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Encyclopedia > Suicide bomber
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A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death in addition to the attack's primary purpose (see suicide, suicide weapons). Download high resolution version (1860x1898, 762 KB) . File links The following pages link to this file: Africa Ecology Nature Ecology movement Wikipedia:Featured pictures visible Earth flag Template:Pic of the day/Image archive Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/November-2004 Wikipedia:POTD/November 12, 2004 Wikipedia:Picture of the day... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The term terrorism is controversial and has many definitions, none of which are universally accepted. ... Definition of terrorism There is no universally accepted definition of terrorism. ... There are eleven major multilateral international conventions related to states responsibilities for combating terrorism. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... A terrorist organisation is an organisation that engages in terrorist tactics, they are also (perhaps more neutrally) referred to as militant organisations. ... The following is a timeline of acts and failed attempts that can be considered terrorism. ... Nationalist terrorism is a form of terrorism through which participants attempt to form an independent state against what they consider an occupying, imperial, or otherwise illegitimate state. ... Religious terrorists use violence to further what they see as divinely commanded purposes. ... Left-wing terrorism is political violence by groups or individuals on the political left. ... Right-wing terrorism, or neo-Fascist terrorism, seeks to do away with liberal democratic governments and create fascist states in their place. ... State terrorism is a controversial term that is separate from the more common term state sponsored terrorism. ... Ethnically-motivated terrorism (also Ethnic terrorism or racial terrorism) involves frequent attacks on foreign-born immigrants and ethnic minorities, motivated by racism and xenophobic hatred. ... Narcoterrorism is a term coined by former President Belaunde Terry of Peru in 1983 when describing terrorist-type attacks against his nations anti-narcotics police. ... Domestic terrorism is a phrase used to describe some acts of political violence within a state that are carried out or commissioned by forces inside or originating from that state, as opposed to external attacks. ... The heyday of anarchist terrorism was from the 1870s to the 1920s. ... Political terrorism is a form of terrorism (a tactic of violence that targets civilians) used to influence socio-political events so that gains occur that might not have otherwise happened by peaceful means. ... The term eco-terrorism is a neologism which has been used to describe threats and acts of violence (both against people and against property), sabotage, vandalism, property damage and intimidation committed in the name of environmentalism. ... Aircraft hijacking (also known as Skyjacking) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. ... Jack Ruby murdered the alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... A car bomb is a bomb that is placed in a car or truck and is intended to be exploded while there. ... Bioterrorism is terrorism using germ warfare, an intentional human release of a naturally_occurring or human_modified toxin or biological agent. ... Nuclear terrorism can be used to describe any of the following terrorist assaults: Use of nuclear weapons against a civilian target Use of a radiological weapon or dirty bomb against a civilian target An attack against a nuclear power plant Some believe that no such act has ever taken place. ... Cyber-terrorism is terrorism that uses cracking over computer networks and Internet-based attacks in the service of terrorism. ... A terrorist front organization is created to conceal activities or provide logistical or financial support to the illegal activities. ... An independent terrorist actor works outside a command structure, unaccountable to the claimed collective cause of a group. ... Massive ordinance air-burst bomb. ... Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of wilfully ending ones own life; it is sometimes a noun for one who has committed or attempted the act. ... Suicide weapons are weapons designed to kill individuals or destroy military targets at the cost of the users life. ...


Suicide bombing is a kind of tactic planned and organized by extremely committed military or paramilitary groups. This tactic became widely known during the Second World War in the Pacific as U.S. ships were attacked by Japanese kamikaze pilots who caused the maximum damage by flying their aircraft into military targets. Since the 1980s, the low cost and high lethality of the tactic have made it a favorite with guerrilla, insurgent, and especially terrorist groups, notably in the Middle East and Sri Lanka. Suicide bombings by Islamist terrorists, mostly in the Al-Aqsa Intifada and the Iraqi insurgency, have drawn great attention since 2000. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (over 11 miles) into the air, August 9, 1945 after the Allied atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. ... A kamikaze, a Mitsubishi Zero in this case, about to hit the USS Missouri. ... Distinguish from the type of ape called a gorilla. ... An insurgency is an armed rebellion by any irregular armed force that rises up against an established authority, government, administration or occupation. ... The term terrorism is controversial and has many definitions, none of which are universally accepted. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Islamist terrorism is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... The wreckage of a commuter bus in West Jerusalem after a suicide bombing on Tuesday, 18 June 2002. ... The Iraqi insurgency comprises various guerrilla and insurgent groups that began battling the U.S.-led multinational force and the New Iraqi Army shortly after the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


Overview

Bus after suicide bombing, Haifa
Bus after suicide bombing, Haifa

Suicide bombings have taken various forms. History shows numerous examples of soldiers and others that have resorted to suicide attacks out of sudden desperation, to prevent capture or to relieve a pinned-down unit, often by simply detonating a grenade or other explosive device while holding it near enemy troops. {pd} File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... {pd} File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the Lebanese singer, see Haifa Wehbe Haifa (Hebrew חֵיפָה Ḥefa, Ḥeyfa; Arabic حَيْفَا Ḥayfā) is the third-largest city in Israel, with a population close to 300,000. ... The word grenade can mean:- The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ...


