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Encyclopedia > Suicide bombing
Terrorism
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A suicide bombing is an attack using a bomb in which the individual(s) carrying the explosive materials composing the bomb intend(s) and expect(s) to die upon detonation (see suicide). Terrorism is not defined. ... Few words are as politically or emotionally charged as terrorism. ... There are eleven major multilateral international conventions related to states responsibilities for combating terrorism. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The following is a timeline of acts and failed attempts that can be considered terrorism. ... Nationalist terrorism is a form of terrorism through which participants attempt to form an independent state against what they consider an occupying, imperial, or otherwise illegitimate state. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Religious violence. ... Left-wing terrorism may be defined as violence committed by groups or individuals on the political left in order to achieve a political goal through the creation of fear. ... Right-wing terrorism, is reactionary violence to what is seen as perceived threats to a groups value system. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... State terrorism is a controversial term that is separate from the more common term state sponsored terrorism. ... Ethnically-motivated terrorism (also Ethnic terrorism or racial terrorism) involves frequent attacks on foreign-born immigrants and ethnic minorities, motivated by racism and xenophobic hatred. ... Narcoterrorism is a term coined by former President Belaunde Terry of Peru in 1983 when describing terrorist-type attacks against his nations anti-narcotics police. ... Domestic terrorism is a phrase used to describe some acts of political violence within a state that are carried out or commissioned by forces inside or originating from that state, as opposed to external attacks. ... The heyday of anarchist terrorism was from the 1870s to the 1920s. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Terrorism. ... The term eco-terrorism is a neologism which has been used to describe threats and acts of violence (both against people and against property), sabotage, vandalism, property damage and intimidation committed in the name of environmentalism. ... Aircraft hijacking (also known as Skyjacking) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. ... It has been suggested that Targeted killing be merged into this article or section. ... A car bomb is an improvised explosive device that is placed in a car or truck and is intended to be exploded while there. ... Bioterrorism is terrorism using germ warfare, an intentional human release of a naturally-occurring or human-modified toxin or biological agent. ... Nuclear terrorism can be used to describe any of the following terrorist assaults: Use of nuclear weapons against a civilian target Use of a radiological weapon or dirty bomb against a civilian target An attack against a nuclear power plant Some believe that no such act has ever taken place. ... Cyber-terrorism is the use of computers and information technology, particularly the Internet to cause harm of severe disruption with the aim of advancing the attackers own political goals. ... A terrorist front organization is created to conceal activities or provide logistical or financial support to the illegal activities. ... Lone-wolf terrorism takes place outside a command structure and may be unaccountable to the claimed collective cause of a group. ... Massive ordinance air-burst bomb. ... Preparing C-4 explosive This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... A weapons cache is detonated at the East River Range on Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan Detonation is a process of supersonic combustion that involves a shock wave and a reaction zone behind it. ... It has been suggested that Suicide and culture be merged into this article or section. ...


Suicide bombing is a kind of tactic planned and organized by extremely committed military or paramilitary groups. This tactic became widely known during the Second World War in the Pacific as Allied ships were attacked by Japanese kamikaze pilots who caused maximum damage by flying their explosive-laden aircraft into military targets. Since the 1980s, the low cost and high lethality of the tactic have made it a favorite with guerrilla, insurgent, and especially terrorist groups, notably in the Middle East and Sri Lanka. The Tamil Tigers were, as of 2000, "unequivocally the most effective and brutal terrorist organization ever to utilize suicide terrorism" (according to Yoram Schweitzer of the Institute for Counter-Terrorism in Israel: [2]); since the Tigers signed a cease-fire in 2001, suicide bombings by Islamist militants, mostly in the Al-Aqsa Intifada and the Iraqi insurgency, have been the most frequent and cumulatively destructive. The September 11, 2001 attacks used hijacked airplanes to become the largest and most destructive individual suicide bombings. Tactics is the collective name for methods of winning a small-scale conflict, performing an optimization, etc. ... Committeds Cast Committed is a sitcom on NBC. Cast members Main characters Nate Solomon – Josh Cooke Marni Fliss – Jennifer Finnigan Bowie James – Darius McCrary Tess – Tammy Lynn Michaels Clown – Tom Poston Other characters Todd – RonReaco Lee Episodes Spoiler warning: 1. ... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted as the largest and deadliest... The group of countries known as the Allies of World War II came together as World War II unfolded and progressed. ... A kamikaze, a Mitsubishi Zero in this case, about to hit the USS Missouri. ... An aircraft is any machine capable of atmospheric flight. ... The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... Guerrilla War redirects here. ... An insurgency is an organized rebellion that engages in deliberate actions to cause the downfall of a governmental authority, through destruction and armed actions. ... Terrorism is not defined. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... The word militant can refer to any individual engaged in warfare, a fight, combat, or generally serving as a soldier. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Iraqi militants celebrating orders that the surrounding Coalition forces were given to stand-down. ... The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of coordinated suicide attacks upon the United States of America carried out on Tuesday, September 11, 2001, in which hijackers took control of four U.S. domestic commercial airliners. ... Hijacking or highjacking is the forcible robbery from, or seizure of, a vehicle in transit. ...

Contents


Overview

Military historians classify suicide bombing as a form of armed violence, belonging to the tactics of asymmetric warfare — suicide bombings are only common when one side in a violent conflict lacks the means for effective, conventional attacks. The cost-benefit analysis, expressed here by Al Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri, is simple: "The method of martyrdom operation [is] the most successful way of inflicting damage against the opponent and the least costly to the mujahidin in terms of casualties" [3]. The strategic rationale may be military, political, or both; the target may be military, in which case the bombing is usually classified as an act of war, or civilian, in which case it is usually considered terrorism. Civilians are the favored targets, being easier to attack than fortified installations, armored vehicles, or armed and wary soldiers. The political message of the suicide bomber's dedication and fearlessness is potent, and the difficulty of deterring an attacker who is willing to die sparks greater fear than other forms of terrorism. The regular targeting of civilians, however, often calls into question the moral legitimacy, and often erodes the broader credibility, of the bomber's cause (although in some of the perpetrating group's base population, it may enhance those qualities). Violence refers to acts —typically connotative with aggressive and criminal behaviour —which intend to cause or is causing of injury to persons, animals, or (in limited cases) property. ... Asymmetric warfare is a military term describing warfare in which the two belligerents are mismatched in their military capabilities or their accustomed methods of engagement. ... Conflict is a state of opposition, disagreement or incompatibility between two or more people or groups of people, which is sometimes characterized by physical violence. ... Cost-benefit analysis is the process of weighing the total expected costs vs. ... Osama bin Laden, leader of al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (Arabic: , al-Qā‘idah; the foundation or the base) is the name given to an international Islamic fundamentalist campaign comprised of independent and collaborative cells that all profess the same cause of reducing outside influence upon Islamic affairs. ... Ayman al-Zawahiri Ayman al-Zawahiri (Arabic: ) (born June 19, 1951) is a prominent member of the al-Qaeda group and formerly the head of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, a terrorist organization. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... Casus belli is a Latin expression from the international law theory of Jus ad bellum. ... A civilian is a person who is not a member of a military. ... Nakhal Fort, one of the best-preserved forts in Oman. ... ... A soldier is a person who has enlisted with, or has been conscripted into, the armed forces of a sovereign country and has undergone training and received equipment (such as a uniform and weapon) to defend that country or its interests. ... Dedication (Lat. ... A moral is a one sentence remark made at the end of many childrens stories that expresses the intended meaning, or the moral message, of the tale. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and other particles) by the agents of wind, water, ice, movement in response to gravity, or living organisms (in the case of bioerosion). ...


