century.

The history of the city began in the mid-6th century BC when an earlier settlement of the second and early first millennia BC, frequented by local Colchian tribes, was replaced by the Milesian Greek colony of Dioscurias (Greek: Διοσκουριός), geographically the remotest that Miletus ever established. The city is said to have been so named for the Dioscuri, the twins Castor and Pollux of classical mythology. It became busily engaged in the commerce between Greece and the indigenous tribes, importing wares from many parts of Greece, and exporting local salt and Caucasian timber, linen, and hemp. It was also a prime center of slave trade in Colchis. The city and its surroundings were remarkable for the multitude of languages spoken in its bazaars. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus, as it was on August 6, 2005. ... Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... Castor (or Kastor) and Polydeuces (sometimes called Pollux), were in Greek mythology the twin sons of Leda and the brothers of Helen of Troy and Clytemnestra. ... Classical or Greco-Roman mythology usually refers to the mythology, and the associated polytheistic rituals and practices, of Classical Antiquity. ... The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Russia Georgia Azerbaijan (Azer. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... Linum usitatissimum L. - Flax Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... U.S. Marijuana production permit, from the film Hemp for Victory. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Although the sea made serious inroads upon the territory of Dioscurias, it continued to flourish until its conquest by Mithridates VI Eupator of Pontus in the later second century BC. Under the Roman emperor Augustus (known in Greek as Sebastos) the city assumed the name of Sebastopolis. But its prosperity was past, and in the first century AD Pliny the Elder described the place as virtually deserted though the town still continued to exist during the times of Arrian in the 130s.[4] The remains of towers and walls of Sebastopolis have been found underwater; on land the lowest levels so far reached by archaeologists are of the first and second centuries AD. In 542 the Romans evacuated the town and demolished its citadel to prevent it from being captured by Sassanid Iran. In 565, however, the emperor Justinian I restored the fort and Sebastopolis continued to remain one of the Byzantine strongholds in Colchis until being sacked by the Arab conqueror Marwan II in 736. Mithridates VI of Pontus, (132 BC- 63 BC), called Eupator Dionysius, was the king of Pontus in Asia Minor and one of Romes most formidable and successful enemies. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... (3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events BC 168 Battle of Pydna -- Macedonian phalanx defeated by Romans BC 148 Rome conquers Macedonia BC 146 Rome destroys Carthage in the Third Punic War BC 146 Rome conquers... Roman Emperor is the term historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... Augustus (Latin: IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•AVGVSTVS;[1] September 23, 63 BC–August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian; Latin: C•IVLIVS•C•F•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS) for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, was the first and among the most important of... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19c portrait. ... Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... Centuries: 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century Decades: 80s - 90s - 100s - 110s - 120s - 130s - 140s - 150s - 160s - 170s - 180s 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 Events and trends Significant people Hadrian, Roman Emperor Categories: 130s ... Events The plague killed upwards of 100,000 in Constantinople and perhaps two million or more in the rest of the Byzantine Empire (possibly exaggerated). ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... Justinian I depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب) are a heterogeneous ethnic group who are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... The Califate in 750 From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923 Courtesy of The General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II (750-688) (Arabic: مروان ابن محمد ابن مروان) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed. ... The Kegon school of Buddhism arrives in Japan via Korea, when Rōben invites the Korean monk Simsang to lecture, and formally founds Japans Kegon tradition in the Tōdaiji temple. ...

Cotton field of Sukhum Botanical Garden in 1912.
Enlarge
Cotton field of Sukhum Botanical Garden in 1912.

Afterwards, the town came to be known as Tskhumi, a toponym which is frequently related to the Svan for "hot".[5] Georgian scholars sometimes explain it as meaning the "hornbeam tree" in Georgian. Restored by the kings of Abkhazia from the Arab devastation, it particularly flourished during Georgia’s "golden age" in the 12th-13th centuries, when Tskhumi became a center of traffic with the European maritime powers, particularly with the Republic of Genoa. The Genoese established their short-lived trading factory at Tskhum early in the 14th century. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x625, 153 KB) Early color photograph from Russia, created by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x625, 153 KB) Early color photograph from Russia, created by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Svan language (ლუშნუ ნინ, lushnu nin in Svan; სვანური ენა, svanuri ena in Georgian) is a language spoken in Northwest Georgia. ... Species Carpinus betulus - European Hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana - American Hornbeam Carpinus cordata - Sawa Hornbeam Carpinus fargesii - Farges Hornbeam Carpinus laxiflora - Aka-shide Hornbeam Carpinus japonica - Japanese Hornbeam Carpinus orientalis - Oriental Hornbeam Carpinus tschonoskii - Chonowskis Hornbeam Carpinus turczaninowii - Turkzaninovs Hornbeam The hornbeams (Carpinus) are a genus of relatively small hardwood... The Abkhazian Kingdom or the Kingdom of the Abkhazians refers to an early medieval feudal state in the Caucasus which lasted from the 780s until being united, through dynastic succession, with the Kingdom of the Georgians (see Tao-Klarjeti) in 1008. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ...


