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Encyclopedia > Suicide attack

A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). The means of attack have included vehicles filled with explosives, passenger planes carrying large amounts of fuel, and individuals wearing vests filled with explosives. Synonyms include suicide-homicide bombing, martyrdom operations, predatory martyrdom. Strictly speaking, an attack may not be considered a suicide attack if the attacker is not killed (although they might hope and plan to be), or if there is some question as to whether their intention is to be killed (even if the attack is certain to kill them). Terrorist redirects here. ... Few words are as politically or emotionally chared States Army|US Army]][1] counted 109 definitions of terrorism that covered a total of 22 different definitional elements. ... The history of terrorism is a history of the various types of terrorism and terrorist individuals and groups. ... International conventions on terrorism set out obligations of states in respect to defining international counter terrorist offences, prosecuting individuals suspected of such offences, extraditing such persons upon request, and providing mutual legal assistance upon request. ... Anti-terrorism legislation designs all types of laws passed in the purported aim of fighting terrorism. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11 2001. ... The term Red Terror may refer to: The Russian 1918-1922 Red Terror Spanish Red Terror during the Civil War Red terror (Spain) The 1977-1978 Red Terror in Ethiopia The race horse Red Terror The Red Terror, a figure in the Warhammer 40,000 game. ... It has been suggested that The White Terror (France) be merged into this article or section. ... Many organizations that are accused of being a terrorist organization deny using terrorism as a military tactic to achieve their goals, and there is no international consensus on the bureaucratic definition of terrorism. ... The following is a timeline of acts and failed attempts that can be considered non-state terrorism. ... Communist terrorism (or Communist terror) is terrorism committed by Communist organizations or Communist states against civilians to achieve political or ideological objectives by creating fear [1] [2][3] After Islamic groups, Communist groups are the largest number of organizations on the U.S. State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations. ... Eco-terrorism or ecoterrorism is the concept of terrorism conducted for the sake of ecological or environmental causes. ... Narcoterrorism is a term coined by former President Fernando Belaúnde Terry of Peru in 1983 when describing terrorist-type attacks against his nations anti-narcotics police. ... Nationalist terrorism is a form of terrorism through which participants attempt to form an independent state against what they consider an occupying, imperial, or otherwise illegitimate state. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Terrorism. ... 15:40, 25 January 2007 (UTC)168. ... Religious terrorism refers to terrorism justified or motivated by religion and is a form of religious violence. ... The Ku Klux Klan with a fiery cross Christian terrorism is a form of militant extremism that attempts to spread fear and terror, to perpetrate ideological goals, through violent attacks against civilian populations. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The definitions of state-sponsored terrorism, terrorism, and state terrorism are controversial. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term Agro-terrorism is a controversial neologism used to describe threats by a terrorist act on the food chain. ... For the use of biological agents in warfare, see Biological warfare. ... For other uses, see Car bomb (disambiguation). ... Environmental terrorism is the unlawful destruction of resources in order to deprive others of its use. ... Hijackers inside flightdeck of TWA Flight 847 Aircraft hijacking (also known as skyjacking and aircraft piracy) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. ... Nuclear terrorism denotes the use of nuclear weapons, radiological weapons (dirty bombs), or attacks against local facilities that handle nuclear material with mass destruction in mind. ... Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a concept of anarchist origin, which appeared towards the end of the 19th century, that promoted terrorism against political enemies as a way of inspiring the masses and catalyzing revolution. ... The Proxy Bomb (also known as a human bomb) was a tactic used by the Provisional IRA for a short time in 1990s, whereby people were forced to drive car bombs into military targets. ... A terrorist front organization is created to conceal activities or provide logistical or financial support to the illegal activities. ... This article is about acts of terrorism. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


Although use of suicide attacks has occurred throughout history — particularly with the Japanese kamikaze pilots of World War II — its main notoriety as a specific kind of attack began in the 1980s and involved explosives deliberately carried to the target either on the person or in a civilian vehicle and delivered by surprise. (Older examples are historically questionable or misplaced. Historical doubt surrounds the actions of legendary 14th century Swiss hero Arnold von Winkelried, which was in any case an act in the heat of battle. Some have cited Samson's destruction of a Philistine temple (as recounted in the Book of Judges) as an ancient example of mass murder-suicide.[1] But it cannot qualify as such because Samson was directly dependent on God for the use of his enormous strength, as his temporary loss of it a short time earlier shows.) Following the success of a 1983 truck bombing of two barracks buildings in Beirut that killed 300 and helped drive American and French Multinational Force troops from Lebanon, the tactic spread to insurgent groups like the Tamil Tigers of Sri Lanka, Palestinian groups like Hamas, and Al-Qaeda. USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near KyÅ«shÅ« on May 11, 1945. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... 19th century painting of Winkelrieds deed by Konrad Grob. ... Samson and Delilah, by Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641) This article is about Biblical figure. ... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a major incident on October 23, 1983, during the Lebanese Civil War. ... The Multinational Force in Lebanon (also MNF) was an international peacekeeping force created in 1982 and sent to Lebanon to oversee the withdrawal of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...


During this time the number of suicide attacks has grown rapidly, from an average of 4.7/year in the 1980s to 180/year in the first half of the 00s,[2] and from 81 suicide attacks in 2001 to 460 in 2005.[3] Particularly hard-hit by attacks have been military and civilian targets in Sri Lanka during Sri Lankan Civil War, Israeli targets in Israel since 1994, and Iraqis since the US-led invasion of that country in 2003. Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


Observers believe suicide attacks have become popular because of their effectiveness in killing, but the motivation of recent attack campaigns is a matter of some controversy. One scholar, Robert Pape, attributes over 90% of attacks prior to the Iraq Civil War to the same strategic goal: the withdrawal of the occupying forces from a disputed territory;[4] while another, Scott Atran, argues that since then the overwhelming majority of bombers have been motivated by the ideology of Islamist martyrdom, and that these attacks have been much more numerous. In just two years - 2004-2005 - there have been more suicide attacks, "roughly 600, than in Pape's entire sample."[5] Robert Anthony Pape, Jr. ... Scott Atran was born in New York City in 1952 and received his PhD in anthropology from Columbia University. ...

Contents

Frequency & Verification of Suicide Attacks

Determining the exact number of suicide bomber attacks is a nearly impossible task. Attacks are so frequent that neither the global media, nor native police forces forensically and exhaustively investigate each attack. Even if reporters were to follow up, most incidents that are attributed to suicide bombers are unverifiable (as the alleged bomber will have destroyed himself in the blast and any remains will be over-mixed with other human remains). In most reports, troops or police of the targeted state are the sole source for the allegation of a suicide bomber attack, and eyewitness accounts are, understandably, unreliable[6]. Further muddying the waters are reports that have surfaced of undercover intelligence operatives arrested[7] with explosives and remote control detonators as part of false flag operations[2]. This raises the possibility that at least some of these attacks are remotely detonated bombs and not suicide attacks. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... “False colors” redirects here. ...


Tactical advantages

A major reason for the popularity of suicide attacks despite the sacrifice involved for its perpetrators is its tactical advantages over other types of terrorism. The ability to conceal weapons, make last-minute adjustments, increased ability to infiltrate heavily guarded targets, lack of need for remote or delayed detonation, escape plans or rescue teams. Robert Pape observes: "Suicide attacks are an especially convincing way to signal the likelihood of more pain to come, because" if you are willing to kill yourself you are also willing to endure brutal retaliation. "... The element of suicide itself helps increase the credibility of future attacks because it suggests that attackers cannot be deterred."[8]


Types and tactics

The attacks can be either a military tactic, a political one, or a mixture of the two. It may qualify as terrorism when the intention is to kill, maim or terrorise a predominantly civilian target population, or fall within the definition of an act of war when it is committed against a military target under war conditions. Suicide attacks often target poorly-guarded, non-military facilities and personnel. Terrorist redirects here. ... Human Resources has at least two meanings depending on context. ...