The bombers themselves are for the most part young men (female suicide bombers are rare except among the Tamil Tigers, Chechen rebels and the Kurdistan Workers Party) from middle-class backgrounds in countries with little political freedom. They are usually well-educated and hold strong political or religious beliefs; they are generally not poverty-stricken or mentally ill, though some may have had difficult childhoods. The ritualistic communion of the extremist groups to which they belong ("lone wolf" suicide bombers are unknown), in addition to their strongly-held beliefs, helps motivate their decision to commit suicide; for the religious, e.g. Hamas, the rewards of an afterlife may provide additional impetus. Coercion and deception are occasionally factors. Though the majority of suicide bombers were and are male, female suicide bombers have carried out a number of attacks since 1985. ... Olivia Amador ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The examples and perspective in this article do not represent a worldwide view. ... Freedom is the right, or the capacity, of self-determination, as an expression of the individual will. ... Education is a social science that encompasses teaching and learning specific knowledge, beliefs and skills. ... The origins of the word religion have been debated for centuries. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... The Scream, the famous painting commonly thought of as depicting the experience of mental illness. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... Extremism is the act of taking a belief, political view or ideology to its most literal extreme. ... E.G. is an Australian only release EP from New Zealand four piece Goodshirt. ... The Hamas emblem shows two crossed swords, the Dome of the Rock, and a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip). ... The afterlife (or life after death) is a generic term referring to a continuation of existence, typically spiritual and experiential, beyond this world, or after death. ...

Suicide
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Chechen suicide bombing at Rizhskaya station of the Moscow Metro on August 30, 2004

Suicide attacks throughout history have taken various forms and have been encouraged by the lionization of those who laid down their lives for causes they deemed righteous. There are numerous examples, from Samson's suicidal destruction of a Philistine temple (as recounted in the Book of Judges) to the legendary Swiss hero Arnold von Winkelried to the Japanese kamikaze pilots of World War II. The first modern suicide bombing—involving explosives deliberately carried to the target either on the person or in a civilian vehicle and delivered by surprise—was in 1981; perfected by the factions of the Lebanese Civil War and especially by the Tamil Tigers of Sri Lanka, the tactic had spread to dozens of countries by 2005. Those hardest-hit were Lebanon during its civil war, Sri Lanka during its prolonged ethnic conflict, Israel and the Palestinian Territories since 1994, and Iraq since the invasion in 2003. It has been suggested that Suicide and culture be merged into this article or section. ... Teenage suicide is an act where a teenager commits suicide. ... Euthanasia (Greek: ευθανασία - ευ good, θανατος death) refers to assisted dying. ... A murder suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before, or while killing himself. ... Ritual suicide is the act of suicide motivated by a religious, spiritual, or traditional ritual. ... Mass suicide occurs when a number of people kill themselves together or for the same reason and is usually connected to a real or perceived persecution. ... Its when a bunch of people are convinced they want to kill themselves and do. ... An internet suicide is a suicide pact made between individuals who meet on the Internet. ... A copycat suicide is defined as a duplication or copycat of another suicide that the person attempting suicide knows about either from local knowledge or due to accounts or depictions of the original suicide on television and in other media. ... Forced suicide is a method of execution where the victim is given the choice of commiting suicide, or facing an alternative they perceive as worse - like suffering torture, or having friends or family members killed. ... Suicide-by-cop is a suicide method in which someone deliberately acts in a threatening way towards a law enforcement officer, with the main goal of provoking a lethal response (e. ... Suicide has been part of the history of the world - people of all walks of life had committed suicide over the year. ... See also: deaths by accidental drug overdose, people by cause of death This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... Kurt Cobains alleged suicide note. ... Suicide watch is the act of a prison officer making sure that a prisoner does not commit suicide because they show intentions of doing so. ... Various human cultures may have views on suicide not directly or solely linked to religious views of suicide. ... This page concerns suicide. ... Modern medical views on suicide consider suicide to be a mental health issue. ... There are a variety of philosophical views of suicide. ... There are a variety of religious views of suicide. ... The term right to die (also: Dying with Dignity) refers to various issues around the death of an individual when that person could continue to live with the aid of life support or in a diminished or enfeebled capacity. ... Wikipedia contains a list of crisis hotlines by country. ... Various suicide prevention strategies have been used: Promoting mental resilience through optimism and connectedness. ... List of crisis hotlines by country USA - 1-800-784-2433 (1-800-SUICIDE) National Hopeline Network USA - 1-800-273-8255 (1-800-273-TALK) National Suicide Prevention Lifeline Links http://www. ... Modern medical views on suicide consider suicide to be a mental health issue. ... Image File history File links Russian Suicide bomb,Ryzhskaya subway station,Aug30,2004 Fair Use This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links Russian Suicide bomb,Ryzhskaya subway station,Aug30,2004 Fair Use This work is copyrighted. ... Rizhskaya (Russian: Рижская) is a station on the Moscow Metros Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line. ... A current map of the Moscow Metro. ... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. ... Samson or Shimshon (שִׁמְשׁוֹן Of the sun (perhaps proclaiming he was radiant and mighty) or [One who] Serves [God], Standard Hebrew Å imÅ¡on, Tiberian Hebrew Å imšôn) is the third to last of the Judges of Israel mentioned in the Tanakh. ... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... The word temple has different meanings in the fields of architecture, religion, geography, anatomy, and education. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... 19th century painting of Winkelrieds deed by Konrad Grob. ... A kamikaze, a Mitsubishi Zero in this case, about to hit the USS Missouri. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted as the largest and deadliest... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A faction is a group of people connected by a shared belief or opinion within a larger group. ... For the civil conflict of 1958, see Lebanon crisis of 1958. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the civil conflict of 1958, see Lebanon crisis of 1958. ... The ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka is an ongoing conflict between the majority Sinhalese and minority Tamils on the island-nation of Sri Lanka. ... The West Bank The Gaza Strip The term Palestinian territories is used by many journalists as a collective name for the West Bank and the Gaza Strip — two territories in Palestine. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Combatants United States, United Kingdom, Australia, other nations Iraq Commanders U.S commander Saddam Hussien Strength Casualties The 2003 Invasion of Iraq began on March 20 comprising primarily United States and United Kingdom forces; 98% of the forces came from these two countries, although numerous other nations also participated. ...


Responses and reactions to suicide bombings are mixed, so that a full assessment of the action's impact—especially whether it helped or hindered the cause in whose name it was carried out—is difficult. The public response of politicians is usually one of determination and condemnation. Military and law enforcement are mobilized to disrupt or destroy the organization which planned the attack or, in Israel, to punish the families of bombers. Those who support the bomber's cause will often hold him up as a hero; militant Islamist groups like Al Qaeda, for example, lionize suicide bombers as Shahid, or 'martyr'. Public is of or pertaining to the people; belonging to the people; relating to, or affecting, a nation, state, or community; opposed to private; as, the public treasury, a road or lake. ... A politician is an individual involved in politics. ... For the band, see The Police. ... Mobilization or mobilisation is the act of assembling and making both troops and supplies ready for war. ... Collective punishment is a term describing the punishment of a group of people for the crime of a few or even of one. ... The word militant can refer to any individual engaged in warfare, a fight, combat, or generally serving as a soldier. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Osama bin Laden, leader of al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (Arabic: , al-Qā‘idah; the foundation or the base) is the name given to an international Islamic fundamentalist campaign comprised of independent and collaborative cells that all profess the same cause of reducing outside influence upon Islamic affairs. ...