During the Crusades, the Knights Templar destroyed one of their own ships, killing 140 Christians in order to kill ten times as many Muslims. Another early example of suicide bombing occurred during the Belgian Revolution, when the Dutch Lt. Jan van Speijk detonated his own ship in the harbour of Antwerp to prevent being captured by Belgians. In World War II, kamikaze pilots acted as human missiles, flying their planes, heavily laden with explosives, directly into enemy warships. Following World War II, Viet Minh "death volunteers" were used against the French colonial army. This article is about historical Crusades . ... The Seal of the Knights — the two riders have been interpreted as a sign of poverty or the duality of monk/soldier. ... Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Egide Charles Gustave Wappers (1834), in the Musée dArt Ancien, Brussels The Belgian Revolution was a conflict in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands that began with a riot in Brussels in August 1830 and eventually led to the establishment of... Van Speyk shoots at a barrel of gunpowder, detonating his own ship. ... The Cathedral of our Lady (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal, Antwerp) in the Handschoenmarkt, in the old part of Antwerp is the largest cathedral in the Low Countries and is home to a number of triptychs by the Belgian painter, Rubens. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (over 11 miles) into the air, August 9, 1945 after the Allied atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. ... A kamikaze, a Mitsubishi Zero in this case, about to hit the USS Missouri. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ...


The Tamil Tigers are another prolific example, and their Black Tiger unit have committed some 76 suicide bombings since 1987, using more than 240 attackers. Their victims included former Indian PM Rajiv Gandhi and many prominent Lankan leaders, among them the late PM Ranasinghe Premadasa. A coin issued by the LTTE. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE, pronounced L-T-T), also known as the Tamil Tigers, is the main Tamil anti-government organization operating in Sri Lanka. ... Black Tigers, the LTTE special operatives that commit suicide. ... 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rajiv Gandhi (राजीव गान्धी) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the first son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the Prime Minister of India from his mothers death on October 31, 1984 until his resignation on December 2, 1989 following the general election defeat. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


In the Middle East, hundreds of suicide bombings have been undertaken in the last few decades, primarily by Arab men and youths, although in recent years, women have been recruited because of their lower profile amongst counter-terrorist organizations' lists of potential suspects. Multiple Palestinian militant groups have sent specially trained suicide bombers to kill Israelis. The bombers strap themselves with powerful explosives (often mixed with shrapnel) and seek out a target, which may be military but is more commonly civilian. In order to maximise the loss of life, the bombers may seek out cafés or city buses crowded with people at rush hour, or less commonly a military target (for example, soldiers waiting for transport at roadside). By seeking enclosed locations, a successful explosion usually kills a number of people. The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Shrapnel is the collective term for fragments and debris thrown out by an exploding shell or landmine. ...

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Chechen Suicide Bombing at Ryzhskaya subway station, Russia on Aug. 30, 2004

Often there is a religious element involved, besides other motives such as politics or blackmail: many suicide bombers believe that they will attain an otherworldly reward for their sacrifice. Those who send suicide bombers on missions cultivate the belief that suicide bombers are martyrs, according to a controversial reading of Islamic teaching. Palestinian television has aired a number of music videos and announcements that promote eternal reward for children who seek "shahada" [1], which Palestinian Media Watch has claimed is "Islamic motivation of suicide terrorists".[2] The Chicago Tribune has documented the concern of Palestinian parents that their children are encouraged to take part in suicide operations.[3] Israeli sources have also alleged that Hamas, Islamic Jihad and Fatah operate "Paradise Camps," training children as young as 11 to become suicide bombers. [4][5] Image File history File links Russian Suicide bomb,Ryzhskaya subway station,Aug30,2004 Fair Use This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links Russian Suicide bomb,Ryzhskaya subway station,Aug30,2004 Fair Use This work is copyrighted. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... There is also a town called Shāhāda, which is now in Nandurbār district (formerly in Dhule district) in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India. ... Front page of the Tribune incorrectly reporting that Dewey won the 1948 presidential election The Chicago Tribune, formerly self-styled as the Worlds Greatest Newspaper, remains the leading newspaper of the Midwest of the United States. ...


Besides the religious aspect, there is also a simple cost-benefit analysis that motivates suicide bombing. Al Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri expresses this view clearly: "The method of martyrdom operation [is] the most successful way of inflicting damage against the opponent and the least costly to the mujahidin in terms of casualties" [6]. Osama bin Laden Ayman al-Zawahiri Al-Qaeda (Arabic: - al-Qā‘idah, the foundation or the base) is the name given to an international alliance of militant Islamist organizations. ... Ayman al-Zawahiri Ayman al-Zawahiri (Arabic: ) (born June 19, 1951) is a prominent member of the al-Qaeda group and formerly the head of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad paramilitary organization. ...