Examples of different suicide attacks include:

In some cases a nuclear attack on a nuclear power may be considered a suicide attack in the wider sense, with the attacking country being sure or almost sure of suffering many fatalities in a retaliation. This is called mutually assured destruction. Explosive belt (technically, a vest) worn by a Palestinian bomber captured by Israeli police An explosive belt (also called suicide belt, suicide vest or shaheed belt) is a vest packed with explosives and armed with a detonator, worn by suicide bombers. ... Two improvised satchel charges along with Sidolówka grenades, as used in the Warsaw Uprising A satchel charge is a powerful, man-portable explosive device used by infantry and airborne forces. ... Richard Colvin Reid (born August 12, 1973), also known as the shoe bomber, is an individual convicted on charges of terrorism currently serving a life sentence in the United States. ... Matt Lauer with the crew of Flight 63, the Shoebomber flight. ... For other uses, see Car bomb (disambiguation). ... The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a major incident on October 23, 1983, during the Lebanese Civil War. ... The Central Bank Bombing was one of the most devastating terrorist bombings in the 1990s, and was the deadliest attack in the long civil war in Sri Lanka between the government and the Tamil Tigers. ... // Main article: Bombings and terrorist attacks of the Iraq War Suicide bombings in Iraq since 2003 have killed thousands of people, mostly Iraqi civilians, and arguably constitute a new phenomenon in the history of warfare. ... The USS Cole bombing was a suicide bombing attack against the U.S. Navy guided missile destroyer USS Cole (DDG 67) on October 12, 2000 while it was harbored in the Yemeni port of Aden. ... LTTE Sea Tiger head, Colonel Soosai on a Sea Tiger vessel off Mullaitivu Sea Tigers is the naval part of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, founded in 1984 [1]. The Sea Tigers have a number of small, but very effective suicide-bomber vessels [2]. During its existence it has... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... The Kaiten (Japanese:回天, translated Change the World or Reverse the Destiny) was a torpedo modified as a suicide weapon, and used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the final stages of the Second World War. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near Kyūshū on May 11, 1945. ... Thenmuli Rajaratnam (?? - 1991) was the assassin who killed Rajiv Gandhi, herself, and 16 others in a suicide bombing on May 21, 1991, in the Indian town of Sriperumbudur, near Chennai. ... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2... This article is about Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Air France Flight 8969 (AF8969, AFR8969) was an Air France flight that was hijacked on December 24, 1994 at Algiers. ... Samuel Byck Samuel Joseph Byck (January 30, 1930 – February 22, 1974) was an unemployed former tire salesman who attempted to hijack a plane from Baltimore-Washington International Airport on February 22, 1974. ... The Tel Aviv-Jerusalem bus 405 massacre occurred on July 6, 1989. ... Mutually assured destruction (MAD) is the doctrine of military strategy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ...

See also: Suicide weapon

A suicide weapon is a weapon that is specially designed for a suicide attack. ...

Profile and motivation of attackers

Pathology as cause

One initial reaction to contemporary suicide bombing was to assume that the bombers were motivated by despair, and likely to come from a poor, neglected segment of society. This has been expressed by president George W. Bush and the Dalai Lama among others. A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Tenzin Gyatso (born 6 July 1935) is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ...


The results of at least one study are consistent with despair being a cause of the attacks. A 2007 study in Afghanistan, one country with a growing number of suicide bombings, found "80%" of the suicide attackers had some kind of physical or mental disability. A study of the remains of 110 suicide bombers for the first part of 2007 by Afghan pathologist Dr. Yusef Yadgari, found 80% were missing limbs, suffered from cancer, leprosy, or some other ailments. Also in contrast to earlier findings of suicide bombers, the Afghan bombers were "not celebrated like their counterparts in other Arab nations. Afghan bombers are not featured on posters or in videos as martyrs."[9]


Many subsequent studies of suicide attackers backgrounds have not shown such a correlation. Forensic psychiatrist, (Marc Sageman) found a lack of antisocial behavior, mental illness, early social trauma or behavioral disorders such as rage, paranoia, narcissism among the 400 members of the Al Qaeda terror network he studied.[10] Positive linear correlations between 1000 pairs of numbers. ... Map of major attacks attributed to al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida or al-Qaidah) (Arabic: ‎ , translation: The Base) is an international alliance of terrorist organizations founded in 1988[4] by Osama bin Laden and other veteran Afghan Arabs after the Soviet War in...


Anthropologist Scott Atran found in a 2003 study that this is not a justifiable conclusion.[11] A recently published paper by Harvard University Professor of Public Policy Alberto Abadie "cast[s] doubt on the widely held belief that terrorism stems from poverty, finding instead that terrorist violence is related to a nation's level of political freedom."[12] More specifically this is due to the transition of countries towards democratic freedoms. "Intermediate levels of political freedom are often experienced during times of political transitions, when governments are weak, political instability is elevated, so conditions are favorable for the appearance of terrorism".[13][12] Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος, human) consists of the study of humankind (see genus Homo). ... Scott Atran was born in New York City in 1952 and received his PhD in anthropology from Columbia University. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Alberto Abadie is a professor at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. ...



Use of suicide terror against civilian targets has differing effects on the attackers' goals (see reaction below). Some economists suggest that this tactic goes beyond symbolism and is actually a response to commodified, controlled, or devalued lives, as the suicide attackers apparently consider family prestige and financial compensation from the community as compensation for their own lives.[citation needed] Whether such motivation is significant as compared to political or religious feeling remains unclear. This is an alphabetical list of notable economists, that is, experts in the social science of economics. ... The value of life (or price of life) is an economic or moral value assigned to life in general, or to specific living organisms. ...


Idealism as motivation

The doctrine of asymmetric warfare views suicide attacks as a result of an imbalance of power, in which groups with little significant power resort to suicide bombing as a convenient tactic (see advantages noted above) to demoralize the targeted civilians or government leadership of their enemies. Suicide bombing may also take place as a perceived response to actions or policies of a group with greater power.[citation needed] Groups which have significant power have no need to resort to suicide bombing to achieve their aims; consequently, suicide bombing is overwhelmingly used by guerrillas, and other irregular fighting forces. Among many such groups, there are religious overtones to martyrdom: attackers and their supporters may believe that their sacrifice will be rewarded in an afterlife. Suicide attackers often believe that their actions are in accordance with moral or social standards because they are aimed at fighting forces and conditions that they perceive as unjust. Military doctrine is a level of military planning between national strategy and unit-level tactics, techniques, and procedures. ... Asymmetric warfare originally referred to war between two or more actors or groups whose relative power differs significantly. ... Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ...


According to Robert Pape, director of the Chicago Project on suicide terrorism and expert on suicide bombers, 95% of suicide attacks in recent times have the same specific strategic goal: to cause an occupying state to withdraw forces from a disputed territory. Pape found the targeted countries were ones where the government was democratic and public opinion played a role in determining policy. Other characteristics Pape found were a difference in religion between the attackers[14] and the occupiers and grassroots support for the attacks.[15] Attackers were disproportionately from the educated middle classes.[16] Characteristics which Pape thought to be correlated to suicide bombing and bombers included: Islam, especially the influence of Salafi Islam;[17] brutality and cruelty of the occupiers;[18] competition among militant groups; and poverty, immaturity, poor education, past history of suicide attempts, or social maladjustment of the attackers.[19]


Other researchers have argued that Pape's analysis of the data is fundamentally flawed, however, particularly his contention that democracies are the main targets of such attacks.[20] Scott Atran found that non-Islamic groups have carried out very few bombings since 2003, while bombing by Muslim or Islamist groups associated with a "global ideology" of "martyrdom" has skyrocketed. In one year, in one Muslim country alone - 2004 in Iraq - there were 400 suicide attacks and 2000 casualties.[21] Still others argue that perceived religious rewards in the hereafter are instrumental in encouraging Muslims to commit suicide attacks.[22][23] Scott Atran was born in New York City in 1952 and received his PhD in anthropology from Columbia University. ...


Some aspects of suicide bombing vary. Suicide operatives are overwhelmingly male in most groups, but among the Chechen rebels and the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) women form a majority of the attackers.[24]. So too some groups use teams all or most of the time (Al-Qaeda and Chechen), and others infrequently or never (Palestinians, Lebanese, and PKK). The ritualistic communion of the extremist groups to which they belong ("lone wolf" suicide bombers are rare), in addition to their strongly-held beliefs, helps motivate their decision to commit suicide.[citation needed] The Kurdistan Workers Party (Kurdish: or PKK, Turkish: , also called KADEK, Kongra-Gel, and KCK) is a militant group founded in the 1970s and led by Abdullah Öcalan until his capture in 1999. ... The Kurdistan Workers Party (Kurdish: or PKK, Turkish: , also called KADEK, Kongra-Gel, and KCK) is a militant group founded in the 1970s and led by Abdullah Öcalan until his capture in 1999. ... Extremism is the act of taking a belief, political view or ideology to its most literal extreme. ...