The term dates back to the 1940s, when it was used in reference to certain German and Japanese battle tactics, but did not gain its present meaning until 1981. Various alternate terms have been used to frame the act differently: the Islamist use of shahid for the bomber or martyrdom operation for the bombing emphasize the self-sacrificial aspects, while the term "homicide bombing" (preferred phraseology of the George W. Bush Administration and right-leaning media outlets such as the News Corporation) emphasizes the fact that the bomber kills others. // Events and trends World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atomic bomb. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In communication theory, and sociology, framing is a process of selective control over media content or public communication. ... A martyrdom operation is a suicide bombing. ... Homicide is the killing of another human being by one or more others. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... Look up Administration on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The word administration is from the Old English administracioun, deriving from the French administration, which is itself derived from the Latin administratio: a compounding of ad (to) and ministratio (to give service). In modern usage, the word has particular meanings in particular... News Corporation (abbreviated to News Corp) NYSE: NWS is one of the worlds largest media conglomerates. ...


Tactics

Suicide bombing usually (but not always) targets poorly-guarded, non-military facilities and personnel. It can be either a military tactic, a political one, or a mixture of the two. It may qualify as terrorism when the intention is to kill, maim or terrorise a predominantly civilian target population, or fall within the definition of an act of war when it is committed against a military target under war conditions. In telecommunication, the term facility has the following meanings: 1. ... Human Resources has at least two meanings depending on context. ... Terrorism is not defined. ...

Explosive belt of a Palestinian suicide bomber, captured by the Israeli Police. Anti-terrorism intelligence claims such suicide bomber clothing is designed by a person they call The Tailor of Death.
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Explosive belt of a Palestinian suicide bomber, captured by the Israeli Police. Anti-terrorism intelligence claims such suicide bomber clothing is designed by a person they call The Tailor of Death.

As a political tactic, suicide bombings send a message of impassioned opposition to enemy forces (that the bomber is willing to die for his or her cause) and a message of desperate recklessness to third parties (that the bomber feels the justice of the cause so strongly that he would rather die than submit and that he is giving little thought to the danger). However, it may backfire, as suicide bombings ignite rage and hatred and undermine the belief in the humanity of those who perpetrate them. Explosive belt Scanned from Israeli Police Terror, Lets Stop It Together brochure. ... Explosive belt Scanned from Israeli Police Terror, Lets Stop It Together brochure. ... An explosive belt (also called suicide belt or shaheed belt) is a vest packed with explosives (and often also with nails, screws, bolts and other objects to serve as shrapnel to maximize the number of casualties) and a detonator that is worn by suicide bombers. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... (See also List of types of clothing and Clothing terminology) Humans nearly universally wear articles of clothing (also known as dress, garments, attire, or apparel) on the body. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ...


When used against civilian targets, suicide bombing usually causes fear in the target population greater than that caused by other forms of terrorism, as the fact that the bomber intends to die makes deterrents ineffective. However, use against civilian targets has differing effects on their goals (see reaction below). Some economists suggest that this tactic goes beyond symbolism and is actually a response to commodified, controlled, or devalued lives, as the suicide bombers apparently consider family prestige and financial compensation from the community as compensation for their own lives. This is an alphabetical list of well-known economists. ... FUCKING BULLSHIT!! The value of life is an economic or moral value assigned to life in general, or to specific living organisms. ...


The doctrine of asymmetric warfare views suicide bombing as an imbalance of power, in which groups with little significant power resort to suicide bombing as a response to actions or policies of a group with greater power. Groups which have significant power have no need to resort to suicide bombing to achieve their aims; consequently, suicide bombing is overwhelmingly used by guerrilla, and other irregular fighting forces. Among many such groups, there are religious overtones: bombers and their supporters may believe that their sacrifice will be rewarded in an afterlife. Suicide bombers often believe that their actions are in accordance with moral or social standards because they are aimed at fighting forces and conditions that they perceive as unjust. Military doctrine is a level of military planning between national strategy and unit-level tactics, techniques, and procedures. ... Distinguish from the type of ape called a gorilla. ... Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century Irregular military refers to any non-standard military. ... The afterlife (or life after death) is a generic term referring to a continuation of existence, typically spiritual and experiential, beyond this world, or after death. ...


Profile of a bomber

A common reaction to a suicide bomber is to assume that he (or rarely she) was motivated by despair, and probably hailed from a poor, neglected segment of society. Both President George W. Bush and the Dalai Lama have made this claim. However, anthropologist Scott Atran found in a 2003 study that this is not a justifiable conclusion. A recently published paper by Harvard University Professor of Public Policy Alberto Abadie "cast[s] doubt on the widely held belief that terrorism stems from poverty, finding instead that terrorist violence is related to a nation's level of political freedom." [4] More specifically this is due to the transition of countries towards democratic freedoms. "Intermediate levels of political freedom are often experienced during times of political transitions, when governments are weak, political instability is elevated, so conditions are favorable for the appearance of terrorism" Quote Original Paper. A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... The 14th and current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (born 1935) The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933) In Tibetan Buddhism, the successive Dalai Lamas (taa-lai bla-ma) form a tulku lineage of Gelugpa leaders which trace back to 1391. ... Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος, human) consists of the study of humankind (see genus Homo). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... Alberto Abadie is a professor at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. ...


In fact, most bombers are educated, many with college or university experience, and come from middle class homes. Most suicide bombers do not show signs of psychopathology. Indeed, leaders of the groups who perpetrate these attacks search for individuals who can be trusted to carry out the mission; those with mental illnesses are not ideal candidates. They often find solace in the ritualistic communion found in extremist circles, which are often headed by charismatic individuals looking for new recruits. The term college (Latin collegium) is most often used today to denote an educational institution. ... // History Because of the above definition, the oldest universities in the world were all European, as the awarding of academic degrees was not a custom of older institutions of learning in Asia and Africa. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress the manifestation of behaviours and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. ... The word charisma (from the Greek word kharisma, gift or divine favor, from kharizesthai, to favor, from kharis, favor), is often used to describe an ability to charm or influence people. ... Recruit (from the French recrue, from the verb recroître to grow again, i. ...


It has also been observed that some suicide bombers were coerced or possibly deceived about the nature of the operation. Some counter-intelligence specialists believe that a number of the September 11th hijackers may not have known that they were embarking on a suicide mission. Cases of Middle Eastern suicide bombers being chained or tied to the steering wheel of vehicles carrying bombs or remotely detonating the said vehicles with drivers inside, and also of outfitting developmentally disabled individuals (specifically those with Down's syndrome) with suicide bomb vests, are hotly debated issues. Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years). ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub | Crimes | Terrorism | IT ... Debate, also debating outside the United States and Canada, is a formalized system of (usually) logical argument. ...


History

Background

The concept of self-sacrifice has long been a part of war. From the earliest days of honoring fallen soldiers as heroes, those who sacrifice themselves to further a political, moral, or cultural ideology have been and are still highly regarded figures in their respective societies. Soldiers who lay down their lives to protect their comrades are commonly awarded the highest recognition for courage in battle, while those who survive combat are honored for their physical and psychological sacrifice. An example for such self-sacrifice in warfare in medieval legend is Arnold von Winkelried. The earliest reference of a suicide attack outside a context of warfare is the biblical story of Samson: This article is about the type of character. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... Courage is the ability to confront fear in the face of pain, danger, uncertainty or intimidation. ... 19th century painting of Winkelrieds deed by Konrad Grob. ... Samson or Shimshon (שִׁמְשׁוֹן Of the sun (perhaps proclaiming he was radiant and mighty) or [One who] Serves [God], Standard Hebrew Šimšon, Tiberian Hebrew Šimšôn) is the third to last of the Judges of Israel mentioned in the Tanakh. ...