The Ottoman navy occupied the town in 1451, but for a short time. Later contested between the princes of Abkhazia and Mingrelia, Tskhum finally fell to the Turks in the 1570s. The new masters heavily fortified the town and called it Suhumkale, with kale meaning "fort" but the first part of the name of disputed origin. It may represent Turkish su, "water", and kum, "sand", but is more likely to be an alteration of its earlier Georgian name.[5] At the request of the pro-Russian Abkhazian prince, the town was stormed by the Russian Marines in 1810 and turned, subsequently, into their major outpost in the North West Caucasus. Sukhumkale was declared the seaport in 1847 and directly joined the Russian Empire in 1864. During the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878, the town was temporarily controlled by the Ottoman forces and the Abkhaz-Adyghe rebels. Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... The Principality of Abkhazia emerged as a separate feudal entity in the 15th-16th centuries, amid the civil wars in the Kingdom of Georgia that concluded with the dissolution of the unified Georgian monarchy. ... Mingrelia (Samegrelo in Georgian) is a historic province in the western part of the republic of Georgia, formerly also known as Odishi. ... Significant Events and Trends Transition from the Muromachi to the Azuchi-Momoyama period in Japan Categories: 1570s ... Russian Marines emblem and slogan Naval Infantry of Russia: Victory follows us! The Russian Marines, perhaps better translated as the Russian Naval Infantry, (Russian: Морская пехота ) are an elite force of the Russian Armed Forces. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1924) Area Approx. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Combatants Russia, Romania Ottoman Empire The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and liberating the Orthodox Christian Slavic peoples of the Balkan Peninsula (Bulgarians, Serbians) from the Islamic-ruled Ottoman Empire. ... The Adyghe or Adygs are a people of the northwest Caucasus region, principally inhabiting Adygeya (23 %) (now a constituent republic of the Russian Federation) and Karachay-Cherkessia (11 %) (where they are named as Cherkess). Shapsigh Autonomous District, an autonomous district founded for Shapsigh (or Shapsugh) tribe living on the Black...

A House of the Government of Abkhazia, destroyed in the Abkhaz offensive on September 27 1993, still stands in ruins.
A House of the Government of Abkhazia, destroyed in the Abkhaz offensive on September 27 1993, still stands in ruins.

Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, the town and Abkhazia in general, engulfed into the chaos of the Russian Civil War. A short-lived Bolshevik government was suppressed in May 1918 and Sukhumi was incorporated into the Democratic Republic of Georgia as a residence of the autonomous People's Council of Abkhazia and the headquarters of the Georgian governor-general. The Red Army and the local revolutionaries took the city from the Georgian forces on March 4 1921, and declared Soviet rule. Sukhumi functioned as the capital of the "Union treaty" Abkhazian Soviet Socialist Republic associated with the Georgian SSR from 1921 until 1931, when it became the capital of the Abkhazian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Georgian SSR. By 1989, Sukhumi had 110,000 inhabitants and was one of the most prosperous cities of Georgia. Many holiday dachas for Soviet leaders were situated there. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 527 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sukhumi Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 527 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sukhumi Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the system of autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal Provisional Government (Duma), resulting in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755... Bolsheviks (Russian: IPA , derived from bolshinstvo, majority) were members of the Bolshevik faction of the Marxist Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction[1] at the Second Party Congress in 1903 and ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Motto: None Anthem: Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Capital Tbilisi Largest city Tbilisi Official language(s) Georgian Government Chairman of the Government Parliamentary democracy Noe Zhordania Independence - Declared - Formerly From the Russian Empire May 26, 1918 Transcaucasian Federation Population c. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (and largest city) Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October Revolution   - Declared... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dacha of Boris Pasternak in Peredelkino. ...