Military historians classify suicide bombing as a form of armed violence, belonging to the tactics of asymmetric warfare -- suicide bombings are only common when one side in a violent conflict lacks the means for effective, conventional attacks. However in the situation of many suicide bombings, the attacks are carried out against civilians rather than military targets, depriving the tactic of any legitimacy in the eyes of most observers. Violence is a general term to describe actions, usually deliberate, that cause or intend to cause injury to people or animals. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Bombings

Suicide bombing usually (but not always) targets poorly-guarded, non-military facilities and personnel. It can be either a military tactic, a political one, or a mixture of the two. It may qualify as terrorism when the intention is to kill, maim or terrorise a predominantly civilian target population, or fall within the definition of an act of war when it is committed against a military target under war conditions. The term terrorism is controversial and has many definitions, none of which are universally accepted. ...

Explosive vest of a Palestinian suicide bomber, captured by the Israeli Police. Anti-terrorism intelligence claims such suicide bomber clothing is designed by a person they call The Tailor of Death.
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Explosive vest of a Palestinian suicide bomber, captured by the Israeli Police. Anti-terrorism intelligence claims such suicide bomber clothing is designed by a person they call The Tailor of Death.

As a political tactic, suicide bombings send a message of impassioned opposition to enemy forces (that the bomber is willing to die for his or her cause) and a message of desperate recklessness to third parties (that the bomber feels the justice of the cause so strongly that he would rather die than submit and that he is giving little thought to the danger). However, it may backfire, as suicide bombings ignite rage and hatred and undermine the belief in the humanity of those who perpetrate them. Explosive belt Scanned from Israeli Police Terror, Lets Stop It Together brochure. ... Explosive belt Scanned from Israeli Police Terror, Lets Stop It Together brochure. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ...


When used against civilian targets, suicide bombing usually causes fear in the target population greater than that caused by other forms of terrorism, as the fact that the bomber intends to die makes deterrents ineffective. However, use against civilian targets has differing effects on their goals (see reaction below). Some economists suggest that this tactic goes beyond symbolism and is actually a response to commodified, controlled, or devalued lives, as the suicide bombers apparently consider family prestige and financial compensation from the community as compensation for their own lives. This is an alphabetical list of well-known economists. ... FUCKING BULLSHIT!! The value of life is an economic or moral value assigned to life in general, or to specific living organisms. ...


The doctrine of asymmetric warfare views suicide bombing as an imbalance of power, in which groups with little significant power resort to suicide bombing as a response to actions or policies of a group with greater power. Groups which have significant power have no need to resort to suicide bombing to achieve their aims; consequently, suicide bombing is overwhelmingly used by guerrilla, and other irregular fighting forces. Among many such groups, there are religious overtones: bombers and their supporters may believe that their sacrifice will be rewarded in an afterlife. Suicide bombers often believe that their actions are in accordance with moral or social standards because they are aimed at fighting forces and conditions that they perceive as unjust. Distinguish from the type of ape called a gorilla. ... Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century Irregular military refers to any non-standard military. ... Afterlife (also known as life after death) is a generic term referring to a continuation of existence, typically spiritual and experiential, beyond this world, or after death. ...


History

The concept of self-sacrifice has long been a part of war. From the earliest days of honoring fallen soldiers as heroes, those who sacrifice themselves to further a political, moral, or cultural ideology have been and are still highly regarded figures in their respective societies. Soldiers who lay down their lives to protect their comrades are commonly awarded the highest recognition for courage in battle, while those who survive combat are honored for their physical and psychological sacrifice. An example for such self-sacrifice in warfare in medieval legend is Arnold von Winkelried. The earliest reference of a suicide attack outside a context of warfare is the biblical story of Samson: This article is about the type of character. ... 19th century painting of Winkelrieds deed by Konrad Grob. ... Samson or Shimshon (שִׁמְשׁוֹן Of the sun (perhaps proclaiming he was radiant and mighty) or [One who] Serves [God], Standard Hebrew Šimšon, Tiberian Hebrew Šimšôn) is the third to last of the Judges of Israel mentioned in the Tanakh. ...

And Samson said, 'Let me die with the Philistines!' And he bowed himself with all his might; and the house fell upon the lords, and upon all the people that were therein. So the dead which he slew at his death were more than they which he slew in his life. (Judges 16:30)

The act of deliberately destroying oneself to inflict harm on an enemy is more restricted to modern times and the era of explosives. The line between the two is considered by some a matter of subjectivity, as in the argument that many WWII soldiers killed were "martyrs" (in the sense that they were to suffer for the sake of a principle, rather than dying as the penalty for refusing to renounce a belief) because their life expectancy in combat was very low—often averaging only two or three months. Judges (Hebrew: שֹּׁפְטִים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ...