Suicide
History of suicide
List of suicides
Suicide rate
Views on suicide
Medical | Cultural
Legal | Philosophical
Religious | Right to die
Suicide crisis
Intervention | Prevention
Crisis hotline | Suicide watch
Types of suicide
Suicide methods | Copycat suicide
Cult suicide | Euthanasia
Familicide | Forced suicide
Internet suicide | Mass suicide
Murder-suicide | Ritual suicide
Suicide attack | Suicide pact
Suicide by cop | Teenage suicide
Related phenomena
Self-harm | Suicidal ideation
Suicide note
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In his book, Dead for Good,[25] Hugh Barlow describes recent suicide attack campaigns as a new development in the long history of martyrdom, that he dubs predatory martyrdom. Some individuals who now act alone are inspired by emails, radical books, the internet, various new electronic media, and a general public tolerance of extreme teachers and leaders with terrorist agendas. For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Suicide has been committed by people from all walks of life since the beginning of known history. ... For incidents of suicide depicted in fiction, see List of suicides in fiction. ... World map of suicide rates per 100,000. ... Modern medical views on suicide consider suicide to be a mental health issue. ... Various human cultures may have views on suicide not directly or solely linked to religious views of suicide. ... This page concerns suicide. ... In ethics and other branches of philosophy suicide poses a difficult question, answered differently by philosophers from different times and traditions. ... There are a variety of religious views of suicide. ... For the 1987 film, see Right to Die (film) The term right to die refers to various issues around the death of an individual when that person could continue to live with the aid of life support, or in a diminished or enfeebled capacity. ... A suicide crisis, suicidal crisis, or potential suicide, is a situation in which a person is attempting to kill himself or is seriously contemplating or planning to do so. ... Modern medical views on suicide consider suicide to be a mental health issue rather than allowing that individuals can make a sane or reasoned choice to take their own life. ... Various suicide prevention strategies have been used: Promoting mental resilience through optimism and connectedness. ... As a suicide prevention initiative, this sign on the Golden Gate Bridge promotes a special telephone that connects to a crisis hotline. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A suicide method is any means by which a person purposely kills him- or herself. ... A copycat suicide is defined as a duplication or copycat of another suicide that the person attempting suicide knows about either from local knowledge or due to accounts or depictions of the original suicide on television and in other media. ... Cult suicide is that phenomenon by which some cults, have led to their membership committing suicide. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... A familicide is a type of murder or murder-suicide in which at least one spouse and one or more children are killed. ... Forced suicide is a method of execution where the victim is given the choice of committing suicide or facing an alternative they perceive as worse, such as suffering torture; having friends or family members imprisoned, tortured or killed; or losing honor, position or means. ... An Internet suicide is a suicide pact made between individuals who meet on the Internet. ... Mass suicide occurs when a number of people kill themselves together with one another or for the same reason and is usually connected to a real or perceived persecution. ... A murder suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before, or while killing himself. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... A suicide pact describes the suicides of two or more individuals in an agreed-upon plan. ... Suicide-by-cop is a suicide method in which someone deliberately acts in a threatening way towards a law enforcement officer, with the main goal of provoking a lethal response (e. ... Teenage suicide is the self-killing of a teenager. ... Self-harm (SH) is deliberate injury to ones own body. ... Suicidal ideation is common medical term for the mere thoughts about and of plans of committing suicide, not the actual following through or act itself. ... A suicide note is a message left by someone who later attempts or commits suicide. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Islamic motivation

Main article: Istishhad

Suicide bombing is often associated with the religion of Islam. 224 of 300 suicide terror attacks from 1980 to 2003 compiled by the Chicago Project on Suicide Terrorism involved Islamist groups or terrorist acts in Muslim-majority lands.[26] Another tabulation found a massive increase in suicide bombings in the two years following Papes study and that the overwhelming majority of these bombers were motivated by the ideology of Islamist martyrdom.[27] According to still another estimate, as of early 2008, 1,121 Muslim suicide bombers have blown themselves up in Iraq alone.[28] 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Based on quotes by Islamists such as Hamas activist Muhammad Abu Wardeh,

God would compensate the martyr for sacrificing his life for his land. If you become a martyr, God will give you 70 virgins (houris), 70 wives and everlasting happiness.[29]

the idea that Muslim "martyrs" believe they are promised 70 or 72 houris or virgins in the afterworld has spread far and wide among non-Muslims[30][31][32][33] This has led some to conclude there is a connection between Islam and suicide attacks.


Muslim views

Some Sunni scholars reject suicide.[34] However, some top authorities do support suicide attacks on perceived enemies of Islam. [ Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi, sometimes called "the world's most quoted independent Islamic jurist",[35] has called martyrdom operations: Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...

the greatest of all sorts of Jihad in the Cause of Allah. A martyr operation is carried out by a person who sacrifices himself, deeming his life less value than striving in the Cause of Allah, in the cause of restoring the land and preserving the dignity. [36]

Other clerics have supported attacks mainly in connection with Palestine. Sunni Iraqi Cleric, Sheikh Ahmad Al-Qubeisi has proclaimed that "those who commit martyrdom [i.e. suicide] operations who are, by Allah, the greatest martyrs in Islamic history..."[37] Amongst others the Imam of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Abd Al-Rahman Al-Sudayyis,[38], the former President of Al-Azhar University, Ahmad 'Omar Hashem[39] and Cleric, Sheikh Ibrahim Mudeiris of Gaza[40] have all urged on suicide operations by Muslims. Sayed Mohammed Musawi, head of the World Islamic League in London, condemning the London bombings, but insisted "there should be a clear distinction between the suicide bombing of those who are trying to defend themselves from occupiers, which is something different from those who kill civilians, which is a big crime."[41] There have been conflicting reports about the stand of Sheikh Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy, the top Egyptian cleric of Al ­Azhar University, and the mufti of Egypt, Sheikh Dr. Ahmad Al ­Tayyeb. Shortly after 9/11 the Sheikh Tantawy issued a statement apposing suicide attacks.[42] But a translation from Al ­Azhar website quotes him as supporting suicide attacks on Jews in Israel as part of the Palestinian struggle "to strike horror into the hearts of the enemies of Islam."[43] Then in mid-2003 he was quoted again as saying "groups which carried out suicide bombings were the enemies of Islam."[44] The 7 July 2005 London bombings (also called the 7/7 bombings) were a series of coordinated terrorist bomb blasts that hit Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ... Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy (Arabic: محمد سيد طنطاوى) (born 28 October 1928) is the Grand Imam of Al-Azhar Mosque and Grand Sheikh of Al-Azhar University. ...


According to Professor Charles A. Kimball, chair of the Department of Religion at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, "There is only one verse in the Qur'an that contains a phrase related to suicide", Verse 4:29 of the Qur'an.[45] It reads O you who believe! Do not consume your wealth in the wrong way-rather through trade mutually agreed to, and do not kill yourselves. Surely God is Merciful toward you. Some commentators believe that the phrase "do not kill yourselves" is better translated "do not kill each other", and some translations (e.g. Shakir) reflect that view. (A note on the Qur'an's unique textual density is perhaps in order here: It is not uncommon for a single Qur'anic Arabic phrase to embrace two or more complementary meanings at the same time, and this may be the case with 4:29.) Wake Forest University is a private, coeducational university located in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. ... Nickname: Motto: Youre Something Special in Winston-Salem Location in North Carolina Coordinates: , Country State Counties Forsyth County Founded Consolidated 1766 Salem 1849 Winston 1913 Government  - Mayor Allen Joines (D) Area  - City  132. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Mohammad Habib Shakir, born Cairo 1866, died Cairo 1939, translated the Quran into English. ...


Mainstream Islamic groups such as the European Council for Fatwa and Research use the Quran'ic verse Al-Anam 6:151 (And take not life, which Allah has made sacred, except by way of justice and law) as further reason to prohibit suicide.[46] In addition, the hadith unambiguously forbid suicide.[47] Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ...


