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Encyclopedia > Sukarno
Sukarno
Sukarno

In office
August 18, 1945 – March 12, 1967
Succeeded by Suharto

Born June 6, 1901
Blitar, East Java
Died June 21, 1970
Jakarta
Political party Indonesian National Party

Sukarno (June 6, 1901June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. He helped the country win its independence from the Netherlands and was President from 1945 to 1967, presiding with mixed success over the country's turbulent transition to independence. Sukarno was forced down from power by one of his generals, Suharto, who formally became President in March 1967. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Image File history File links Soekarno. ... List of Presidents of Indonesia Categories: Indonesia | Lists of office-holders ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Blitar is a city (kota) and Regency of East Java, Indonesia. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kalapa, Jayakarta, Batavia and Djakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Indonesian National Party (Partai Nasional Indonesia/PNI) is the oldest political party in Indonesia, established on 4 July 1927. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... List of Presidents of Indonesia Categories: Indonesia | Lists of office-holders ... Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ...


The spelling "Sukarno" has been official in Indonesia since 1947 but the older spelling Soekarno is still frequently used, mainly because he signed his signature in the old spelling. Official Indonesian presidential decrees from the period 1947-1968, however, printed his name using the 1947 spelling.


Indonesians also remember him as Bung Karno (Bung is an Indonesian title of endearment used to address some popular leaders). Like many Javanese people, he had just one name, although, in religious contexts, he was occasionally referred to as 'Ahmad Sukarno'. Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ...

Contents

Background

The son of a Javanese school teacher and his Balinese wife from Buleleng regency, Sukarno was born in Blitar, East Java in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). He was admitted into a Dutch-run school as a child. When his father sent him to Surabaya in 1916 to attend a secondary school, he met Tjokroaminoto, a future nationalist. In 1921 he began to study at the Technische Hogeschool (Technical Institute) in Bandung. He studied civil engineering and focused on architecture. This article is about the Indonesian island. ... Buleleng is a regency (kabupaten) of Bali, Indonesia. ... Blitar is a city (kota) and Regency of East Java, Indonesia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Location of Surabaya in Indonesia Coordinates: , Country Province Area  - City 274. ... (Raden Mas) Hadji Oemar Said Tjokroaminoto (August 16, 1882 – December 17, 1934) was a nationalist, the first leader of Sarekat Dagang Islam (Islamic Trade Union, later Sarekat Islam) in Indonesia. ... Nickname: Kota Kembang (City of Flowers) Motto: Bermartabat (dignity) Location of Bandung in Indonesia Coordinates: Province West Java Country Indonesia Government  - Mayor Dada Rosada Area  - City 167. ...


Atypically, even among the colony's small educated elite, Sukarno was fluent in several languages. In addition to the Javanese language of his childhood, he was a master of Indonesian and especially strong in Dutch. He was also quite comfortable in German, English, and French. Sukarno once remarked that when he was studying in Surabaya, he often sat behind the screen in movie theaters reading the Dutch subtitles in reverse because the front seats were only for elite Dutch people. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Subtitle. ...


In his studies, Sukarno was "intensely modern," both in architecture and in politics. Sukarno interpreted these ideas in his dress, in his urban planning for the capital (eventually Jakarta), and in his socialist politics. For Sukarno, modernity was a blind to race, neat and Western in style, and anti-imperialist.[1] Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kalapa, Jayakarta, Batavia and Djakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ...


Independence struggle

See also: Dutch Ethical Policy and Indonesian National Revival

Sukarno became a leader of a pro-independence party, Partai Nasional Indonesia when it was founded in 1927. He opposed imperialism and capitalism because he thought both systems worsened the life of Indonesian people. The period of the Dutch Ethical Policy and Indonesian National Revival was a period in Indonesian history spanning from 1899 until the Japanese Invasion and Occupation in 1942. ... Indonesian National Party (Partai Nasional Indonesia/PNI) is the oldest political party in Indonesia, established on 4 July 1927. ...