The ritual act of self-sacrifice during combat appeared in a large scale at the end of World War II with the Japanese kamikaze bombers. In these attacks, airplanes were used as flying bombs. Later in the war, as Japan became more desperate, this act became formalized and ritualized, as planes were outfitted with explosives specific to the task of a suicide mission. Kamikaze strikes were a weapon of symmetric war used by the Empire of Japan chiefly against United States Navy aircraft carriers. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (over 11 miles) into the air, August 9, 1945 after the Allied atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. ... A kamikaze, a Mitsubishi Zero in this case, about to hit the USS Missouri. ... The Empire of Japan (大日本帝国; Dai-Nippon/-Nihon Teikoku) commonly refers to Japan from the Meiji Restoration until the end of World War II. Politically, it covers the period from the enforcement of establishing prefectures in place of feudal domains (廃藩置県; Hai-han Chi-ken) in July 14, 1871, through... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... An aircraft carrier is a warship whose main role is to deploy and recover aircraft. ...


The Japanese Navy also used both one and two man piloted torpedoes called kaitens on suicide missions. Although sometimes called midget submarines, these were modified versions of the unmanned torpedoes of the time and are distinct from the torpedo-firing midget submarines used earlier in the war, which were designed to infiltrate shore defences and return to a mother ship after firing their torpedoes. Though extremely hazardous, these midget submarine attacks were not technically suicide missions; while the early kaitens were equipped with escape hatches, there is no evidence that they were ever used or that the pilots had any intention of using them. Later kaitens, by contrast, provided no means of escape. A modern torpedo, historically called a self propelled torpedo, is a self-propelled guided projectile that (after being launched above or below the water surface) operates underwater and is designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... This article is about the suicide torpedo. ... German midget submarine Seehund, with a torpedo A midget submarine is a small submarine, typically with a one or two person crew and with no on-board living accommodation. ...


After aiming a two-person kaiten at their target, the two crew members traditionally embraced and shot each other in the head. Social support for such choices was strong, due in part to Japanese cultural history, in which seppuku, honorable suicide, was part of samurai duty. It was also fostered and indoctrinated by the Imperial program to persuade, often through coercion (such as through doping), the Japanese soldiers to commit these acts. Seppuku with ritual attire and second. ... Japanese samurai in armour, 1860 photograph. ...


Lebanon, during its civil war, saw the first modern suicide bombing: the Islamic Dawa Party's car bombing of the Iraqi embassy in Beirut, in December 1981. Hezbollah's bombing of the U.S. embassy in April 1983 and attack on United States Marine and French barracks in October 1983 brought suicide bombings international attention. Other parties to the civil war were quick to adopt the tactic, and by 1999 factions such as Hezbollah, the Amal Movement, the Ba'ath Party, and the Syrian Social Nationalist Party (which sent the first female suicide bomber in 1986) had carried out around 50 suicide bombings between them. Hezbollah was the only one to attack overseas, bombing the Israeli embassy (and possibly the Argentine-Israeli Mutual Association building) in Buenos Aires; as its military and political power have grown, it has since abandoned the tactic. The Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990) had its origin in the conflicts and political compromises of Lebanons colonial period and was exacerbated by the nations changing demographic trends, Christian and Muslim inter-religious strife, and proximity to Syria and Israel. ... The Islamic Dawa Party (Arabic transliteration: al-Dawa al-Islamiyya) is an Iraqi political organization. ... A car bomb is a bomb that is placed in a car or truck and is intended to be exploded while there. ... Central Beirut (2004) Beirut (Arabic: , transliterated Bayrūt - the French name, Beyrouth, was also commonly used in English in the past) is the capital, largest city and chief seaport of Lebanon. ... The Hezbollah flag Hezbollah (Arabic ‮حزب الله‬, meaning Party of God) is a political and military party in Lebanon founded in 1982 to fight Israel in southern Lebanon. ... The April 18, 1983, suicide bombing of the United States Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon was the deadliest attack on a US displomatic mission to that time, and is seen by some as marking the beginning of anti-US attacks by Islamic groups. ... The 1983 barracks bombing was a major terrorist incident during the Lebanese Civil War. ... For other uses of Amal, see the disambiguation page. ... Baath Party flag The Baath Parties (also spelled Baath or Bath; Arabic: اﻟﺒﻌﺚ) comprise political parties representing the political face of the Baath movement. ... SSNP flag The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (in Arabic: al-Hizb al-Suri al-Qaumi al-Ijtimai, often referred to in French as Parti Populaire Syrien) is a nationalist political party that advocates the establishment of a Greater Syrian national state. ... Though the majority of suicide bombers were and are male, female suicide bombers have carried out a number of attacks since 1986. ... The Israeli Embassy Attack in Buenos Aires was a bomb attack against the Israels embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... The AMIA Bombing was an attack on the Argentine-Israeli Mutual Association building (Asociación Mutua Israelita Argentina, or (AMIA), in Spanish). ... Buenos Aires (Good Air in Spanish, originally meaning Fair Winds) is the capital of Argentina and its largest city and port, as well as one of the largest cities in South America. ...