A contrary view is presented by Faisal Bodi who has written in The Guardian that, "in the Muslim world, then, we celebrate what we call the martyr-bombers. To us they are heroes defending the things we hold sacred. Polls in the Middle East show 75% of people in favour of martyr-bombings."[35] Nevertheless, Islamist militant organisations (including Al-Qaeda, Hamas and Islamic Jihad) continue to argue that suicide operations are justified according to Islamic law, despite Islam's strict prohibition of suicide and murder.[48][49] Irshad Manji, in a conversation with one leader of Islamic Jihad noted their ideology. For other uses, see Guardian. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of Israel superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... Irshad Manji (born 1968) is a Canadian Muslim feminist, author, journalist, and activist. ...

"What's the difference between suicide, which the Koran condemns, and martyrdom?" I asked. "Suicide," he replied, "is done out of despair. But remember: most of our martyrs today were very successful in their earthly lives." In short, there was a future to live for--and they detonated it anyway.

Since the four suicide bombings in London, there have been many scholastic refutations of suicide bombings from Sunni Muslims. Ihsanic Intelligence, a London-based Islamic think-tank, published their two-year study into suicide bombings in the name of Islam, titled 'The Hijacked Caravan',[50] which concluded that, "The technique of suicide bombing is anathema, antithetical and abhorrent to Sunni Islam. It is considered legally forbidden, constituting a reprehensible innovation in the Islamic tradition, morally an enormity of sin combining suicide and murder and theologically an act which has consequences of eternal damnation."[51] The Oxford-based Malayist jurist, Shaykh Muhammad Afifi al-Akiti, issued his landmark fatwa on suicide bombing and targeting innocent civilians, titled 'Defending the Transgressed, by Censuring the Reckless against the Killing of Civilians', where he states suicide bombing in its most widespread form, is forbidden: 'If the attack involves a bomb placed on the body or placed so close to the bomber that when the bomber detonates it the bomber is certain [yaqin] to die, then the More Correct Position according to us is that it does constitute suicide. This is because the bomber, being also the Maqtul [the one killed], is unquestionably the same Qatil [the immediate/active agent that kills] = Qatil Nafsahu [suicide]"[52]


In January of 2006, one of Shia Islam's highest ranking marja clerics, Ayatollah al-Udhma Yousof al-Sanei also decreed a fatwa against suicide bombing, declaring it as a "terrorist act".[53] Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed... Ayatollah al-Udhma Yousof al-Sanei is a Grand Marja of Shia Islam. ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ...


Nationalist motivation

Various scholars and analysts, however, dispute the claim that Muslim suicide bombers are driven by religion.


Research of Professor Robert A. Pape of the University of Chicago suggests that foreign occupation is the principal factor motivating suicide: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Beneath the religious rhetoric with which [such terror] is perpetrated, it occurs largely in the service of secular aims. Suicide terrorism is mainly a response to foreign occupation rather than a product of Islamic fundamentalism. ... Though it speaks of Americans as infidels, al-Qaida is less concerned with converting us to Islam than removing us from Arab and Muslim lands.[54]

From 1980 to early 2004, 95% of suicide attacks had the central objective of compelling a democratic state with military forces on territory that the terrorists prize to take those forces out.


Much of the discourse that frames or responds to suicide bombing addresses or attempts to uncover the rationality of the action itself. Generally, the suicide bomber is understood as irrational —driven beyond the boundaries of rational thought by environmental, religious, political, and/or social factors —therefore capable of setting aside the "common sense" of self-preservation. The Pentagon released a study tasked with pinpointing motivation: This article is about the United States military building. ...

"His actions provide a win-win scenario for himself, his family, his faith and his God," The document explains. "The bomber secures salvation and the pleasures of Paradise. He earns a degree of financial security and a place for his family in Paradise. He defends his faith and takes his place in a long line of martyrs to be memorialized as a valorous fighter. And finally, because of the manner of his death, he is assured that he will find favor with Allah," the briefing adds. "Against these considerations, the selfless sacrifice by the individual Muslim to destroy Islam's enemies becomes a suitable, feasible and acceptable course of action."

Recent published research on the rationale of suicide bombing as an effective technique to kill enemies has highlighted the importance of motivation as a driving force.[55][56][57]While some scholars uncover the interplay of such conduct with political and socio-economic factors,[58][59]others agree that religion is a driving force to encourage suicide bombers.This mainstream puts forward that religion provides the framework for suicide bombing precisely because acting in the name of Islam is regarded as a form of martyrdom.Since "martyrdom"is widely seen as a step towards Heaven, those who commit suicide whilst discarding their community from a common enemy believe that they will reach an ultimate salvation after they die.[60]


The briefing – produced by a little-known Pentagon intelligence unit called the Counterintelligence Field Activity, or CIFA – cites a number of passages from the Quran dealing with jihad, or "holy" warfare, martyrdom and Paradise, where "beautiful mansions" and "maidens" await martyr heroes. In preparation for attacks, suicide terrorists typically recited passages from the Quran. Counterintelligence Field Activity (CIFA) is a US Department of Defense (DoD) agency whose size and budget are classified. ...


Various scholars and analysts, however, dispute the claim that Muslim suicide bombers are driven by religion.


Small World Factors and Group Dynamics

According to anthropologist Scott Atran[61] and former CIA case officer Marc Sageman ,[62]support for suicide actions is triggered by moral outrage at perceived attacks against Islam and sacred values, but this is converted to action as a result of small world factors. There are millions who express sympathy with global jihad (according to a 2006 Gallup study in involving more than 50,000 interviews in 10 countries, 7 percent of the world's 1.3. billion Muslims - 90 million people - consider the 9/11 attacks "completely justified.") Nevertheless, only some thousands show willingness to commit violence (e.g., 60 arrested in the USA, 2400 in Western Europe, 3200 in Saudi Arabia). They tend to go to violence in small groups consisting mostly of friends, and some kin (although friends tend to become kin as they marry one another's sisters and cousins - there are dozens of such marriages among militant members of Southeast Asia's Jemaah Islamiyah). These groups arise within specific "scenes": neighborhoods, schools (classes, dorms), workplaces and common leisure activities (soccer, paintball, mosque discussion groups, barbershop, café, online chat-rooms). Scott Atran was born in New York City in 1952 and received his PhD in anthropology from Columbia University. ... Jemaah Islamiyah[1] (JI, Arabic phrase meaning Islamic Group or Islamic Community) is a Southeast Asian militant Islamic organization dedicated to the establishment of a Daulah Islamiyah[2] (Islamic State) in Southeast Asia incorporating Indonesia, Malaysia, the southern Philippines, Singapore and Brunei[3]. JI was added to the United Nations...


Three other examples:


1. In Al Qaeda, about 70 percent join with friends, 20 percent with kin. Interviews with friends of the 9/11 suicide pilots reveal they weren't "recruited" into Qaeda. They were Middle Eastern Arabs isolated even among the Moroccan and Turkish Muslims who predominate in Germany. Seeking friendship, they began hanging out after services at the Masjad al-Quds and other nearby mosques in Hamburg, in local restaurants and in the dormintory of the Technical University in the suburb of Harburg. Three (Mohammed Atta, Ramzi Binalshibh, Marwan al-Shehhi) wound up living together as they self-radicalized. They wanted to go to Chechnya, then Kosovo, only landing in a Qaeda camp in Afghanistan as a distant third choice. Map of major attacks attributed to al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida or al-Qaidah) (Arabic: ‎ , translation: The Base) is an international alliance of terrorist organizations founded in 1988[4] by Osama bin Laden and other veteran Afghan Arabs after the Soviet War in... Mohammed Atta is a name commonly used to refer to the following individuals: Mohamed Atta al Sayed was the Al-Qaeda suicide pilot of the first plane to crash into the World Trade Center during the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: CSRT Summary of Evidence memo for Ramzi Binalshibh Ramzi Binalshibh (Arabic: رمزي بن الشيبة; also transliterated as Ramzi bin al-Shibh, Ramzi bin al-Shaibah, and several other ways; born May 1, 1972[2]), is a citizen of Yemen and according to the United States... Marwan Yousef al-Shehhi (Arabic: مروان الشحي, also transliterated Alshehhi[1]) was named by the FBI as the suicide pilot aboard United Airlines flight 175 which crashed into the second World Trade Center tower on September 11, 2001. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...