He also hoped that Japan would commence a war against the western powers and that Java could then gain its independence with Japan's aid. He was arrested in 1929 by Dutch colonial authorities and sentenced to two years in prison. By the time he was released, he had become a popular hero. He was arrested several times during the 1930s and was in jail when Japan occupied the archipelago in 1942.


World War II and the Japanese occupation

See also: Japanese occupation of Indonesia

In early 1929, during the so-called Indonesian National Revival, Sukarno and fellow Indonesian nationalist leader Mohammad Hatta (later Vice President), first foresaw a Pacific War and the opportunity that a Japanese advance on Indonesia might present for the Indonesian independence cause.[2] In February 1942 Imperial Japan invaded the Dutch East Indies quickly over-running outmatched Dutch forces who marched, bussed and trucked Sukarno three hundred kilometres to Padang, Sumatra. They intended keeping him prisoner, but abruptly abandoned him to save themselves.[3] The Japanese occupation of Indonesia refers to the period between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Empire of Japan ruled Indonesia. ... The period of the Dutch Ethical Policy and Indonesian National Revival was a period in Indonesian history spanning from 1899 until the Japanese Invasion in 1942. ... Mohammad Hatta (August 12, 1902 - March 14, 1980) was born in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). ... List of Vice Presidents of Indonesia Dr. Mohammad Hatta (1945 - 1956) Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX (1973 -1978) Adam Malik (1978 - 1983) Umar Wirahadikusumah (1983 - 1988) Sudharmono (1988 - 1993) Try Sutrisno (1993 - 1998) B.J.Habibie (1998) Megawati Sukarnoputri (1999 - 2001) Hamzah Haz (2001 - 2004) Jusuf Kalla (2004 - 2009) See also... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Padang is the capital and largest city of West Sumatra, Indonesia. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ...


The Japanese had their own files on Sukarno and approached him with respect wanting to use him to organise and pacify the Indonesians. Sukarno on the other hand wanted to use the Japanese to free Indonesia: "The Lord be praised, God showed me the way; in that valley of the Ngarai I said: Yes, Independent Indonesia can only be achieved with Dai Nippon...For the first time in all my life, I saw myself in the mirror of Asia."[4]


Subsequently, indigenous forces across both Sumatra and Java aided the Japanese against the Dutch but would not cooperate in the supply of the aviation fuel which was essential for the Japanese war effort. Desperate for local support in supplying the volatile cargo, Japan now brought Sukarno back to Jakarta. He helped the Japanese in obtaining its aviation fuel and labor conscripts, called sukarela in Indonesian and Romusha in Japanese. Sukarno was lastingly ashamed of his role with the romusha.[5] He also was involved with Peta and Heiho (Javanese volunteer army troops) via speeches broadcast on the Japanese radio and loud speaker networks across Java. By mid-1945 these units numbered around two million, and were preparing to defeat any Allied forces sent to re-take Java. Romushas were Indonesian forced laborers during the Japanese occupation in World War II. The word is Japanese and (reportedly) translates to wood log, indicating the disposable nature of the Indonesian labor force. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


On November 10, 1943 Sukarno was decorated by the Emperor of Japan in Tokyo. He also became head of Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (BPUPKI), the Japanese-organized committee through which Indonesian independence was later gained. On 7 September 1944, with the war going badly for the Japanese, Prime Minister Koiso promised independence for Indonesia, although no date was set.[6] This announcement was seen as immense vindication for Sukarno's apparent collaboration with the Japanese.[7] is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Full name: Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (BPUPKI) Badan is the Indonesian word for organization. This is a Japanese-organized committee. ... Kuniaki Koiso ), (22 March 1880–3 November 1950) was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, Governor-General of Korea and 41st Prime Minister of Japan from 22 July 1944 to 7 April 1945. ...