And Samson said, 'Let me die with the Philistines!' And he bowed himself with all his might; and the house fell upon the lords, and upon all the people that were therein. So the dead which he slew at his death were more than they which he slew in his life. (Judges 16:30)

During the Crusades, the Knights Templar destroyed one of their own ships, killing 140 Christians in order to kill ten times as many Muslims. Another early example of suicide bombing occurred during the Belgian Revolution, when the Dutch Lieutenant Jan van Speijk detonated his own ship in the harbour of Antwerp to prevent being captured by the Belgians. Book of Judges (Hebrew: ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... Knights Templar The largest, and most powerful of the Christian military orders, the Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon, originally named The Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple which is in Jerusalem is widely known as the Knights Templar. ... As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Egide Charles Gustave Wappers (1834), in the Musée dArt Ancien, Brussels The Belgian Revolution was a conflict in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands that began with a riot in Brussels in August 1830 and eventually led to the establishment of... A Lieutenant is a military, paramilitary or police officer. ... Van Speyk shoots at a barrel of gunpowder, detonating his own ship. ... A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ... The Cathedral of our Lady (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal, Antwerp) in the Handschoenmarkt, in the old quarter of Antwerp is the largest cathedral in the Low Countries and home to a number of triptychs by Renaissance Belgian painter Rubens. ...


The act of deliberately destroying oneself to inflict harm on an enemy is more restricted to modern times and the era of explosives. The line between the two is considered by some a matter of subjectivity, as in the argument that many WWII soldiers killed were "martyrs" (in the sense that they were to suffer for the sake of a principle, rather than dying as the penalty for refusing to renounce a belief) because their life expectancy in combat was very low—often averaging only two or three months. Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for their religious faith, such as when the early Christians were persecuted by the Roman Empire. ...


The ritual act of self-sacrifice during combat appeared in a large scale at the end of World War II with the Japanese kamikaze bombers. In these attacks, airplanes were used as flying bombs. Later in the war, as Japan became more desperate, this act became formalized and ritualized, as planes were outfitted with explosives specific to the task of a suicide mission. Kamikaze strikes were a weapon of symmetric war used by the Empire of Japan chiefly against United States Navy aircraft carriers. Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted as the largest and deadliest... A kamikaze, a Mitsubishi Zero in this case, about to hit the USS Missouri. ... Flag of Imperial Japan The Empire of Japan (: 大日本帝國; Shinjitai: 大日本帝国; pronounced Dai Nippon Teikoku) commonly refers to Japan from the Meiji Restoration until the end of World War II. Politically, it covers the period from the enforced establishment of prefectures in place of feudal domains (廃藩置県; Hai-han Chi-ken) in July... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... An aircraft carrier is a warship whose main role is to deploy and recover aircraft—in effect acting as a sea-going airbase. ...


The Japanese Navy also used both one and two man piloted torpedoes called kaiten on suicide missions. Although sometimes called midget submarines, these were modified versions of the unmanned torpedoes of the time and are distinct from the torpedo-firing midget submarines used earlier in the war, which were designed to infiltrate shore defences and return to a mother ship after firing their torpedoes. Though extremely hazardous, these midget submarine attacks were not technically suicide missions; while the early kaiten were equipped with escape hatches, there is no evidence that they were ever used or that the pilots had any intention of using them. Later kaitens, by contrast, provided no means of escape. A torpedo in Rail terminology refers to a small explosive device strapped to the top of the rail to alert an approaching train of immediate danger ahead. ... The Kaiten (Japanese:回天) was a torpedo modified as a suicide weapon, and used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the final stages of the Second World War. ... German midget submarine Seehund, with a torpedo A midget submarine is a small submarine, typically with a one or two person crew and with no on-board living accommodation. ... See: espionage, urban exploration, entryism, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. ... Shore A shore or shoreline is the land at the edge of a large body of water, such as an ocean, sea, or lake. ... A mother ship is a vessel or aircraft that carries a smaller vessel or aircraft that operates independently from it. ...


After aiming a two-person kaiten at their target, the two crew members traditionally embraced and shot each other in the head. Social support for such choices was strong, due in part to Japanese cultural history, in which seppuku, honorable suicide, was part of samurai duty. It was also fostered and indoctrinated by the Imperial program to persuade, often through coercion (such as through doping), the Japanese soldiers to commit these acts. Seppuku with ritual attire and second (staged) General Akashi Gidayu preparing to commit Seppuku after losing a battle for his master in 1582. ... Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ... // Ethics Duty is a term loosely applied to any action (or course of action) which is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ... Persuasion is a form of influence. ... Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to act by employing threat of harm (usually physical force, sometimes other forms of harm). ...


Following World War II, Viet Minh "death volunteers" were used against the French colonial army. The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... Army (from French armée) can, in some countries, refer to any armed force. ...


In 1972 in the hall of the Lod airport in Tel-Aviv (Israel), three Japanese used grenades and automatic rifles to kill 26 people and wound more than a hundred. The group belonged to the Japanese Red Army (JRA) a terrorist organization created in 1969 and allied to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). Until then, no group involved in terrorism has previously conducted such a suicide operation in Israel. Other members of the JRA became instructors in martial art and Kamikaze operations at several Hezbollah training camps bringing the suicide techniques to the middle-east. 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... Front view of Terminal 1 at Ben Gurion International Airport Ben Gurion International Airport or Ben Gurion Airport, (named for David Ben-Gurion), located near Lod and once known as Lod Airport, is 15 km southeast of Tel Aviv, and is the largest international airport in Israel. ... Tel-Aviv Coat of arms Tel Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... An automatic rifle is a term used to describe a full-sized, full-powered military rifle capable of fully-automatic fire; a type of automatic firearm. ... The Japanese Red Army (日本赤軍, Nihon Sekigun) (JRA) is an international organisation founded by Ms. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday For other uses, see Number 1969. ... An alliance can be: an agreement between two parties, made in order to advance common goals and to secure common interests. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Arabic الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين - al-Jabhah al-Shaabiyah li-Tahrīr Filasṭīn) is a secular, Marxist-Leninist, nationalist Palestinian organization, founded after the Six-Day War in 1967. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... A kamikaze, a Mitsubishi Zero in this case, about to hit the USS Missouri. ... The Hezbollah flag Hezbollah (Arabic ‮حزب الله‬, meaning Party of God, for other designations or alternative spellings, see name part of this article) is a Shia Islamist group in Lebanon founded in 1982 to fight the Israeli occupation in southern Lebanon. ... The traditional Middle East and the G8s Greater Middle East. ...


1980s to present

Lebanon, during its civil war, saw the first modern suicide bombing: the Islamic Dawa Party's car bombing of the Iraqi embassy in Beirut, in December 1981. Hezbollah's bombing of the U.S. embassy in April 1983 and attack on United States Marine and French barracks in October 1983 brought suicide bombings international attention. Other parties to the civil war were quick to adopt the tactic, and by 1999 factions such as Hezbollah, the Amal Movement, the Ba'ath Party, and the Syrian Social Nationalist Party (which sent the first female suicide bomber in 1986) had carried out around 50 suicide bombings between them. Hezbollah was the only one to attack overseas, bombing the Israeli embassy (and possibly the Argentine-Israeli Mutual Association building) in Buenos Aires; as its military and political power have grown, it has since abandoned the tactic. For the civil conflict of 1958, see Lebanon crisis of 1958. ... The Islamic Dawa Party (Arabic حزب الدعوة الإسلامية al-Dawa al-Islamiyya) is an Iraqi political organization. ... A car bomb is an improvised explosive device that is placed in a car or truck and is intended to be exploded while there. ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... Central Beirut (2004) Beirut (Arabic: , transliterated Bayrūt - the French name, Beyrouth, was also commonly used in English in the past) is the capital, largest city and chief seaport of Lebanon. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hezbollah flag Hezbollah (Arabic ‮حزب الله‬, meaning Party of God, for other designations or alternative spellings, see name part of this article) is a Shia Islamist group in Lebanon founded in 1982 to fight the Israeli occupation in southern Lebanon. ... The April 18, 1983, suicide bombing of the United States Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon was the deadliest attack on a US displomatic mission to that time, and is seen by some as marking the beginning of anti-US attacks by Islamic groups. ... The mushroom cloud after the attack. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... For other uses of Amal, see the disambiguation page. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... SSNP flag The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (Arabic: al-Hizb al-Suri al-Qawmi al-Ijtimai, often referred to in French as Parti Populaire Syrien) is a nationalist political party that advocates the establishment of a Greater Syrian national state. ... Though the majority of suicide bombers were and are male, female suicide bombers have carried out a number of attacks since 1985. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Israeli Embassy Attack in Buenos Aires was a bomb attack against the Israels embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... The AMIA bombing was an attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (Argentine-Israeli Mutual Association, or AMIA) building. ... Buenos Aires (Good Airs in Spanish, originally meaning Fair Winds) is the capital of Argentina and its largest city and port, as well as one of the largest cities in Latin America. ...