Other guerrilla groups that have employed suicide bombing include the Viet Minh, Kurdistan Workers Party and the Tamil Tigers. Suicide bombing has been a particularly popular tactic amongst some Palestinian groups, including Hamas, Islamic Jihad, and the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade. Bombers affiliated with these groups often use so-called "suicide belts", explosive devices designed to be strapped to the body under clothing. The first suicide bombing of the modern phase of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict was carried out by a Japanese person. In 1972 Tsuyoshi Okudaira, part of the Japanese Red Army, deliberately killed himself and those around him with a grenade in a part of the Lod Airport Massacre. Distinguish from the type of ape called a gorilla. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... The Kurdistan Workers Party (Kurdish: Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan or PKK), is an armed anti-goverment organisation claiming to defend the rights of the Kurdish people in Turkey. ... A coin issued by the LTTE. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE, pronounced L-T-T), also known as the Tamil Tigers, is the main Tamil anti-government organization operating in Sri Lanka. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... The Hamas emblem shows two crossed swords, the Dome of the Rock, and a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip). ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... The Al_Aqsa Martyrs Brigades (كتائب شهداء الاقصى) are one of the militias of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafats al_Fatah faction. ... An explosive belt (also called suicide belt) is a vest packed with explosives (sometimes with nails, screws, bolts and other objects to maximize the number of casualties) and a detonator that is worn by suicide bombers. ... 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... The Japanese Red Army (日本赤軍, Nihon Sekigun) (JRA) is an international organisation founded by Ms. ... On May 30, 1972 three members of the Japanese Red Army undertook a terrorist attack in Lod Airport in Tel Aviv on behalf of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. ...


The September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack involved the hijacking of large fully-fueled passenger jets which were deliberately flown into the towers of the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon, killing everyone aboard the planes and thousands more in and around the targeted buildings, thus making it one of the most destructive suicide attacks in history. The 'September 11' attacks also had a vast economic and political impact: for the cost of the lives of the 19 hijackers and financial expenditure of around US$100,000, al-Qaida, the militant Islamist group responsible for the attacks, effected a trillion-dollar drop in global markets within one week, and triggered massive increases in military and security expenditure in response. The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... The twin towers, photographed from the west The World Trade Center in New York City was a complex of seven buildings around a central plaza, near the south end of Manhattan in the downtown financial district. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the United States, and is at the center of international finance, politics, communications, music, fashion, and culture. ... A pre-9/11 view of The Pentagon, looking east with the Potomac River and Washington Monument in the distance. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...


In December 22, 2001, Richard Reid attempted to destroy the American Airlines Flight 63 by the means of a bomb hidden in a shoe. He was arrested after his attempt was foiled when he was unable to light the bomb's fuse. December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Reid, in a prison photograph Richard Colvin Reid (born August 12, 1973), also known as the shoe bomber, is a British citizen born in Bromley, South London and a Muslim allegedly working for Al Qaeda who was arrested on December 22, 2001 for attempting to destroy a passenger airliner... Matt Lauer with the crew of Flight 63, the Shoebomber flight. ...


After the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, waves of suicide bombings were carried out. The suicide bombers attacked United States military targets, although many civilian targets (eg. Shiite mosques, international offices of the UN and the Red Cross, Iraqi men waiting to apply for jobs with the new army and police force) were also attacked. In the lead up to the Iraqi parliamentary election, 2005 on January 30, 2005, suicide attacks upon civilian and security personnel involved with the elections increased, and there were reports of the insurgents co-opting disabled people as involuntary suicide bombers [7]. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: United States Wikinews has a related story: United States United States government CIA World Factbook Entry for United States House. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... The terms Red Cross and Red Crescent are often used as short names for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, or its two leading international organs, the ICRC and the IFRCS. This page is about the symbol itself, see respective articles for information about the organizations and movements. ... Iraqi police officers hold up their index fingers marked with purple indelible ink, a security measure to prevent double voting. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...


Suicide bombings have occurred in more than 25 countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Britain, China, Colombia, Croatia, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, Kenya, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, Panama, the Philippines, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, Uzbekistan, and Yemen. (Suicide planes were also used in the United States). The July 2005 London bombings have been labelled suicide bombings by the media, but the police have avoided using this term. ‹The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...


Profile of a bomber

The most common initial reaction to a suicide bomber is to assume that he (or rarely she) was motivated by despair, and probably hailed from a poor, neglected segment of society. In fact, both President George W. Bush and the Dalai Lama have made this claim. However, anthropologist Scott Atran found in a 2003 study that this is not a justifiable conclusion. A recently published paper by Harvard University Professor of Public Policy Alberto Abadie "cast[s] doubt on the widely held belief that terrorism stems from poverty, finding instead that terrorist violence is related to a nation's level of political freedom." Quote Original Paper. Order: 43rd President of United States Vice President: Dick Cheney Term of office: January 20, 2001 – Present (Current Term will end on January 20, 2009. ... The 14th and current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (born 1935) The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933) In Tibetan Buddhism, the Dalai Lamas are a sequence of leaders, since 1391, from the Gelug (dge lugs) school. ... Harvard, see Harvard (disambiguation) Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... Alberto Abadie is a professor at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. ...