Early independence

Soekarno reading the declaration of independence
See also: Indonesian National Revolution and Liberal Democracy Era in Indonesia (1950-1957)

Following the Japanese surrender, Sukarno, Mohammad Hatta, and Dr. Radjiman Wediodiningrat were summoned by Marshal Terauchi, Commander-in-Chief of Japan's Southern Expeditionary Forces in Saigon. Sukarno initially hesitated in declaring Indonesia's independence. He and Mohammad Hatta were kidnapped by Indonesian youth groups to Rengasdengklok, west of Jakarta. Finally Sukarno and Hatta declared the independence of the Republic of Indonesia on August 17, 1945. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The era of Liberal Democracy (Indonesian: Demokrasi Liberal) was the name for the period in Indonesian history from the dissolution of the United States of Indonesia and the return to a unitary state in 1950, following the Indonesian National Revolution, to the imposition of martial law and the introduction by... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... The independece declaration announced by Sukarno The Indonesian Declaration of Independence was officially proclaimed at 10. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Sukarno's vision for the 1945 Indonesian constitution comprised the Pancasila (Sanskrit - five principles). Sukarno's political philosophy, Marhaenism, was guided by (in no particular order) elements of Marxism, nationalism and Islam. This is reflected in the Pancasila, in the order in which he originally espoused them in a speech on June 1, 19451: Symbol of Indonesias Pancasila Pancasila, pronounced Panchaseela, is the philosophical basis of the Indonesian state. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  1. Nationalism (with a focus on national unity)
  2. Internationalism ('one nation sovereign amongst equals')
  3. Representative democracy (all significant groups represented)
  4. Social Justice (Marxist influenced)
  5. Theism (with a secular bent)

In the same speech, he argued that all of the principles of the nation could be summarized in the phrase gotong royong.[8] The Indonesian parliament, founded on the basis of this original (and subsequently revised) constitution, proved all but ungovernable. This was due to irreconcilable differences between various social, political, religious and ethnic factions2. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... Gotong royong, is a conception of sociality familiar to large parts of Indonesia and Malaysia. ...


Sukarno's government initially refused to form a national army, for fear of antagonizing the Allied occupation forces and their doubt over whether they would have been able to form an adequate military apparatus to maintain control of seized territory. The various militia groups at that time were encouraged to join the BKR -- Badan Keamanan Rakyat (The People's Security Organization) -- itself a subordinate of the "War Victims Assistance Organization". It was only in October 1945 that the BKR was reformed into the TKR -- Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (The People's Security Army) in response to the increasing Dutch presence in Indonesia. In the ensuing chaos between various factions and Dutch attempts to re-establish colonial control, Dutch troops captured Sukarno in December 1948, but were forced to release him after the ceasefire. He returned to Jakarta in December 28, 1949. At this time, Indonesia adopted a new federal constitution that made the country a federal state. This was replaced by another provisional constitution in 1950 that restored a unitary form of government. Both constitutions were parliamentary in nature, which--on paper--limited presidential power. However, even with his formally reduced role, he commanded a good deal of moral authority as Father of the Nation. Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an army composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kalapa, Jayakarta, Batavia and Djakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federal Constitution of the United States of Indonesia (Indonesian Republik Indonesia Serikat) replaced the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia when sovereignty was officially transferredfrom Holland to Indonesia following the Renville Agreement. ... The 1950 Provisional Constitution (UUD50) replaced the Federal Constitution of 1949 when Indonesia unilaterally withdrew from the union with Holland agreed at the Renville Agreement and returned to being a unitary state. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Sukarno's government was not universally accepted in Indonesia. Indeed, many factions and regions attempted to separate themselves from his government, and there were several internal conflicts even during the period of armed insurgency against the Dutch. One such example is the leftist-backed coup attempt by elements of the military in Madiun, East Java in 1948, in which many supporters of communism were allegedly executed. In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Madiun uprising is seen in Pramoedya Ananta Toers works Pramoedya Ananta Toer is probably the best known internationally of all Indonesian writers. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ...