2. Five of the seven plotters in the 11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings who blew themselves up when cornered by police grew up in the tumble-down neighborhood of Jemaa Mezuak in Tetuan, Morocco: Jamal Ahmidan, brothers Mohammed and Rashid Oulad Akcha, Abdennabi Kounjaa, Asri Rifaat. In 2006, at least five more young Mezuaq men went to Iraq on "martyrdom missions": Abdelmonim Al-Amrani, Younes Achebak, Hamza Aklifa, and the brothers Bilal and Munsef Ben Aboud (DNA analysis has confirmed the suicide bombing death of Amrani in Baqubah, Iraq). All 5 attended a local elementary school (Abdelkrim Khattabi), the same one that Madrid’s Moroccan bombers attended. And 4 of the 5 were in the same high school class (Kadi Ayadi, just outside Mezuak). They played soccer as friends, went to the same mosque (Masjad al-Rohban of the Dawa Tabligh), mingled in the same restaurants, barbershops and cafes. The 2004 Madrid train bombings (also known as 11-M, 3/11, 11/3 and M-11) were a series of coordinated bombings against the commuter train system of Madrid, Spain on the morning of 11 March 2004, which killed 191 people and wounded over 1700. ...


3. Hamas's most sustained suicide bombing campaign in 2003-4 involved several buddies from Hebron's Masjad (mosque) al-Jihad soccer team. Most lived in the Wad Abu Katila neighborhood and belonged to the al-Qawasmeh hamula (clan); several were classmates in the neighborhood's local branch of the Palestinian Polytechnic College. There ages ranged from 18 to 22. At least eight team members were dispatched to suicide shooting and bombing operations by the Hamas military leader in Hebron, Abdullah al-Qawasmeh (killed by Israeli forces in June 2003 and succeeded by his relatives Basel al-Qawasmeh, killed in September 2003, and Imad al-Qawasmeh, captured on October 13, 2004). In retaliation for the assassinations of Hamas leaders Sheikh Ahmed Yassin (March 22, 2004) and Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi (April 17, 2004), Imad al-Qawasmeh dispatched Ahmed al-Qawasmeh and Nasim al-Ja'abri for a suicide attack on two buses in Beer Sheva (August 31, 2004). In December 2004, Hamas declared a halt to suicide attacks. Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ... Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Yassin (1936 - 2004 (about 68 years old)) (Arabic: ) was the co-founder (with Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi) and the spiritual leader of the militant Palestinian Islamist organization of Hamas,[1] originally calling it the Palestinian Wing of the Muslim Brotherhood. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


On January 15, 2008, the son of Mahmoud al-Zahar, the leader of Hamas in the Gaza Strip, was killed (another son was killed in a 2003 assassination attempt on Zahar). Three days later, Israel Defense Minister Ehud Barak ordered Israel Defense Forces to seal all border crossings with Gaza, cutting off the flow of vital supplies to the besieged territory in an attempt to stop rocket barrages on Israeli border towns. Nevertheless, violence from both sides only increased. On February 4, 2008, two friends (Mohammed Herbawi, Shadi Zghayer), who were members of the Masjad al-Jihad soccer team, staged a suicide bombing at at commercial center in Dimona, Israel. Herbawi had previously been arrested as a 17-year-old on March 15, 2003 shortly after a suicide bombing on Haifa bus (by Mamoud al-Qawasmeh on March 5, 2003) and coordinated suicide shooting attacks on Israeli settlements by others on the team (March 7, 2003, Muhsein, Hazem al-Qawasmeh, Fadi Fahuri, Sufian Hariz) and before another set of suicide bombings by team members in Hebron and Jerusalem on May 17-18, 2003 (Fuad al-Qawasmeh, Basem Takruri, Mujahed al-Ja'abri). Although Hamas claimed responsibility for the Dimona attack, the politburo leadership in Damascus and Beirut was clearly initially unaware of who initiated and carried out the attack. It appears that Ahmad al-Ja'abri, military commander of Hamas's Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades in Gaza (and who is also originally from a Hebron clan) requested the suicide attack through Ayoub Qawasmeh, Hamas's military liasion in Hebron, who knew where to look for eager young men who had self-radicalized together and had already mentally prepared themselves for martyrdom.[63] Mahmoud al-Zahar (Arabic: محمود الزهار) (born 1945) is a co-founder of Hamas, and a member of Hamass leadership in the Gaza Strip. ... Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942) is an Israeli politician, former Prime Minster, and current Minister of Defense and leader of Israels Labor Party. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... Hamas, acronym of Harakat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyyah (Arabic: Islamic Resistance Movement, Hamas is also Arabic for zeal or courage) is a Palestinian Islamist paramilitary and political organization, regarded by some as a militant organization and by others as a terrorist group. ...


History

Background

The concept of self-sacrifice has long been a part of war. However, many instances of suicide bombing today has intended civilian targets, not military targets alone. So there are some principal differences between the ideas of the past and the present. From the earliest days of honouring fallen soldiers as heroes, those who sacrifice themselves to further a political, moral, or cultural ideology have been and are still highly regarded figures in their respective societies. Soldiers who lay down their lives to protect their comrades are commonly awarded the highest recognition for courage in battle, while those who survive combat are honoured for their physical and psychological sacrifice. An example of such self-sacrifice in warfare in medieval legend is Arnold von Winkelried. The earliest reference of a suicide attack outside a context of warfare has been suggested to be in the story of Samson who died together with his victims as he collapsed a Philistine temple: For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... For other uses, see Courage (disambiguation). ... 19th century painting of Winkelrieds deed by Konrad Grob. ... Samson and Delilah, by Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641) This article is about Biblical figure. ...

"Samson said, 'Let me die with the Philistines!' Down came the temple on the rulers and all the people in it. Thus he killed many more as he died than while he lived." (Judges 16:30).

An example is from the time of the Crusades, when the Knights Templar destroyed one of their own ships, killing 140 Christians in order to kill ten times as many Muslims.[citation needed] This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ...


A modern example of suicide bombing occurred during the Belgian Revolution, when the Dutch Lieutenant Jan van Speijk detonated his own ship in the harbour of Antwerp to prevent being captured by the Belgians. This article is about the historical Belgian Revolution of the 1830s. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... Van Speyk shoots at a barrel of gunpowder, detonating his own ship. ... A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ...


Another example was the Prussian soldier Karl Klinke on 18 April 1864 at the Battle of Dybbøl, when he blew a hole in a Danish fortification. Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... The Battle of Dybbøl occured on the morning of April 18, 1864 in which the Prussian army defeated the Danish army after hours of heavy bombardment. ... For the fortification of food, see Food fortification. ...


The act of deliberately destroying oneself to inflict harm on an enemy, especially civilians, is more restricted to modern times and the era of explosives. The line between the two is considered by some a matter of subjectivity, as in the argument that many WWII soldiers killed were "martyrs" (in the sense that they were to suffer for the sake of a principle, rather than dying as the penalty for refusing to renounce a belief) because their life expectancy in combat was very low—often averaging only two or three months. For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ...


Modern suicide bombing as a political tool can be traced back to the assassination of Czar Alexander II of Russia in 1881. Alexander fell victim to a Nihilist plot. While driving on one of the central streets of Saint Petersburg, near the Winter Palace, he was mortally wounded by the explosion of hand-made grenades and died a few hours afterwards. The Tzar was killed by the Pole Ignacy Hryniewiecki, who died while intentionally exploding the bomb during the attack. Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... The Nihilist movement was an 1860s Russian cultural movement which rejected existing authorities and values. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... Ignacy Hryniewiecki (Игнатий Гриневицкий in Russian, or Ignatiy Grinevitskiy) (August of 1855, or fall of 1856 - 1881), Polish-Russian revolutionary, murderer of Tsar Alexander II of Russia. ...


The ritual act of self-sacrifice during combat appeared in a large scale at the end of World War II with the Japanese kamikaze bombers. In these attacks, airplanes were used as flying bombs. Later in the war, as Japan became more desperate, this act became formalized and ritualized, as planes were outfitted with explosives specific to the task of a suicide mission. Kamikaze strikes were a weapon of asymmetric war used by the Empire of Japan chiefly against United States Navy aircraft carriers. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near KyÅ«shÅ« on May 11, 1945. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... USN redirects here. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea...