Lebanon saw the first bombing, but it was the Tamil Tigers who perfected the tactic and inspired its use elsewhere. Their Black Tiger unit have committed between 76 and 168 (estimates vary) suicide bombings since 1987, using more than 240 attackers. Their victims included former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi (killed by Thenmuli Rajaratnam), many prominent Lankan leaders (among them the late PM Ranasinghe Premadasa), Colombo's Central Bank, and even warships. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Black Tigers are special operatives of the LTTE that commit suicide if needed to reach their objectives. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the government of India. ... Rajiv Gandhi (राजीव गान्धी) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the first son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the Prime Minister of India from his mothers death on October 31, 1984 until his resignation on December 2, 1989 following a general election defeat. ... Thenmuli Rajaratnam was the assassin who killed Rajiv Gandhi, herself, and 16 others in a suicide bombing on May 21, 1991, in the Indian town of Sriperumbudur, near Madras. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Nickname: {{{nickname}}} Motto: {{{motto}}} Official website: [2] Location [[Image:|250px|Location of Colombo]] Government Colombo Division, Colombo District Mayor Prassanna Gunawardena (United National Party) Geographical characteristics Area 14. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga class cruiser. ...


In Northern Ireland, in the early 1990s, the IRA forced men to become suicide bombers by threatening their families. The men were forced to drive vehicles containing bombs at British army or Royal Ulster Constabulary bases. official_languages = Englishde facto5| Dieu et mon droit (Royal motto) (French for God and my right)3 Northern Irelands location within the UK Official languages English, Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Area  - Total Ranked 4th 13,843 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked... The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive, the last decade of the 20th Century. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ...


Suicide bombing has, since 1993, been a particularly popular tactic amongst some Palestinian groups, including Hamas, Islamic Jihad, and the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade. Bombers affiliated with these groups often use so-called "suicide belts", explosive devices (often including shrapnel) designed to be strapped to the body under clothing. In order to maximize the loss of life, the bombers may seek out cafés or city buses crowded with people at rush hour, or less commonly a military target (for example, soldiers waiting for transport at roadside). By seeking enclosed locations, a successful bomber usually kills a number of people. 1993 (MCMXCIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... The Hamas emblem shows two crossed swords, the Dome of the Rock, and a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip). ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... The Al_Aqsa Martyrs Brigades (كتائب شهداء الاقصى) are one of the militias of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafats al_Fatah faction. ... An explosive belt (also called suicide belt) is a vest packed with explosives (sometimes with nails, screws, bolts and other objects to maximize the number of casualties) and a detonator that is worn by suicide bombers. ... Explosive devices, as used by terrorists, guerrillas or commando forces, are formally known as Improvised Explosive Devices or IEDs. ... Shrapnel is the collective term for fragments and debris thrown out by an exploding shell or landmine. ... TheBus, established by Mayor Frank Fasi, is Honolulus only public transit system. ... Rush hour in a city A rush hour is a part of the day with busy traffic and hence traffic congestion on the roads and crowded public transport; normally the two periods in a day when people are travelling to or from work or school. ...


Palestinian television has aired a number of music videos and announcements that promote eternal reward for children who seek "shahada" [5], which Palestinian Media Watch has claimed is "Islamic motivation of suicide terrorists".[6] The Chicago Tribune has documented the concern of Palestinian parents that their children are encouraged to take part in suicide operations.[7] Israeli sources have also alleged that Hamas, Islamic Jihad and Fatah operate "Paradise Camps," training children as young as 11 to become suicide bombers. [8][9] A music video (also video clip, promo) is a short film or video meant to present a visual representation of a popular music song. ... Promotion may mean: Promotion (chess), a term used in the game of chess Promotion (marketing), a marketing term Promotion (rank), an increase in position in a hierarchy Promotion (academic), German academic degree that is roughly equivalent to the Ph. ... Eternal links here. ... There is also a town called Shāhāda, which is now in Nandurbār district (formerly in Dhule district) in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India. ... Front page of the Tribune incorrectly reporting that Dewey won the 1948 presidential election The Chicago Tribune, formerly self-styled as the Worlds Greatest Newspaper, remains the leading newspaper of the Midwest of the United States. ...


(The first explosive suicide attack of the modern Israeli-Palestinian conflict, interestingly, was carried out by a Japanese Marxist. In 1972 Tsuyoshi Okudaira, part of the Japanese Red Army, deliberately killed himself with a grenade during the Lod Airport Massacre. The attack only superficially resembled a modern suicide bombing: its primary weapons were guns and thrown grenades, and Okudaira only blew himself up when in danger of capture.) 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... The Japanese Red Army (日本赤軍, Nihon Sekigun) (JRA) is an international organisation founded by Ms. ... On May 30, 1972 three members of the Japanese Red Army undertook a terrorist attack in Lod Airport in Tel Aviv on behalf of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. ...


The September 11, 2001 attacks involved the hijacking of large passenger jets which were deliberately flown into the towers of the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon, killing everyone aboard the planes and thousands more in and around the targeted buildings, thus making it one of the most destructive suicide attacks in history. The passenger jets selected were required to be fully fueled to fly cross-country, turning the planes themselves into the largest suicide bombs in history. The 'September 11' attacks also had a vast economic and political impact: for the cost of the lives of the 19 hijackers and financial expenditure of around US$100,000, al-Qaeda, the militant Islamist group responsible for the attacks, effected a trillion-dollar drop in global markets within one week, and triggered massive increases in military and security expenditure in response. The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of coordinated suicide attacks upon the United States of America carried out on Tuesday, September 11, 2001, in which hijackers took control of four U.S. domestic commercial airliners. ... Hijacking or highjacking is the forcible robbery from, or seizure of, a vehicle in transit. ... A jet is a stream of fluid produced by discharge through an orifice into free space. ... The World Trade Center in New York City (sometimes informally referred to as the WTC) was a complex of seven buildings designed by Japanese-American architect Minoru Yamasaki and leased by Larry Silverstein from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey around a central plaza, near the south... The construction of the Empire State Building, 1930. ... A pre-9/11 view of The Pentagon, looking east with the Potomac River and Washington Monument in the distance. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... The word militant can refer to any individual engaged in warfare, a fight, combat, or generally serving as a soldier. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ...


In December 22, 2001, Richard Reid attempted to destroy the American Airlines Flight 63 by the means of a bomb hidden in a shoe. He was arrested after his attempt was foiled when he was unable to light the bomb's fuse. December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Richard Reid, in a prison photograph Richard Colvin Reid (born August 12, 1973), also known as the shoe bomber, is a British citizen born in Bromley, South London and a Muslim allegedly working for Al-Qaeda. ... Matt Lauer with the crew of Flight 63, the Shoebomber flight. ... In an explosive device, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that causes it to function. ...