There were further attempts of military coups against Sukarno in 1956, including the PRRI-Permesta rebellion in Sulawesi supported by the CIA, during which an American aviator, Allen Lawrence Pope, operating in support of the rebels was shot down and captured. 6 A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Permesta was a rebel movement in Indonesia, the name coming from Piagam Perjuangan Semesta Alam. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Allen Lawrence Pope was a US Air Force pilot who was shot down on May 18, 1958 while flying a B-26 during a raid on government forces in Indonesia. ...


'Guided Democracy' and increasing autocracy

Main article: Guided Democracy (1957-1965)

Sukarno resented his figurehead position and used the increasing disorder to intervene more in the country's political life. Claiming Western-style democracy wasn't suitable for Indonesia, he called for a system of "guided democracy" based on what he called traditional Indonesian principles. The Indonesian way of deciding important questions, he argued, was by way of prolonged deliberation designed to achieve a consensus. He proposed a government based not only on political parties but on "functional groups" composed of the nation's basic elements, in which a national consensus could express itself under presidential guidance. Guided Democracy was the political system in place in Indonesia from 1957 until the New Order began in 1966. ...


During this later part of his presidency, Sukarno came to increasingly rely on the army and the support of the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). The Communist Party of Indonesia (in Indonesian: Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI) was a communist party in Indonesia. ...


In the 1950s he increased his ties to China and admitted more communists into his government. He also began to accept increasing amounts of Soviet bloc military aid. This aid, however, was surpassed by military aid from the Eisenhower Administration, which worried about a leftward drift should Sukarno rely too much on Soviet bloc aid. However, Sukarno increasingly attempted to forge a new alliance called the "New Emerging Forces", as a counter to the old superpowers, whom he accused of spreading "Neo-Colonialism, Colonialism and Imperialism" (NEKOLIM). His political alliances gradually shifted towards Asian powers such as the PRC and North Korea. In 1961, this first president of Indonesia also found another political alliance, an organization, called the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM, in Indonesia known as Gerakan Non-Blok, GNB) with Egypt's President Gamal Abdel Nasser, India's Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Yugoslavia's President Josip Broz Tito, and Ghana's President Kwame Nkrumah, in an action called The Initiative of Five (Sukarno, Nkrumah, Nasser, Tito, and Nehru). This action was a movement to not give any favour to the two superpower blocs, who were involved in the Cold War. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... CCCP redirects here. ...


The Bandung Conference was held in 1955, with the goal of uniting developing Asian and African countries into a non-aligned movement to counter against the competing superpowers at the time. In order to increase Indonesia's prestige, Sukarno supported and won the bid for the 1962 Asian Games held in Jakarta. Many sporting facilities such as the Senayan sports complex (now Bung Karno Stadium), and supporting infrastructure were built to accommodate the games. There was political tension when the Indonesians refused the entry of delegations from Israel and the Republic of China. The Bandung Conference was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, organized by Egypt, Indonesia, Burma, Ceylon(Sri Lanka), India, and Pakistan. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... The 1962 Asian Games were played in 1962 at Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kalapa, Jayakarta, Batavia and Djakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Bung Karno Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Jakarta, Indonesia and is one of the largest stadiums anywhere in the world. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


On November 30, 1957, there was a grenade attack against Sukarno when he was visiting a school in Cikini, Central Jakarta. Six children were killed, but Sukarno did not suffer any serious wounds. In December he ordered the nationalization of 246 Dutch businesses. In February he began a breakdown of the PRRI rebels at Bukittinggi. is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat) is a kota (formerly kotamadya) of Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Pemerintah Revolusioner Republik Indonesia (PRRI) is a rebellious movement leaded by Army officers of the newly formed Indonesian Army The Rebellion of the Colonels The movement was started when a clash of few military faction inside the newly formed Indonesian Army backgrounded by the political rivalry began to demand of... City of Bukittinggi Bukittinggi (Indonesian for high hill) is one of the larger cities in West Sumatra, Indonesia, with a population of around 100,000 people. ...