The Japanese Navy also used both one and two man piloted torpedoes called kaiten on suicide missions. Although sometimes called midget submarines, these were modified versions of the unmanned torpedoes of the time and are distinct from the torpedo-firing midget submarines used earlier in the war, which were designed to infiltrate shore defences and return to a mother ship after firing their torpedoes. Though extremely hazardous, these midget submarine attacks were not technically suicide missions, as the earlier kaitens had escape hatches. Later kaitens, by contrast, provided no means of escape. The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... The Kaiten (Japanese:回天, translated Change the World or Reverse the Destiny) was a torpedo modified as a suicide weapon, and used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the final stages of the Second World War. ... A midget submarine is a small submarine, typically with one or two crew and no on-board living accommodation. ... See: espionage, urban exploration, entryism, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. ... Shore A shore or shoreline is the land at the edge of a large body of water, such as an ocean, sea, or lake. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


After aiming a two-person kaiten at their target, the two crew members traditionally embraced and shot each other in the head. Social support for such choices was strong, due in part to Japanese cultural history, in which seppuku, honourable suicide, was part of samurai duty. It was also fostered and indoctrinated by the Imperial program to persuade the Japanese soldiers to commit these acts. Seppuku (Japanese: 切腹, belly-cutting) is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment. ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... Duty is a term loosely appliedDuty to any action (or course of action) whichDutyDuty is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ... For other uses, see Persuasion (disambiguation). ...


Suicide attacks were used as a military tactic aimed at causing material damage in war, during the Second World War in the Pacific as Allied ships were attacked by Japanese kamikaze pilots who caused maximum damage by flying their explosive-laden aircraft into military targets, not focused on civilian targets. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near Kyūshū on May 11, 1945. ... Flying machine redirects here. ...


During the Battle for Berlin the Luftwaffe flew "Self-sacrifice missions" (Selbstopfereinsatz) against Soviet bridges over the River Oder. These 'total missions' were flown by pilots of the Leonidas Squadron under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Heiner Lange. From 17 April until 20 April 1945, using any aircraft that were available, the Luftwaffe claimed that the squadron destroyed 17 bridges, however the military historian Antony Beevor when writing about the incident thinks that this was exaggerated and that only the railway bridge at Küstrin was definitely destroyed. He comments that "thirty-five pilots and aircraft was a high price to pay for such a limited and temporary success". The missions were called off when the Soviet ground forces reached the vicinity of the squadron's airbase at Jüterbog.[64] This article is about the capture of Berlin in 1945. ... The Oder (known in Czech, Slovajk and Polish as Odra) is a river in Central Europe. ... Leonidas can refer to: Leonidas I, king of Sparta, ruled c. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... St Nicholas Church Jüterbog (2002 pop. ...


Following World War II, Viet Minh "death volunteers" fought against the French colonial army by using a long stick-like explosive to detonate French tanks, as part of their urban warfare tactics. The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ...


In 1972 in the hall of the Lod airport in Tel Aviv, Israel, three Japanese used grenades and automatic rifles to kill 26 people and wound many more.[65] The group belonged to the Japanese Red Army (JRA) a terrorist organization created in 1969 and allied to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). Until then, no group involved in terrorism had conducted such a suicide operation in Israel. Members of the JRA became instructors in martial art and kamikaze operations at several training camps bringing the suicide techniques to the Middle East[citation needed]. On May 30, 1972 three members of the Japanese Red Army undertook a terrorist attack in Lod Airport in Tel Aviv on behalf of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... Heckler & Koch G41 automatic rifles are legal in asutralia an america with lisence An automatic rifle is a term generally used to describe a self-loading rifle capable of firing either semi or fully-automatically from a magazine or belt of ammunition. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near Kyūshū on May 11, 1945. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


1980 to present

The first modern suicide bombing—involving explosives deliberately carried to the target either on the person or in a civilian vehicle and delivered by surprise—was in 1981; perfected by the factions of the Lebanese Civil War and especially by the Tamil Tigers of Sri Lanka, the tactic had spread to dozens of countries by 2005 . Those hardest-hit are Sri Lanka during its prolonged ethnic conflict, Lebanon during its civil war, Israel and the Palestinian Territories since 1994 , and Iraq since the US-led invasion in 2003. Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...

Former Prime Minister of India Rajiv Gandhi was the first and most high-profile victim of female suicide bombing. Shown here is a mosaic commemorating Rajiv at the exact place where he was assassinated.
Former Prime Minister of India Rajiv Gandhi was the first and most high-profile victim of female suicide bombing. Shown here is a mosaic commemorating Rajiv at the exact place where he was assassinated.

The Islamic Dawa Party's car bombing of the Iraqi embassy in Beirut in December 1981 and Hezbollah's bombing of the U.S. embassy in April 1983 and attack on United States Marine and French barracks in October 1983 brought suicide bombings international attention. Other parties to the civil war were quick to adopt the tactic, and by 1999 factions such as Hezbollah, the Amal Movement, the Ba'ath Party, and the Syrian Social Nationalist Party had carried out around 50 suicide bombings between them. (The latter of these groups sent the first recorded female suicide bomber in 1985 . Female combatants have existed throughout human history and in many different societies, so it is possible that females who engage in suicidal attacks are not new.) Hezbollah was the only one to attack overseas, bombing the Israeli embassy (and possibly the Argentine-Israeli Mutual Association building) in Buenos Aires; as its military and political power have grown, it has since abandoned the tactic. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1680 × 2534 pixel, file size: 831 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1680 × 2534 pixel, file size: 831 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2... Though the majority of suicide bombers were and are male, female suicide bombers have carried out a number of attacks since 1985. ... The Islamic Dawa Party or Islamic Call Party (Arabic حزب الدعوة الإسلامية Ḥizb al Daʿwa al-Islāmiyya) is, historically, a militant Shiite Islamic group and, presently, an Iraqi conservative political party. ... For other uses, see Car bomb (disambiguation). ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... The April 18, 1983, suicide bombing of the United States Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon was the deadliest attack on a US displomatic mission to that time, and is seen by some as marking the beginning of anti-US attacks by Islamic groups. ... The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a major incident on October 23, 1983, during the Lebanese Civil War. ... For other uses of Amal, see the disambiguation page. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... SSNP flag The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP) is a nationalist political party in Syria and Lebanon. ... Sanaa Mehaidli in her SSNP uniform. ... Though the majority of suicide bombers were and are male, female suicide bombers have carried out a number of attacks since 1985. ... The Israeli Embassy attack in Buenos Aires was a bomb attack against Israels embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina on March 17, 1992. ... The AMIA Bombing was an attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (Argentine Israelite Mutual Association, or AMIA) building in Buenos Aires on July 18, 1994, that killed 85 people. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ...


Lebanon saw the first bombing, but it was the LTTE Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka who perfected the tactic and inspired its use elsewhere [4]. Their Black Tiger unit has committed between 76 and 168 (estimates vary) suicide bombings since 1987 , the higher estimates putting them behind more than half of the world's suicide bombings between 1980 and 2000 [5]. The list of victims include former Indian Prime Minister, Rajiv Gandhi, and the president of Sri Lanka, Ranasinghe Premadasa. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Black Tigers are special operatives of the LTTE that commit suicide if needed to reach their objectives. ... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Suicide bombing has, since 1993, been a particularly popular tactic amongst some Palestinian groups, including Hamas, Islamic Jihad, and the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade. Bombers affiliated with these groups often use so-called "suicide belts", explosive devices (often including shrapnel) designed to be strapped to the body under clothing. In order to maximize the loss of life, the bombers may seek out cafés or city buses crowded with people at rush hour, or less commonly a military target (for example, soldiers waiting for transport at roadside). By seeking enclosed locations, a successful bomber usually kills a number of people. The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... The Al_Aqsa Martyrs Brigades (كتائب شهداء الاقصى) are one of the militias of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafats al_Fatah faction. ... An explosive belt (also called suicide belt) is a vest packed with explosives (sometimes with nails, screws, bolts and other objects to maximize the number of casualties) and a detonator that is worn by suicide bombers. ... Explosive devices, as used by terrorists, guerrillas or commando forces, are formally known as Improvised Explosive Devices or IEDs. ... It has been suggested that Fragmentation (weaponry) be merged into this article or section. ... Autobus redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rush hour (disambiguation). ...