In fact, most bombers are educated, many with college or university experience, and come from middle class homes. Many show signs of psychological imbalance and often had trouble relating socially as children, but are nonetheless often concerned for their families . They often find solace in the ritualistic communion found in extremist circles, which are often headed by charismatic individuals looking for new recruits. A college (Latin collegium) can be the name of any group of colleagues; originally it meant a group of people living together under a common set of rules (con-, together + leg-, law). As a consequence members of colleges were originally styled fellows and still are in some places. ... A professor teaching in a university A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... The word charisma (from the Greek word charis) or gift, is often used in this form to describe an ability to charm or influence people. ...


Range of opinions

World leaders, especially those of countries that experience suicide bombings, usually express resolve to continue on their previous course of affairs after such attacks. They denounce suicide bombings and sometimes vow not to let such bombings deter what they see as their efforts to "further civilization".


Suicide bombings in Israel are usually followed by reprisals. As a successful suicide bomber himself (the bombers are almost always young men) cannot be targeted, the response is often collective punishment of the community, family, or organization from which he came under the claim that such individuals and group gave support to the suicide bomber. In the West Bank the armed forces of Israel usually demolish homes that they claim belong to families whose children have volunteered for such missions. There are reports in the Israeli press about families who turned in their children after learning about a possible suicide bombing attack, fearful their house would be demolished by the Israel Defense Forces. In warfare, a reprisal is a limited and deliberate violation of the laws of war to punish an enemy for breaking the laws of war. ... Collective punishment is a term describing the punishment of a group of people for the crime of a few or even of one. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the Hebrew name of Israels armed forces (Tsahal comprises the Israel army, Israel air force and Israel navy). ... A massive crane is used to demolish this tower block in northern England Demolition is the opposite of construction: the tearing-down of buildings and other structures. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces, comprising the Israel army, Israel air force and Israel navy. ...


It is sometimes claimed that suicide bombings, notably those of the Japanese kamikazes, the Palestinian bombers, and even the September 11, 2001 attacks, were military failures, and highly counter-productive to the perpetrators. In the case of the kamikazes, this is seen as untrue by some. Although the kamikaze attacks could not stop the Allied advance, they inflicted more casualties and delayed the fall of Japan for longer than might have been the case using only the conventional methods available to the Empire. The kamikaze attacks did reinforce the resolution of the World War II Allies to destroy the Imperial force, and may have had a significant effect in the decision to use atomic bombs against Japan. In the case of the September 11th attacks, the long-term effects remain to be seen, but in the short-to-medium term, the results were profoundly negative for Al-Qaeda as well as for the Talibans. Furthermore, since the September 11 attacks, Western nations have diverted massive resources towards stopping similar actions, as well as tightening up borders, and military actions against various countries that the US and its allies believe to have been involved with terrorism. A kamikaze, a Mitsubishi Zero in this case, about to hit the USS Missouri. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (over 11 miles) into the air, August 9, 1945 after the Allied atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


The Palestinian suicide bombings are, for some individuals, more challenging to assess. In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, there was a steady and continuous deployment of suicide bombers in 2000 following the collapse of the Camp David II summit between the PLO and Israel. In response, Israel mobilized its army in order to seal off the Gaza Strip and re-occupy the West Bank, placing it under military rule with the area patrolled by tanks. The Israelis also began a campaign of targeted assassinations to kill militant Palestinian leaders, using jets and helicopters to deploy high-precision bombs and missiles. // Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... assassin, see Assassin (disambiguation) Jack Ruby assassinated Lee Harvey Oswald in a very public manner. ...


Most significantly, the suicide missions, having killed hundreds and maimed thousands of Israelis, are believed by some to have brought on a move to the political right, increasing public support for hard-line policies towards the Palestinians, and a government headed by the former general, prime minister Ariel Sharon. In response to the suicide bombings, Sharon's government has imposed restrictions on the Palestinian community, making commerce, travel, schooling, and other aspects of life difficult for the Palestinians, with the average Palestinian suffering due to the choices of the suicide bombers. Ariel Sharon, the eleventh Prime Minister of Israel, spent many years in the Israel Defense Forces before being elected in March 2001. ...


Social support by some for this activity remains, however, as of the calling of a truce at the end of June 2003. This may be due to the economic or social purpose of the suicide bombing and the bombers' refusal to accept external judgements on those who sanction them.