These PRRI rebels, a mix of anti-communist and Islamic movements, received arms and aid from Western sources, including the CIA, until J. Allan Pope, an American pilot, was shot down after a bombing raid in northern Indonesia in 1958. The CIA sent arms to rebel movements on Sumatra as well as Sulawesi. The downing of this pilot, together with impressive victories of government forces against the PRRI, evoked a shift in US policy, leading to closer ties with Sukarno as well as Major General Abdul Haris Nasution, the head of the army and the most powerful anti-communist in the Jakarta government. Abdul Haris Nasution Abdul Haris Nasution (born Kotanopan 3 December 1918 - died Jakarta 5 September 2000) is an Indonesian general who escaped an assassination attempt during the military coup in 1965. ...


Sukarno also established government control over media and book publishing as well as laws discriminating against Chinese Indonesian residents. On July 5, 1959 he reestablished the 1945 constitution by presidential edict. It established a presidential system which he believed would make it easier to implement the principles of guided democracy. He called the system Manifesto Politik or Manipol--but was actually government by decree. He sent his opponents to internal exile. Chinese Indonesians (Mandarin: Yìndùníxīyà Huárén (Traditional: 印度尼西亞華人, Simplified: 印度尼西亚华人) Hakka: Thong ngin, Min: Teng lang, Indonesian: Tionghoa Indonesia, or (derisively) Cina totok) are ethnically Chinese people living in Indonesia, as a result of centuries of overseas Chinese migration. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Presidential Decree of July 5 1959 was issued by President Sukarno in the face of the inability of the Constitutional Assembly of Indonesia to achieve the two-thirds majority to reimpose the 1945 Constitution. ...


In March 1960 Sukarno dissolved the elected Assembly and replaced it with an appointed Assembly--the Gotong Royong Parliament--and in August he broke off diplomatic relations with the Netherlands over Dutch New Guinea (West Papua.) After West Papua declared itself independent in December of 1961, Sukarno ordered raids on West Irian (Dutch New Guinea). There were more assassination attempts when he visited Sulawesi in 1962. West Irian was brought under Indonesian authority in May 1963 under the Bunker Plan. In July of the same year he had himself proclaimed President for Life by the Assembly. Dutch New Guinea was a common name of western New Guinea while it was a colonial possession of the Netherlands. ... Map showing Papua province in Indonesia Papua is a province of Indonesia comprising part of the western half of the island of New Guinea and nearby islands. ... Dutch New Guinea was a common name of western New Guinea while it was a colonial possession of the Netherlands. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


While the western media eagerly portrayed him as an autocratic despot, Sukarno's rule was actually much milder than was often the case for Third World authoritarian governments of the time. Executions or political gulags were unheard of under Sukarno's rule (he was even known for maintaining personal friendships with some of his staunchest political enemies), and even his radical move to the left, soon followed by political repression of forces considered to be rightist, were based on his actual beliefs that Britain and the US were sabotaging his Indonesian revolution. For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


Sukarno also opposed the British-supported Federation of Malaysia, claiming that it was a neocolonial plot to advance British interests. In spite of his political overtures, which was partly justified when some political elements in British Borneo territories Sarawak and Brunei opposed the Federation plan and aligned themselves with Sukarno, Malaysia was proclaimed in September 1963. This led to the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation (Konfrontasi) and the end of remaining US military aid to Indonesia. Sukarno withdrew Indonesia from the UN Security Council in 1965 when, with US backing, the nascent Federation of Malaysia took a seat. Sukarno's increasing illness was demonstrated when he collapsed in public in August 9, 1965, and he was secretly diagnosed with kidney disease. State motto: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti State anthem: Ibu Pertiwiku Capital Kuching Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Abang Muhammad Salahuddin  - Ketua Menteri Abdul Taib Mahmud History    - Brunei Sultanate 19th century   - Brooke dynasty 1841   - Japanese occupation 1941-1945   - British control 1946   - Accession into Malaysia 1963  Area  - Total 124,450... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