Palestinian television has aired a number of music videos and announcements that promote eternal reward for children who seek "shahada",[66] which Palestinian Media Watch has claimed is "Islamic motivation of suicide terrorists".[67] The Chicago Tribune has documented the concern of Palestinian parents that their children are encouraged to take part in suicide operations.[68] Israeli sources have also alleged that Hamas, Islamic Jihad and Fatah operate "Paradise Camps," training children as young as 11 to become suicide bombers.[69][70] A music video (also video clip, promo) is a short film or video meant to present a visual representation of a popular music song. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Scale model of a Wheaties cereal box at a pep rally Promotion is one of the four key aspects of the marketing mix. ... Eternal can refer to: The British R&B group Eternal Eternals, the Marvel Comics characters created by Jack Kirby The eternity puzzle The concept of eternity The philosophical notion of the incorporeal, or immaterial realm. ... , // Shāhāda is a town in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India, now in Nandurbār District (formerly in Dhule District). ... Front page of the Tribune incorrectly reporting that Dewey won the 1948 presidential election The Chicago Tribune, formerly self-styled as the Worlds Greatest Newspaper, remains the leading newspaper of the Midwest of the United States. ...


The Kurdistan Workers' Party has also employed suicide bombings in the scope of its guerrilla attacks on Turkish security forces since the beginning of their insurgency against the Turkish state in 1984. Although the majority of PKK activity is focused on village guards, gendarme, and military posts, they have employed suicide bombing tactics on tourist sites and commercial centers in Western Turkish cities, especially during the peak of tourism season. Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) Flag Congress for Freedom and Democracy in Kurdistan (KADEK) Flag Kongra-gel Flag The Kurdistan Workers Party (Kurdish: Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan or PKK), is one of several organisations striving for the rights of the kurdish people in Turkey. ... The Congress for Freedom and Democracy in Kurdistan (Kadek), formerly known as the Kurdistan Workers Party (Kurdish: Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan, PKK ) was one of several militant groups fighting for the creation of an independent Kurdish state in southern Turkey, northern Iraq, Northern Syria and western Iran. ... Village guards (Turkish: Koruculuk) are paramilitaries. ...


The September 11, 2001 attacks involved the hijacking of large passenger jets which were deliberately flown into the towers of the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon, killing everyone aboard the planes and thousands more in and around the targeted buildings. The passenger jets selected were required to be fully fueled to fly cross-country, turning the planes themselves into the largest suicide bombs in history. The 'September 11' attacks also had a vast economic and political impact: for the cost of the lives of the 19 hijackers and financial expenditure of around US$100,000, al-Qaeda, the militant Islamist group responsible for the attacks, effected a trillion-dollar drop in global markets within one week, and triggered massive increases in military and security expenditure in response. A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Hijackers inside flightdeck of TWA Flight 847 Aircraft hijacking (also known as skyjacking and aircraft piracy) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. ... Jet aircraft are aircrafts with jet engines. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the United States military building. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... The word militant has come to refer to any individual or party engaged in aggressive physical or verbal combat, normally for a cause. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ...


In December 22, 2001, Richard Reid attempted to destroy the American Airlines Flight 63 by the means of a bomb hidden in a shoe. He was arrested after his attempt was foiled when he was unable to light the bomb's fuse. is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Richard Reid, in a prison photograph Richard Colvin Reid (born August 12, 1973), also known as the shoe bomber, is a British citizen born in Bromley, South London and a Muslim allegedly working for Al-Qaeda. ... Matt Lauer with the crew of Flight 63, the Shoebomber flight. ... In an explosive, pyrotechnic device or military munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function. ...


After the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, Iraqi and foreign insurgents carried out waves of suicide bombings. They attacked United States military targets, although many civilian targets (eg. Shiite mosques, international offices of the UN and the Red Cross, Iraqi men waiting to apply for jobs with the new army and police force) were also attacked. In the lead up to the Iraqi parliamentary election, on January 30, 2005, suicide attacks upon civilian and security personnel involved with the elections increased, and there were reports of the insurgents co-opting disabled people as involuntary suicide bombers.[71] Professor Pape suggests that the bombings of Iraqis by Iraqis target those believed to be in the service of the American occupation. For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq without the explicit backing of the United... The Iraqi insurgency denotes groups using armed resistance against the US-led Coalition occupation of Iraq. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Iraqi police officers hold up their index fingers marked with purple indelible ink, a security measure to prevent double voting. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the political process. ...


Suicide bombings have occurred in more than 30 countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Bangladesh, China, Colombia, Croatia, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, the Palestinian territories, Panama, the Philippines, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, and Yemen. (Suicide planes were also used in the United States). This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ...

The 7th July 2005 London suicide bombers caught on CCTV at Luton train station at 07:21 BST on July 7, 2005. From left to right, Hasib Hussain, Germaine Lindsay, Mohammad Sidique Khan, and Shehzad Tanweer.[72] (Image: Crown copyright)

Image File history File links This image is protected by British Crown copyright. ... Image File history File links This image is protected by British Crown copyright. ... The 7 July 2005 London bombings (also called the 7/7 bombings) were a series of coordinated terrorist bomb blasts that hit Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ... For other uses, see Luton (disambiguation). ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street station in 1865. ... Hasib Mir Hussain (September 16, 1986 – July 7, 2005) was one of four terrorists who detonated bombs on three trains on the London Underground and one bus in central London during the 7 July 2005 London bombings. ... Jamal Lindsay (c. ... Mohammad Sidique Khan (October 20, 1974 – July 7, 2005) was the oldest of the four suicide bombers responsible for the 7 July 2005 London bombings, in which bombs were detonated on three London Underground trains and one bus in central London suicide attacks that killed 52 people and injured over... Shehzad Tanweer (December 15, 1982 – July 7, 2005) was one of four men who blew up three trains on the London Underground and one bus in central London during the 7 July 2005 London bombing. ... Crown copyright is a form of copyright claim used by the governments of a number of Commonwealth realms. ...

Range of opinions

World leaders, especially those of countries that experience suicide bombings, usually express resolve to continue on their previous course of affairs after such attacks. They denounce suicide bombings and sometimes vow not to let such bombings deter ordinary people from going about their everyday economic business.


Suicide bombings are sometimes followed by reprisals. As a successful suicide bomber cannot be targeted, the response is often a targeting of those believed to have sent the bomber. In targeting such organizations, Israel often uses military strikes against organizations, individuals, and possibly infrastructure. In the West Bank the IDF formerly demolished homes that belong to families whose children (or renters whose tenants) had volunteered for such missions (whether successfully or not),[73] though an internal review starting in October 2004 brought an end to the policy.[74] The effectiveness of suicide bombings—notably those of the Japanese kamikazes, the Palestinian bombers, and even the September 11, 2001 attacks—is debatable. Although kamikaze attacks could not stop the Allied advance the Pacific, they inflicted more casualties and delayed the fall of Japan for longer than might have been the case using only the conventional methods available to the Japanese Empire. Subsequently, Japanese leaders acknowledged the great cost in losing many of their best young men in these actions. The attacks reinforced the resolution of the World War II Allies to destroy the Imperial force, and may have had a significant effect in the decision to use atomic bombs against Japan.[citation needed] In warfare, a reprisal is a limited and deliberate violation of the laws of war to punish an enemy for breaking the laws of war. ... For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... For other uses, see Demolition (disambiguation). ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near KyÅ«shÅ« on May 11, 1945. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ...


In the case of the September 11 attacks, the long-term effects remain to be seen, but in the short term, the results were negative for Al-Qaeda, as well as the Taliban Movement. Furthermore, since the September 11 attacks, Western nations have diverted massive resources towards stopping similar actions, as well as tightening up borders, and military actions against various countries that the U.S. and its allies believe to have been involved with terrorism. However, critics of the War on Terrorism suggest that in fact the results were profoundly negative, as the proceeding actions of the United States and other countries has increased the number of recruits, and their willingness to carry out suicide bombings. The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement [2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance, United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Border (disambiguation). ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11 2001. ...