Suicide bombing may thus "work" as a military tactic (in that it costs fewer lives than any conventional military tactic or targeting soldiers rather than civilians) and may or may not achieve the political objectives sought by the combatant. However, it is likely to remain a method of operation employed by Palestinians, at least as long as the Palestinians are outclassed militarily by Israel. As Hamas leader Sheikh Ahmad Yassin put it, "Once we have warplanes and missiles, then we can think of changing our means of legitimate self-defense. But right now, we can only tackle the fire with our bare hands and sacrifice ourselves." [Quoted in Mia Bloom, Dying to Kill: The Allure of Suicide Terror (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005) p. 3-4.] The Hamas emblem shows two crossed swords, the Dome of the Rock, and a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip). ... Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Yassin (~1937 — March 22, 2004) was the leader of Hamas until he was killed by an Israeli helicopter gunship. ...


The Islamist View

There is no universal protocol for or against suicide bombings in Islam. Mainstream Muslim clerics while condemning the 7_July_2005_London_bombings have stated that under certain circumstances suicide bombings are justified but the vast majority of Muslims believe suicide attacks are generally forbidden by Islam. It is understood that the individuals undertaking suicide bombings (or "martyrdom operations") are simply following what they understand to be their Islamic duty, and regard their own lives in this world as less important compared to the next, eternal life. The radical schools of Islam teach that such a "martyrdom operation" may result in them be rewarded, by Allah, with Paradise (Jannah) and rewards such as 72 houri in the afterlife.[8] [9] That is, they are willing to sacrifice their own life in the hope of becoming a Shaheed, a martyr. For news on the current explosion reports see 21 July 2005 London explosions On Thursday, 7 July 2005, a series of four bomb attacks struck Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ... In Islamic eschatology, Jannah is a place where Muslims believe they will go after death, if they have been loyal to Allah. ... In Islam, the houri (حورية), Hour -ul-`Ein or hawra’ in Arabic, are described as fair women of Paradise awaiting devout Muslims. ...


Furthermore, Islamist militant organisations (including Al Qaeda, Hamas and Islamic Jihad) argue that martyrdom operations are justified according to Islamic law, despite Islam's strict prohibition of suicide and murder.[10] It has been suggested in the wake of the 7 July 2005 attacks on Londoners that madrassas[11] in Pakistan are recruiting would-be martyrs to this non-mainstream expression of Islam, and the moderate religious Muslim world will likely have to deal with these radical factions internally rather than allowing Westerners to do so. [12] Osama bin Laden Ayman al-Zawahiri Al-Qaeda (Arabic: - al-Qā‘idah, the foundation or the base) is the name given to an international alliance of militant Islamist organizations. ... The Hamas emblem shows two crossed swords, the Dome of the Rock, and a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip). ... Islamic Jihad (Arabic: Harakat al-Jihad al-Islami) is a militant Islamist group based in the Syrian capital, Damascus. ... Madrassa in the Gambia The word madrassa in the Arabic language (and other languages of the Islamic nations such as Persian, Turkish, Indonesian etc. ...


Usage and related terms

The usage of the term "suicide bombing" dates back to at least 1940. An August 10, 1940 New York Times article mentions the term in relation to German tactics. A March 4, 1942 article refers to a Japanese attempt at a "suicide bombing" on an American carrier. The Times (London) of April 15, 1947, page 2, refers to a new pilotless, radio-controlled rocket missile thus: "Designed originally as a counter-measure to the Japanese 'suicide-bomber,' it is now a potent weapon for defence or offence." The quotes are in the original and suggest that the phrase was an existing one. An earlier article (Aug 21, 1945, page 6) refers to a kamikaze plane as a "suicide-bomb." 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom. ...


The term in the context known today (an attacker blowing up himself or a vehicle to kill others) was not used until 1981, when it was used in an Associated Press article to describe the bombing of the Iraqi Embassy in Beirut. 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ...