Removal from power

See also: Overthrow of Sukarno

On the night of September 30, 1965, six of Indonesia's top anti-communist generals were kidnapped, killed and thrown down a well at Lubang Buaya (literally translated : Crocodile Dungeons) Area, East Jakarta. While the PKI was blamed for instigating a supposed coup attempt, some evidence indicates Sukarno's supporters were behind it, fearing the rise of anti-communist factions, both inside the military and the country as a whole. One survivor, the staunchly anti-communist General Abdul Haris Nasution, escaped the murder plot, but lost his youngest daughter, Ade Irma Suryani Nasution, and his aide-de-camp, Lieutenant Pierre Tendean. The events and supposed coup plotters of that night are referred to as "G30S/PKI," an abbreviation of "Gerakan 30 September," or "the September 30th Movement." The overthrow of Sukarno and the violence that followed it was a conflict in Indonesia from 1965 to 1966 between forces loyal to then-President Sukarno and the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) and forces loyal to a right-wing military faction led by General Abdul Haris Nasution and Maj. ... Abdul Haris Nasution Abdul Haris Nasution (born Kotanopan 3 December 1918 - died Jakarta 5 September 2000) is an Indonesian general who escaped an assassination attempt during the military coup in 1965. ... Pierre Andries Tendean (Jakarta, February 21, 1939 - Jakarta, October 1, 1965) was a victim of the 30th September Movement (G30S) and is widely regarded as a national hero in Indonesia. ...


This brought an immediate retaliation from Major General Suharto, commander of the Army's strategic reserves, and the rest of the military, sparking a crackdown on the Communist Party. The army encouraged anti-communist organizations and individuals to join in killing anyone suspected of being a communist sympathizer. The killings were concentrated in Sumatra, East Java and Bali. By the time they petered out in 1966, an estimated half a million Indonesians had been slaughtered by soldiers, police and pro-Suharto vigilantes.[citation needed] The ethnic Chinese were also targeted, primarily for economic and racial reasons. The embassy of the PRC was overrun by demonstrators and looted. Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


An official CIA report called the purge "one of the worst mass murders of the 20th century."2 American diplomats 25 years later revealed that they had compiled lists of Indonesian "communist operatives" and had turned over as many as 5,000 names to the Indonesian military.[9] Robert Martens, former member of the US political embassy in Jakarta said in 1990: "It really was a big help to the army. They probably killed a lot of people, ... but that's not all bad. " Howard Fenderspiel, the Indonesia expert at the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research in 1965: "No one cared, as long as they were communists that were being butchered. No one was getting very worked up about it"3. Today, concrete evidence linking the PKI to the generals' assassinations is limited, leading to speculation that Sukarno organized the events and used the Communists as scapegoats. However, this is highly unlikely, given Sukarno's huge base of support in the PKI. [citation needed] Suharto is also a likely suspect, given his close ties to USA and the Western Powers. [citation needed] This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... The Communist Party of Indonesia (in Indonesian: Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI) was a communist party in Indonesia. ... Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ...


Sukarno's grip on power was weakened by the crisis, while Suharto used the situation to strengthen his own hand. On March 11, 1966, Suharto and his supporters in the military forced Sukarno to issue a Presidential Order called Supersemar (Surat Perintah Sebelas Maret -- The March 11 Order), in which Sukarno yielded all executive powers to Suharto in order to restore peace. After obtaining the Presidential Order, Suharto had the PKI abolished and declared them an illegal party. He also arrested many high ranking officials that were loyal to Sukarno on the charge of being a communist/PKI members and/or sympathizers, further reducing Sukarno's political power and influence. is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... The Supersemar, the Indonesian abbreviation for Surat Perintah Sebelas Maret (Order of March the Eleventh) was a document ostensibly signed by the Indonesian President Sukarno on March 11, 1966, giving the Army commander Lt. ...