Sukhumi was a centre of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict from 1989 to 1993 which damaged much of the city. During the Abkhaz siege of Sukhumi (1992-1993), the city and its environs suffered almost daily air strikes and artillery shellings, with heavy civilian casualties.[6] The battle for Sukhumi was concluded by a full-scale campaign of the ethnic cleansing against its majority Georgian population in the fall of 1993. Although the city has been relatively peaceful and partially rebuilt, it is still suffering the after-effects of the war, and it has not regained its earlier ethnic diversity. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Georgian civilians hiding from Abkhaz separatist militants near Sukhumi The Sukhumi Massacre took place on September 27, 1993, during the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict. ...


Monuments

Sukhumi houses a number of historical monuments, notably the Beslet arcaded bridge built during the reign of queen Tamar of Georgia in the 12th century. It also retains visible vestiges of the defunct monuments, including the Roman walls, the 11th-century castle of Bagrat III, several towers of the Great Abkhazian Wall constructed by the early modern Mingrelian and Abkhazian princes amid their territorial disputes; the 14th-century Genoese fort, and the 18th-century Ottoman fortress. The 11th century Kaman Church (12 km from Sukhumi) is erected, according to tradition, over the tomb of Saint John Chrysostom. Some 22 km from Sukhumi lies New Athos with the ruins of the medieval city of Anacopia. The Neo-Byzantine New Athos Monastery was constructed here in the 1880s on behest of Tsar Alexander III of Russia. Northward in the mountains is the Voronya Cave, the deepest in the world. Tamar as depicted on a mural from Vardzia monastery Tamar (1160-1213), from the House of Bagrationi, was Queen of the Kingdom of Georgia from 1184 to 1213. ... Bagrat III (ca. ... A millennium-old Byzantine mosaic of Saint John Chrysostom, Hagia Sophia John Chrysostom (347 - 407, Greek Ιωάννης ο Χρυσόστομος ) was a notable Christian bishop from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople. ... The New Athos Monastery New Athos (Russian: ) is a town in Gudauta raion of Abkhazia, Georgia some 22 km from Sukhumi by the shores of the Black Sea. ... The New Athos Monastery New Athos (Geo. ... The 11th-century monastery of Hosios Lukas in Greece is representative of the Byzantine art during the rule of Macedonian dynasty. ... // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... Alexander III (March 10, 1845 – November 1, 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from March 14, 1881 until his death in 1894. ... The Voronya Cave (aka Krubera-Voronia Cave) is the deepest known cave in the world. ...


References

  1. ^ "Sokhum". (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 6, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: [1]
  2. ^ "Sokhumi". (2006). In Encarta. Retrieved November 6, 2006: [2]
  3. ^ (Russian) Мачавариани К.Д. Описательный путеводитель по городу Сухуму и Сухумскому округу с историко- этнографическим очерком. – Сухум. 1913
  4. ^ Dioscurias. A Guide to the Ancient World, H.W. Wilson (1986). Retrieved 20 July 2006, from xreferplus.
  5. ^ a b Room, A. (2005), Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features and Historic Sites. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina, and London, ISBN 0-7864-2248-3, p. 361
  6. ^ The Human Rights Watch report, March 1995 Vol. 7, No. 7. [3].

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published and updated frequently by Microsoft Corporation. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...

External links

Coordinates: 43°00′N 41°01′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Global Fund for Women - Grantee Profile - Sukhumi (274 words)
Formed in 1995 by five women forcefully displaced from Abkhazia, Sukhumi uses collective power to improve the lives of women, whether or not they are refugees.
Sukhumi conducted an educational campaign aimed at youth, academics, law enforcement, local authorities and the media.
Sukhumi focuses on young women because it believes that they are the key to the future of women's rights.
Sokhumi: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1536 words)
Sukhumi is located on a wide bay of the eastern coast of the Black Sea and serves as a port, rail junction and a holiday resort.
The battle for Sukhumi was concluded by a full-scale campaign of the ethnic cleansing against its majority Georgian population in the fall of 1993.
Sukhumi houses a number of historical monuments, notably the Beslet arcaded bridge built during the reign of queen Tamar of Georgia in the 12th century.
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