After the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, local insurgents carried out waves of suicide bombings. They attacked United States military targets, although many civilian targets (eg. Shiite mosques, international offices of the UN and the Red Cross, Iraqi men waiting to apply for jobs with the new army and police force) were also attacked. In the lead up to the Iraqi parliamentary election, on January 30, 2005, suicide attacks upon civilian and security personnel involved with the elections increased, and there were reports of the insurgents co-opting disabled people as involuntary suicide bombers [10]. ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq without the explicit backing of the United... Iraqi militants celebrating orders that the surrounding Coalition forces were given to stand-down. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... // Mosque; Aswan, Egypt. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Iraqi police officers hold up their index fingers marked with purple indelible ink, a security measure to prevent double voting. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ...

The suicide bombers caught on CCTV at Luton train station at 07:21 BST on July 7, 2005. From left to right, Hasib Hussain, Germaine Lindsay, Mohammad Sidique Khan, and Shehzad Tanweer [1]. (Image: Crown copyright)
The suicide bombers caught on CCTV at Luton train station at 07:21 BST on July 7, 2005. From left to right, Hasib Hussain, Germaine Lindsay, Mohammad Sidique Khan, and Shehzad Tanweer [1]. (Image: Crown copyright)

Suicide bombings have occurred in more than 30 countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Bangladesh, Chechnya, China, Colombia, Croatia, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, the Palestinian territories, Panama, the Philippines, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, and Yemen. (Suicide planes were also used in the United States). Image File history File links This image is protected by British Crown copyright. ... Image File history File links This image is protected by British Crown copyright. ... A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death (see suicide, suicide weapons). ... Luton is a town and local government district in England, located 50km north of central London. ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street station in 1865. ... Hasib Hussain Hasib Mir Hussain (September 16, 1986 – July 7, 2005) was one of four men believed to have blown up three trains on the London Underground, and one bus in central London, during the 7 July 2005 London bombings. ... Jamal Lindsay (c. ... Mohammad Sidique Khan at Hillside Primary School in 2002. ... Shehzad Tanweer The four men caught on camera at Luton train station at 07:21 BST on July 7, 2005. ... Crown copyright is a form of copyright claim used by the governments of the United Kingdom and some of its former colonies. ... Capital Grozny Area - total - % water 78th - 15,500 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density 49th - est. ... The West Bank The Gaza Strip The term Palestinian territories is used by many journalists as a collective name for the West Bank and the Gaza Strip — two territories in Palestine. ...


Range of opinions

World leaders, especially those of countries that experience suicide bombings, usually express resolve to continue on their previous course of affairs after such attacks. They denounce suicide bombings and sometimes vow not to let such bombings deter ordinary people from going about their everyday business.


Suicide bombings in Israel are usually followed by reprisals. As a successful suicide bomber cannot be targeted, the response is often collective punishment of the community, family, or organization from which the bomber came. Under the claim that such individuals and groups gave support to the suicide bomber, Israel often retaliates with military strikes against individuals as well as infrastructure. In the West Bank the IDF usually demolish homes that belong to families whose children have volunteered for such missions. There are reports in the Israeli press about families who turned in their children after learning about a possible suicide bombing attack, fearful their house would be demolished. In warfare, a reprisal is a limited and deliberate violation of the laws of war to punish an enemy for breaking the laws of war. ... Collective punishment is a term describing the punishment of a group of people for the crime of a few or even of one. ... ... A family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family is a domestic group of people, or a number of domestic groups, typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by comparable legal relationships including domestic partnership, adoption, surname and in some cases ownership (as was the case in the Roman... An organization (U.S. spelling) or organisation (U.K. spelling) is a formal group of people with one or more shared goals. ... IDF or idf may refer to: the International Diabetes Federation the Israel Defense Forces the AIDC Ching-kuo Indigenous Defence Fighter of Taiwan. ... A massive crane is used to demolish this tower block in northern England Demolition is the opposite of construction: the tearing-down of buildings and other structures. ...


The effectiveness of suicide bombings—notably those of the Japanese kamikazes, the Palestinian bombers, and even the September 11, 2001 attacks—is debatable. Although kamikaze attacks could not stop the Allied advance the Pacific, they inflicted more casualties and delayed the fall of Japan for longer than might have been the case using only the conventional methods available to the Japanese Empire. Subsequently, Japanese leaders acknowledged the great cost in losing many of their best young men in these actions. The attacks reinforced the resolution of the World War II Allies to destroy the Imperial force, and may have had a significant effect in the decision to use atomic bombs against Japan. A kamikaze, a Mitsubishi Zero in this case, about to hit the USS Missouri. ... The group of countries known as the Allies of World War II came together as World War II unfolded and progressed. ... US landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Pacific War occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in Asia. ... His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito of Japan The Emperor of Japan (天皇, tennō) is Japans titular head of state and the head of the Japanese imperial family. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted as the largest and deadliest... Citizens of Hiroshima walk by the A-Bomb Dome, the closest building to have survived the citys atomic bombing. ...


In the case of the September 11th attacks, the long-term effects remain to be seen, but in the short-to-medium term, the results were profoundly negative for Al-Qaeda as well as for the Taliban. Furthermore, since the September 11 attacks, Western nations have diverted massive resources towards stopping similar actions, as well as tightening up borders, and military actions against various countries that the US and its allies believe to have been involved with terrorism. However critics of the War on Terrorism suggest that in fact the results were profoundly positive, as the proceeding actions of the United States and other countries has increased the number of recruits, and their willingness to carry out suicide bombings. Flag flown by the Taliban. ... Border has several different, but related meanings: // Generic borders A border can consist of a margin around the edge of something, such as a lawn, garden, photograph, or sheet of paper. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: United States Wikinews has news related to this article: United States United States government CIA World Factbook Entry for United States House. ... The War on Terrorism (TWOT) or War on Terror (in U.S. foreign policy circles, the global war on terrorism or GWOT ) is a campaign by the United States government and some of its allies with the stated goal of ending worldwide terrorism by stopping terrorist groups and ending state...


It is more difficult to determine whether Palestinian suicide bombings have proved to be a successful tactic. In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the suicide bombers were repeatedly deployed since the Oslo Accords. [11] In 1996, the Israelis elected the conservative candidate Benjamin Netanyahu who promised to restore safety by conditioning every step in the peace process on Israel's assessment of the Palestinian Authority's fulfillment of its obligations in curbing violence as outlined in the Oslo agreements. Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... The Oslo Accords, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles (DOP), were finalized in Oslo, Norway on August 20, 1993, and subsequently officially signed at a public ceremony in Washington D.C. on September 13, 1993, with Yasser Arafat signing for the... 1996 (MCMXCVI) is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... ▶ (help· info) (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין נְתַנְיָהוּ (without niqqud: בנימין נתניהו), Hebrew transliteration written in English: Binyamin Netanyahu, nicknamed Bibi) (born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel. ... The peace process describes efforts by interested parties to effect a lasting solution to long-running conflicts, such as in Northern Ireland (see Belfast Agreement) or the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ...


In the course of Al-Aqsa Intifada which followed the collapse of the Camp David II summit between the PLO and Israel, the number of suicide attacks drastically increased. In response, Israel mobilized its army in order to seal off the Gaza Strip and reinstate military control of the West Bank, patrolling the area with tanks. The Israelis also began a campaign of targeted assassinations to kill militant Palestinian leaders, using jets and helicopters to deploy high-precision bombs and missiles. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... Mobilization or mobilisation is the act of assembling and making both troops and supplies ready for war. ... assassin, see Assassin (disambiguation) Jack Ruby assassinated Lee Harvey Oswald in a very public manner. ... The word militant can refer to any individual engaged in warfare, a fight, combat, or generally serving as a soldier. ... The Bell 206 of Canadian Helicopters Robinson Helicopter Company (USA) R44, a four seat development of the R22 A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors (propellers). ... Precision bombing is the desired skill of being able to bomb single buildings in a built up area, without causing any damage to the surrounding buildings, or the ability to place a bomb by air to within extremely accurate limits. ...