In 1991 a government minister admitted that the national archives only possessed a copy of this letter, and in 1992 another government minister called for whoever is in possession of the original document to submit it to the national archives. However, there is testimony from several eyewitnesses who claim that such a document did exist and that the copy in the archives is a faithful reproduction of the original.


Sukarno was stripped of his presidential title by Indonesia's provisional parliament on March 12, 1967, led by his former ally, Nasution, and remained under house arrest until his death at age 69 in Jakarta in 1970. He was buried in Blitar, East Java, Indonesia. In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ... Blitar is a city (kota) and Regency of East Java, Indonesia. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ...


In recent decades, his grave has been a significant venue in the network of places that Javanese visit on ziarah and for some is of equal significance to those of the Wali Songo. Ziarah is an Islamic grave visiting tradition common throughout the countries where holy and sacred graves attract pilgrimage and calendrically appropriate visits. ... The nine walis were Sufi teachers who spread Islam and did all variety of powerful and unusual acts across Java. ...


Megawati Sukarnoputri, who served as the fifth president of Indonesia, is his daughter. Diah Permata Megawati Setiawati Soekarnoputri (born January 23, 1947), was President of Indonesia from July 2001 to October 20, 2004. ...


Speculation and theories

There is much speculation about who triggered the crisis that led to Sukarno's removal from power. While the semi-official version claims that the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) ordered the murders of the six generals, others blame Sukarno, and still others believe Suharto orchestrated the assassinations to remove potential rivals for the presidency4. See Overthrow of Sukarno article for further details and the Anderson Theory. The overthrow of Sukarno and the violence that followed it was a conflict in Indonesia from 1965 to 1966 between forces loyal to then-President Sukarno and the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) and forces loyal to a right-wing military faction led by General Abdul Haris Nasution and Maj. ...


There is also a theory that Sukarno was toppled by the United States because of his communist sympathies and ties to China and the Soviet Union. The PKI was the largest communist party at the time outside the Soviet Bloc and China and growing in influence. The administration of US President Lyndon Johnson had been vocal in its criticism of Sukarno's activities, and did not want the PKI to come to power in Indonesia. American support for Suharto can thus be seen as a US policy consistent with the Domino theory and the Gilchrist Document. Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Gilchrist Document is a much cited letter from 1965 often used to support arguments for Western involvement in the overthrow of Sukarno in Indonesia. ...


Several documentaries (from the BBC, ITV and independent journalists such as John Pilger's The New Rulers of the World) have also been made the last decades, on the CIA involvement, several of them long before the 1990s release of official CIA documents. Also South-East Asian human rights groups have been collecting material evidence and releasing it on the internet for several years.[citation needed] The New Rulers of the World is collection of essays by journalist John Pilger, published April 19, 2003. ...


Awards

The International Stalin Peace Prize (renamed Международная Ленинская премия «За укрепление мир&#1072...

See also

  • History of Indonesia

Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. ...

External links

Indonesia Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ...