Nonetheless, in order to assign a more positive or negative connotation to the act, suicide bombing is sometimes referred to by different terms. The Arab term for suicide bombing is "Isshtahad" whereas the suicide bomber is called a shahid (pl. Shahiddin, literally 'witness' and usually translated as 'martyr'). The term denotes one who died in order to testify his faith in Allah, for example those who die while waging jihad bis saif; it is applied to suicide bombers, by the Palestinian Authority among others, in part to overcome Islamic strictures against suicide. This term has been embraced by Hamas, Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades, a branch of Yasser Arafat's Fatah, and other Palestinian factions engaging in suicide bombings. (The title is by no means restricted to suicide bombers; Muhammad al-Durrah, for example, is among the most famous shahiddin of the Intifada, and even a few non-Palestinians such as Tom Hurndall and Rachel Corrie have been called shahid.) An example of allāhu written in simple Arabic calligraphy Allah (Arabic: allāh) is the Arabic word for God. It is ultimately derived (according to most etymologists) from Proto-Semitic ʾil-, as is Hebrew El). ... Jihad (ǧihād جهاد) is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root ǧhd (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to just cause in a political or military sense. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... The Hamas emblem shows two crossed swords, the Dome of the Rock, and a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip). ... The Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades (كتائب شهداء الاقصى) are one of the militias of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafats al-Fatah faction. ... Yasser Arafat Yasser Arafat (August 4 or August 24, 1929 – November 11, 2004), born Muhammad `Abd ar-Rauf al-Qudwa al-Husayni (Arabic محمد عبد الرؤوف القدوة الحسيني) and also known as Abu `Ammar (ابو عمّار), was co-founder and Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (1969–2004); President1 of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA... The Fatah official emblem shows two fists holding rifles and a hand grenade superimposed on a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip). ... Muhammed al-Durrah was a twelve-year-old Palestinian boy killed by gunfire on September 30, 2000 at the beginning of the Al-Aqsa Intifada. ... Tom Hurndall, 1981-2004 Thomas Tom Hurndall (November 29, 1981 - January 13, 2004) was a British photographer and member of the International Solidarity Movement (ISM) and an activist against the Israeli presence in the territories. On April 11, 2003, he was shot in the head by an Israeli Defence Force... Rachel Corrie Rachel Corrie (April 10, 1979–March 16, 2003) was a member of the International Solidarity Movement (ISM) who traveled as an activist to the Gaza Strip during the Al-Aqsa Intifada. ...


Some have attempted to popularize the term "homicide bombing" as a synonym for "suicide bombing" in order to de-emphasize the self-sacrificial connotations of suicide bombing and emphasize that suicide bombers are committing murder as well as suicide. The first such use was by White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer, in April 2002. [13] The White House Press Secretary is a senior White House official with a rank one step below Cabinet level. ... Ari Fleischer Lawrence Ari Fleischer (born October 13, 1960) was the press secretary for U.S. President George W. Bush from January 2001 to July 2003. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


This phrase has not gained widespread popularity, although the media outlets FOX News and the New York Post have adopted it. Some people criticize that homicide bombing is an inaccurate phrase and it should not be used to describe suicide bombings, on the grounds that the term "homicide bomber" would refer to those who kill other people with bombs but not themselves, such as someone who leaves a booby-trap or tosses a grenade. One objection to the use of the phrase comes from people who believe that the bombers are martyrs; they claim that the victims are legitimate military targets, and thus object to calling the people killed by the bombs "homicide victims". The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... The New York Post is the oldest continuously-published newspaper in the United States. ... This article is about an antipersonnel trap designed for use against humans. ... The word grenade can mean:- The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ...


See also

Islamist terrorism is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... The term terrorism is controversial and has many definitions, none of which are universally accepted. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jack Ruby murdered the alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... Though the majority of suicide bombers were and are male, female suicide bombers have carried out a number of attacks since 1986. ... A child suicide bomber is a suicide bomber under the age of 18. ... A dead mans switch (also known as - mainly in Britain - as a dead mans handle) is a device intended to take some action if the human operator becomes incapacitated in some way, a form of fail-safe practice. ... Suicide weapons are weapons designed to kill individuals or destroy military targets at the cost of the users life. ...

External links, resources, references

David Brooks David Brooks (born August 11, 1961) is a columnist for The New York Times who has become one of the prominent voices of conservative politics in the United States, though his views are considerably different from those of some other conservatives. ...

Further reading

  • Martin Kramer. 1996. Sacrifice and "Self-Martyrdom" in Shi'ite Lebanon.
  • Bernard B. Fall. 1966. Hell in a Very Small Place: The Siege of Dien Bien Phu. Da Capo Press. (References to suicide bombers on pages 352 and 368).
  • M.R. Narayan Swamy. 1996. Tigers of Lanka: From Boys to Guerrillas, 2nd Ed. Vijitha Yapa Bookshop (Colombo).
  • Dr. Eyad Sarraj. "Why we have become Suicide Bombers".התאבדות

  Results from FactBites:
 
Suicide bombing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4810 words)
Suicide bombers often believe that their actions are in accordance with moral or social standards because they are aimed at fighting forces and conditions that they perceive as unjust.
A common reaction to a suicide bomber is to assume that he (or rarely she) was motivated by despair, and probably hailed from a poor, neglected segment of society.
Cases of Middle Eastern suicide bombers being chained or tied to the steering wheel of vehicles carrying bombs or remotely detonating the said vehicles with drivers inside, and also of outfitting developmentally disabled individuals (specifically those with Down's syndrome) with suicide bomb vests, are hotly debated issues.
Suicide Bombers: Information From Answers.com (3649 words)
Suicide bombers are terrorists who attach explosives to themselves, and, consequently, die along with their victims in a bombing attack.
Suicide bombers often believe, correctly or incorrectly, that their actions are in accordance with moral or social standards because they are aimed at fighting unjust acts.
The most common initial reaction to a suicide bomber is to assume that he (or rarely she) was motivated by despair, and probably hailed from a poor, neglected segment of society.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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