The suicide missions, having killed hundreds and maimed thousands of Israelis, are believed by some to have brought on a move to the political right, increasing public support for hard-line policies towards the Palestinians, and a government headed by the former general, prime minister Ariel Sharon. In response to the suicide bombings, Sharon's government has imposed restrictions on the Palestinian community, making commerce, travel, school, and other aspects of life difficult for the Palestinians, with the average Palestinian suffering due to the choices of the suicide bombers. The Separation barrier under construction seem to be part of the Israeli government's efforts to stop suicide bombers from entering Israel proper. General is a high military rank, used by nearly every country in the world. ... Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister A prime minister may be either: chief or leading member of the cabinet of the top-level government in a country having a parliamentary system of government; or the official, in countries with a semi-presidential system of government, appointed to manage the... For more detail of Sharons recent illness, see Illnesses of Ariel Sharon; for an overview, see Health problems ▶ (help· info) (Hebrew: אריאל שרון) (born February 27, 1928) is the eleventh and current Prime Minister of Israel, serving from March 2001. ... Separation barriers (separation walls, security fences) are constructed to prevent the movement of people across a certain line or border or to separate two populations. ...


Social support by some for this activity remained, however, as of the calling of a truce at the end of June 2003. This may be due to the economic or social purpose of the suicide bombing and the bombers' refusal to accept external judgements on those who sanction them. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


If the objective is to kill as many people as possible, suicide bombing by terrorists may thus "work" as a tactic in that it costs fewer lives than any conventional military tactic and targeting unarmed civilians is much easier than targeting soldiers. As an objective designed to achieve some form of favorable outcome, especially a political outcome, most believe it to be a failure. Terrorist campaigns involving the targeting of civilians have never won a war. Analysts believe that in order to win or succeed, any guerrilla or terrorist campaign must first transform into something more than a guerrilla or terrorist movement.[12] Such analysts believe that a terrorist cause has little political attraction and success may be achieved only by renouncing terrorism and transforming the passions into politics. Terrorism is the unconventional use of violence for political gain. ... Terrorism is the unconventional use of violence for political gain. ...


At the present time, however, suicide bombings are likely to remain the favored method of operation for Palestinian terrorists, as long as they are outclassed militarily by Israel. As Hamas leader Sheikh Ahmad Yassin put it, "Once we have warplanes and missiles, then we can think of changing our means of legitimate self-defense. But right now, we can only tackle the fire with our bare hands and sacrifice ourselves." [Quoted in Mia Bloom, Dying to Kill: The Allure of Suicide Terror (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005) p. 3-4.] The term Palestinian terrorism is commonly used to describe acts of political violence committed by Palestinian individuals or groups against Israelis, Jews, and nationals of other countries. ... The Hamas emblem shows two crossed swords, the Dome of the Rock, and a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip). ... Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Yassin (Arabic: الشيخ أحمد ياسين) (circa 1937 — March 22, 2004) was the leader and founder of Hamas until he was killed by an Israeli helicopter gunship. ...


The Islamist View

According to Professor Charles A. Kimball, chair of the Department of Religion at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, the vast majority of Muslims believe that their holy texts forbid suicide. He states "There is only one verse in the Qur'an that contains a phrase related to suicide", Verse 4:29 of the Qur'an[13]. It reads "O you who believe! Do not consume your wealth in the wrong way-rather through trade mutually agreed to, and do not kill yourselves. Surely God is Merciful toward you", but some commentators believe that the phrase "do not kill yourselves" is better translated "do not kill each other"[14], and some translations (e.g. Shakir) reflect that. Mainstream Islamic groups such as the European Council for Fatwa and Research use the Quran'ic verse Al-Anam 6:151 ("And take not life, which Allah has made sacred, except by way of justice and law") as further reason to prohibit suicide.[15]. In addition, the hadith unambiguously forbid suicide. [16][17] Wake Forest University is a private university in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, known for its programs in the liberal arts. ... Winston-Salem is a city located in Forsyth County, North Carolina. ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Mohammad Habib Shakir, born Cairo 1866, died Cairo 1939, translated the Quran into English. ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ...


Nevertheless, there is no universal protocol for or against suicide bombings in Islam, as Islam has no centralized authority. Some mainstream Muslim clerics, while condemning the 7 July 2005 London bombings, have stated that under certain circumstances Islamic suicide bombings are justified. For example, Sayed Mohammed Musawi, head of the World Islamic League in London, insisted "there should be a clear distinction between the suicide bombing of those who are trying to defend themselves from occupiers, which is something different from those who kill civilians, which is a big crime." [18] However the vast majority of Muslims believe suicide attacks are generally forbidden by Islam. It is understood that the individuals undertaking suicide bombings (or "martyrdom operations") are simply following what they understand to be their Islamic duty, and regard their own lives in this world as less important compared to the next, eternal life. The radical schools of Islam teach that such a "martyrdom operation" may result in them being rewarded, by Allah, with Paradise (Jannah) and rewards such as 72 houri in the afterlife.[19] [20] That is, they are willing to sacrifice their own life in the hope of becoming a Shaheed, a martyr. The 7 July 2005 London metro bombings (also known as 7-7) were a series of co-ordinated suicide bombings on the London Underground metro train system which killed 52 civilians and injured over 700 people. ... Jannah is the Islamic name for paradise. ... In Islam, the houri (ﺣﻮﺭﻳﺔ), Ḥour-ul-`Ein or ḥawra’ in Arabic, are described as fair women of Paradise awaiting devout Muslims. ...


Furthermore, Islamist militant organisations (including Al Qaeda, Hamas and Islamic Jihad) argue that martyrdom operations are justified according to Islamic law, despite Islam's strict prohibition of suicide and murder [21][22]. Irshad Manji, in a conversation with one leader of Islamic Jihad noted their ideology. Osama bin Laden, leader of al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (Arabic: , al-Qā‘idah; the foundation or the base) is the name given to an international Islamic fundamentalist campaign comprised of independent and collaborative cells that all profess the same cause of reducing outside influence upon Islamic affairs. ... The Hamas emblem shows two crossed swords, the Dome of the Rock, and a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip). ... Islamic Jihad (Arabic: Harakat al-Jihad al-Islami) is a militant Islamist group based in the Syrian capital, Damascus. ... Irshad Manji on BBC Newsnight Irshad Manji (born 1969) is a Canadian author, and widely published journalist, and activist. ...

"What's the difference between suicide, which the Koran condemns, and martyrdom?" I asked. "Suicide," he replied, "is done out of despair. But remember: most of our martyrs today were very successful in their earthly lives." In short, there was a future to live for--and they detonated it anyway.[23]

Since the four suicide bombings in London on July 7 2005, there have been many scholastic refutations of suicide bombings from Sunni Muslims. Ihsanic Intelligence, a London-based Islamic think-tank, published their two-year study into suicide bombings in the name of Islam, titled 'The Hijacked Caravan', [24] which concluded that, "The technique of suicide bombing is anathema, antithetical and abhorrent to Sunni Islam. It is considered legally forbidden, constituting a reprehensible innovation in the Islamic tradition, morally an enormity of sin combining suicide and murder and theologically an act which has consequences of eternal damnation." [25] The Oxford-based Malayist jurist, Shaykh Muhammad Shaykh Muhammad Afifi al-Akiti, issued his landmark fatwa on suicide bombing and targeting innocent civilians, titled 'Defending the Transgressed, by Censuring the Reckless against the Killing of Civilians', where he states suicide bombing in its most widespread form, is forbidden: 'If the attack involves a bomb placed on the body or placed so close to the bomber that when the bomber detonates it the bomber is certain [yaqin] to die, then the More Correct Position according to us is that it does constitute suicide. This is because the bomber, being also the Maqtul [the one killed], is unquestionably the same Qatil [the immediate/active agent that kills] = Qatil Nafsahu [suicide]" [26]


In January of 2006, one of Shia Islam's highest ranking marja clerics, Ayatollah al-Udhma Yousof al-Sanei also decreed a fatwa against suicide bombing, declaring it as a "terrorist act".[27] Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... A marja, or marja-e-taqleed (Arabic and persian مرجع تقليد), literally source of imitation or source of tradition, is the second highest authority on religion and law in Shia Islam after the prophet and (Shia) Imams. ... Ayatollah al-Udhma Yousof al-Sanei is a Grand Marja of Shia Islam. ... A fatwa (Arabic: ) plural fatāwa (فتاوى), is a legal pronouncement in Islam, issued by a religious law specialist on a specific issue. ...