References

General

  • Kahin, Audrey R. and George McT. "Subversion as Foreign Policy: The Secret Eisenhower and Dulles Debacle in Indonesia", The New Press, 1995.
  • Smith, Roger M (ed). Southeast Asia. Documents of Political Development and Change, Ithaca and London, 1974, pp. 174-183.
  • Blum, William. Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II, Black Rose, 1998, pp. 193-198
  • U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, Research Study: Indonesia -- The Coup that Backfired, 1968, p. 71n.
  • Robert Cribb, ‘Nation: Making Indonesia’, in Donald K. Emmerson (ed.), Indonesia Beyond Suharto: Polity, Economy, Society, Transition. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1999, pp.3-38
  • Andrew Roadnight, United States Policy towards Indonesia in the Truman and Eisenhower Years. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002
  • Bob Hering, 2001, Soekarno, architect of a nation, 1901-1970, KIT Publishers Amsterdam, ISBN 90-6832-510-8, KITLV Leiden, ISBN 90-6718-178-1
  • Oei Tjoe Tat, 1995, Memoar Oei Tjoe Tat: Pembantu Presiden Soekarno(The memoir of Oei Tjoe Tat, assistant to President Sukarno), Hasta Mitra, ISBN 979-8659-0-31 (banned in Indonesia)
  • Lambert J. Giebels, 1999, Soekarno. Nederlandsch onderdaan. Biografie 1901-1950. Biography part 1, Bert Bakker Amsterdam, ISBN 90-351-2114-7
  • Lambert J. Giebels, 2001, Soekarno. President, 1950-1970, Biography part 2, Bert Bakker Amsterdam, ISBN 90-351-2294-1 geb., ISBN 90-351-2325-5 pbk.
  • Lambert J. Giebels, 2005, De stille genocide: de fatale gebeurtenissen rond de val van de Indonesische president Soekarno, ISBN 90-351-2871-0
  • Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300. MacMillan. 0-333-57690-X. 

The KITLV or Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies at Leiden was founded in 1851. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Mrazek, Rudolf (2002). Engineers of Happy Land: Technology and Nationalism in a Colony. Princeton University Press, pp. 60-1, 123, 125, 148, 156, 191. ; Kusno, Abidin (2000). Behind the Postcolonial: Architecture, Urban Space and Political Cultures. Routledge. 
  2. ^ Sukarno; Adams, Cindy (1965). Sukarno: An Autobiography. Bobbs-Merrill, p. 92. ; Legge, John David. Sukarno: A Political Biography, pp. 101-102. ISBN 978-9814068642. 
  3. ^ Friend, Theodore (2003). Indonesian Destinies. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, p. 27. ISBN 0-674-01834-6. 
  4. ^ Friend, Theodore (1988). The Blue-Eyed Enemy: Japan Against the West in Java and Luzon 1942-1945. Princeton University Press, p. 82-84. ISBN 0691055246. 
  5. ^ Sukarno (1965). Sukarno: An Autobiography. Bobbs-Merrill, pp. 192.  cited in Friend, Theodore (2003). Indonesian Destinies. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, p. 29. ISBN 0-674-01834-6. ; Adams, Cindy (1967). My Friend the Dictator. Bobbs-Merrill, pp 184-186. 
  6. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 207
  7. ^ The National Revolution, 1945-50. Country Studies, Indonesia. U.S. Library of Congress.
  8. ^ ["Bung Karno" http://www.antenna.nl/wvi/eng/ic/pki/sal/salim.html]
  9. ^ Kathy Kadane, "Ex-agents say CIA compiled death lists for Indonesians", San Francisco Examiner, 20th May, 1990
Preceded by
none
President of Indonesia
1945–1967
Succeeded by
Suharto

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sukarno - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2811 words)
Sukarno was forced from power by one of his generals, Suharto, who formally became President in March 1967.
Sukarno's government initially refused to form a national army, for fear of antagonizing the Allied occupation forces and their doubt over whether they would have been able to form an adequate military apparatus to maintain control of seized territory.
Sukarno was stripped of his presidential title by Indonesia's provisional parliament on March 12, 1967, led by his former ally, Nasution, and remained under house arrest until his death at age 69 in Jakarta in 1970.
Sukarno - Wikipédia (1129 words)
Sukarno was forced from power by one of his Generals, Suharto, who was granted the formal title of President in March 1967.
Sukarno oge biasa disebut Ahmed Sukarno atawa Soekarno.
Sukarno was stripped of his presidential title by Indonesia's provisional parliament on March 12, 1967 and he remained under house arrest until his death at age 69 in Jakarta in 1970.
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