Usage and related terms

The usage of the term "suicide bombing" dates back to at least 1940. An August 10, 1940 New York Times article mentions the term in relation to German tactics. A March 4, 1942 article refers to a Japanese attempt at a "suicide bombing" on an American carrier. The Times (London) of April 15, 1947, page 2, refers to a new pilotless, radio-controlled rocket missile thus: "Designed originally as a counter-measure to the Japanese 'suicide-bomber,' it is now a potent weapon for defence or offence." The quotes are in the original and suggest that the phrase was an existing one. An earlier article (Aug 21, 1945, page 6) refers to a kamikaze plane as a "suicide-bomb." 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom. ...


The term in the context known today (an attacker blowing up himself or a vehicle to kill others) was not used until 1981, when it was used in an Associated Press article to describe the bombing of the Iraqi Embassy in Beirut. 1981 (MCMLXXXI) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ...


Nonetheless, in order to assign a more positive or negative connotation to the act, suicide bombing is sometimes referred to by different terms. Islamists often use the terms isshtahad or martyrdom operation for the act itself, while the suicide bomber is called a shahid (pl. shuhada, literally 'witness' and usually translated as 'martyr'). The term denotes one who died in order to testify his faith in Allah, for example those who die while waging jihad bis saif; it is applied to suicide bombers, by the Palestinian Authority among others, in part to overcome Islamic strictures against suicide. This term has been embraced by Hamas, Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades, Fatah and other Palestinian factions engaging in suicide bombings. (The title is by no means restricted to suicide bombers; Muhammad al-Durra, for example, is among the most famous shuhada of the Intifada, and even a few non-Palestinians such as Tom Hurndall and Rachel Corrie have been called shahid.) A martyrdom operation is a suicide bombing. ... The word Allāh is the Arabic term for God. However, it is used by speakers of all languages to refer to the Islamic concept of God. ... Jihad (Arabic: jihād) is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root jhd (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle to further the Islamic cause. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... The Hamas emblem shows two crossed swords, the Dome of the Rock, and a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip). ... The Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades (كتائب شهداء الاقصى) are one of the militias of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafats al-Fatah faction. ... The Fatah official emblem shows two fists holding rifles and a hand grenade superimposed on a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip). ... Muhammed al-Durrah was a twelve-year-old Palestinian boy killed by gunfire on September 30, 2000 at the beginning of the Al-Aqsa Intifada. ... Tom Hurndall, 1981-2004 Thomas Tom Hurndall (November 29, 1981 - January 13, 2004) was a British photographer and member of the International Solidarity Movement (ISM) and an activist against the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories. ... Rachel Corrie Rachel Corrie (April 10, 1979–March 16, 2003) was a member of the International Solidarity Movement (ISM) who traveled as an activist to the Gaza Strip during the Al-Aqsa Intifada. ...


Some have attempted to popularize the term "homicide bombing" as a synonym for "suicide bombing" in order to de-emphasize the self-sacrificial connotations of suicide bombing and emphasize that suicide bombers are committing murder as well as suicide. The first such use was by White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer, in April 2002. [28] The White House Press Secretary is a senior White House official with a rank one step below Cabinet level. ... Ari Fleischer conducts a White House press conference Lawrence Ari Fleischer (born October 13, 1960) was the press secretary for U.S. President George W. Bush from January 2001 to July 2003. ... 2002 (MMII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


This phrase has not gained widespread popularity, although News Corp outlets Fox News and the New York Post have adopted it. Some people criticize that "homicide bombing" is an inaccurate dysphemism, which should refer to those who kill other people but not themselves, such as someone who leaves a booby-trap, tosses a grenade, or launches a missile. News Corporation (NYSE: NWS) is a media conglomerate that operates world-wide. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... The New York Post is one of the oldest (and according to some definitions, the oldest) newspapers still published in the United States. ... In language, both dysphemism (from the Greek dys δυς= non and pheme φήμη = speech) and cacophemism (in Greek cacos κακός = bad) are rough opposites of euphemism, meaning the usage of an intentionally harsh word or expression instead of a polite one. ... This article is about an antipersonnel trap designed for use against humans. ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... A missile (CE pronunciation: ; AmE: ) is, in general, a projectile—that is, something thrown or otherwise propelled. ...


See also

It has been suggested that Targeted killing be merged into this article or section. ... A child suicide bomber is a suicide bomber under the age of 18. ... A dead mans switch (also known as - mainly in Britain - a dead mans handle) is a device intended to take some action if the human operator becomes incapacitated in some way, a form of fail-safe practice. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Islamikaze is a rather derogatory term — combining the words Islamic (Arabic إسلامي) and Kamikaze (Japanese 神風) — which is used to condemn suicide-terrorism attacks that are perceived to be carried out for Islamic religiopolitical motives, or whose sponsoring groups try to associate them with Islamic religious imagery. ...

External links, resources, references

David Brooks David Brooks (born August 11, 1961) is a columnist for The New York Times who has become one of the prominent voices of conservative politics in the United States, though his views are considerably different from those of some other conservatives. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... The Globe and Mail is a large Canadian English language national newspaper based in Toronto. ...

Further reading

  • Rex Hudson (2002), Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why: The 1999 Government Report on Profiling Terrorists, Lyons Press, ISBN 1585747548
  • Mia Bloom (2005), Dying to Kill: The Allure of Suicide Terror, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0231133200
  • Robert Pape (2005), Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism, Random House, ISBN 1400063175
  • Diego Gambetta, Editor (2005), Making Sense of Suicide Missions, OUP, ISBN 0199276994
  • Farhad Khosrokhavar, translated by David Macey (2005), Suicide Bombers: Allah's New Martyrs, Pluto Press, ISBN 0745322832
  • Martin Kramer. 1996. Sacrifice and "Self-Martyrdom" in Shi'ite Lebanon.
  • Bernard B. Fall. 1966. Hell in a Very Small Place: The Siege of Dien Bien Phu. Da Capo Press. (References to suicide bombers on pages 352 and 368).
  • M.R. Narayan Swamy. 1996. Tigers of Lanka: From Boys to Guerrillas, 2nd Ed. Vijitha Yapa Bookshop (Colombo).
  • Dr. Eyad Sarraj. "Why we have become Suicide Bombers".התאבדות
  • Gerhart Scheit. 2005. Suicide Attack ISBN 3-924627-87-8 (German)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Major Terrorist Attacks in Israel (6038 words)
January 29, 2007: Three people were killed in a suicide bombing in a bakery in Eilat, the first suicide bombing in the city.
Soon after, a suicide bomber carrying explosives and dressed in the garb of an ultra-orthodox Jew was stopped at a roadblock.
March 7: A suicide bombing was prevented Thursday afternoon, when a man carrying an explosive device was blocked from entering a cafe on Emek Refaim Street in the German Colony section of Jerusalem.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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