It is more difficult to determine whether Palestinian suicide bombings have proved to be a successful tactic. In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the suicide bombers were repeatedly deployed since the Oslo Accords.[75] In 1996 , the Israelis elected the conservative candidate Benjamin Netanyahu who promised to restore safety by conditioning every step in the peace process on Israel's assessment of the Palestinian Authority's fulfillment of its obligations in curbing violence as outlined in the Oslo agreements. Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ...   (‎, Binyamin Bibi Netanyahu, born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel and is Chairman of the Likud Party. ... The peace process describes efforts by interested parties to effect a lasting solution to long-running conflicts, such as the Northern Ireland peace process see Belfast Agreement, Arab-Israeli conflict and Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ...


In the course of al-Aqsa Intifada which followed the collapse of the Camp David II summit between the PLO and Israel, the number of suicide attacks drastically increased. In response, Israel mobilized its army in order to seal off the Gaza Strip and reinstate military control of the West Bank, patrolling the area with tanks. The Israelis also began a campaign of targeted assassinations to kill militant Palestinian leaders, using jets and helicopters to deploy high-precision bombs and missiles. For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... This article describes military mobilization. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... The word militant has come to refer to any individual or party engaged in aggressive physical or verbal combat, normally for a cause. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... Precision bombing is the desired skill of being able to bomb single buildings in a built up area, without causing any damage to the surrounding buildings, or the ability to place a bomb by air to within extremely accurate limits. ...


The suicide missions, having killed hundreds and maimed thousands of Israelis, are believed by some to have brought on a move to the political right, increasing public support for hard-line policies towards the Palestinians, and a government headed by the former general, prime minister Ariel Sharon. In response to the suicide bombings, Sharon's government has imposed restrictions on the Palestinian community, making commerce, travel, school, and other aspects of life difficult for the Palestinians, with the average Palestinian suffering due to the choices of the suicide bombers. The Separation barrier under construction seem to be part of the Israeli government's efforts to stop suicide bombers from entering Israel proper. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... The barrier route as of July 2006. ...


Social support by some for this activity remained, however, as of the calling of a truce at the end of June 2003 . This may be due to the economic or social purpose of the suicide bombing and the bombers' refusal to accept external judgements on those who sanction them.


If the objective is to kill as many people as possible, suicide bombing by terrorists may thus "work" as a tactic in that it costs fewer lives than any conventional military tactic and targeting unarmed civilians is much easier than targeting soldiers. As an objective designed to achieve some form of favorable outcome, especially a political outcome, most believe it to be a failure. Terrorist campaigns involving the targeting of civilians have never won a war. Analysts believe that in order to win or succeed, any guerrilla or terrorist campaign must first transform into something more than a guerrilla or terrorist movement. Such analysts believe that a terrorist cause has little political attraction and success may be achieved only by renouncing terrorism and transforming the passions into politics.


Israeli ultra-right politician and author Obadiah Shoher declared terrorism proper and efficient military tactics, and called for the Jews to answer in kind.[76] Shoher praised Baruch Goldstein who massacred Palestinian worshippers inside a mosque. Baruch Kappel Goldstein (December 9 or December 12, 1956–February 25, 1994, ‎) was an American-Israeli physician who perpetrated the 1994 Cave of the Patriarchs massacre in the city of Hebron, murdering 29 Arab attendants of the Ibrahimi Mosque (within the Cave of the Patriarchs) and wounding another 150 in...


Often extremists assert that, because they are outclassed militarily, suicide bombings are necessary. For example, the former leader of Hamas Sheikh Ahmad Yassin stated: "Once we have warplanes and missiles, then we can think of changing our means of legitimate self-defense. But right now, we can only tackle the fire with our bare hands and sacrifice ourselves."[77] Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ... Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Yassin (1936 - 2004 (about 68 years old)) (Arabic: ) was the co-founder (with Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi) and the spiritual leader of the militant Palestinian Islamist organization of Hamas,[1] originally calling it the Palestinian Wing of the Muslim Brotherhood. ...


Such views are challenged both from the outside and from within Islam. According to Islamic jurist and scholar Khaled Abou Al-Fadl, Dr. Khaled Abou El Fadl (born 1963 in Kuwait) is a controversial professor of law at the UCLA School of Law where he teaches Islamic law, immigration, human rights, international and national security law. ...

The classical jurists, nearly without exception, argued that those who attack by stealth, while targeting noncombatants in order to terrorize the resident and wayfarer, are corrupters of the earth. "Resident and wayfarer" was a legal expression that meant that whether the attackers terrorize people in their urban centers or terrorize travelers, the result was the same: all such attacks constitute a corruption of the earth. The legal term given to people who act this way was muharibun (those who wage war against society), and the crime is called the crime of hiraba (waging war against society). The crime of hiraba was so serious and repugnant that, according to Islamic law, those guilty of this crime were considered enemies of humankind and were not to be given quarter or sanctuary anywhere. ... Those who are familiar with the classical tradition will find the parallels between what were described as crimes of hiraba and what is often called terrorism today nothing short of remarkable. The classical jurists considered crimes such as assassinations, setting fires, or poisoning water wells - that could indiscriminately kill the innocent - as offenses of hiraba. Furthermore, hijacking methods of transportation or crucifying people in order to spread fear and terror are also crimes of hiraba. Importantly, Islamic law strictly prohibited the taking of hostages, the mutilation of corpses, and torture.[78]

Usage of "Suicide Bombing" and related terms

The usage of the term "suicide bombing" dates back to at least 1940 . An August 10, 1940 New York Times article mentions the term in relation to German tactics. A March 4, 1942 article refers to a Japanese attempt at a "suicide bombing" on an American carrier. The Times (London) of April 15, 1947, page 2, refers to a new pilotless, radio-controlled rocket missile thus: "Designed originally as a counter-measure to the Japanese 'suicide-bomber,' it is now a potent weapon for defence or offence." The quotes are in the original and suggest that the phrase was an existing one. An earlier article (Aug 21, 1945, page 6) refers to a kamikaze plane as a "suicide-bomb." is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near Kyūshū on May 11, 1945. ...


The term with the meaning "an attacker blowing up himself or a vehicle to kill others" appeared in 1981 when it was used by Thomas Baldwin in an Associated Press article to describe the bombing of the Iraqi Embassy in Beirut. The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...


In order to assign either a more positive or negative connotation to the act, suicide bombing is sometimes referred to by different terms. Islamists often call the act a isshtahad (meaning martyrdom operation), and the suicide bomber a shahid (pl. shuhada, literally 'witness' and usually translated as 'martyr'). The term denotes one who died in order to testify his faith in God (Allah), for example those who die while waging jihad bis saif; it is applied to suicide bombers, by the Palestinian Authority among others, in part to overcome Islamic strictures against suicide. This term has been embraced by Hamas, Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades, Fatah and other Palestinian factions engaging in suicide bombings. (The title is by no means restricted to suicide bombers and can be used for a wide range of people, including innocent victims; Muhammad al-Durra, for example, is among the most famous shuhada of the Intifada, and even a few non-Palestinians such as Tom Hurndall and Rachel Corrie have been called shahid.) A martyrdom operation is a suicide bombing. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... Muhammed al-Durrah was a twelve-year-old Palestinian boy killed by gunfire on September 30, 2000 at the beginning of the Al-Aqsa Intifada. ... Thomas Tom Hurndall (November 29, 1981 – January 13, 2004) was a British photography student, member of the International Solidarity Movement (ISM), and an activist against the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories. ... Rachel Corrie Rachel Corrie (April 10, 1979 – March 16, 2003) was an American member of the International Solidarity Movement (ISM) who traveled to the Gaza Strip during the Al-Aqsa Intifada. ...


"Homicide bombing"

Some effort has been made to replace the term suicide bombing with the term homicide bombing by conservative commentators and news outlets. The first such use was by White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer in April 2002.[79] The Fox News Channel and the New York Post, both owned by Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation, are two media organizations that have adopted the term. Fox News began using the term after it was suggested by former Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu during an interview. The White House Press Secretary is a senior White House official with a rank one step below Presidential Cabinet level. ... Lawrence Ari Fleischer (born October 13, 1960) was the press secretary for U.S. President George W. Bush from January, 2001 to July, 2003. ... Fox News redirects here. ... The New York Post is the 13th-oldest newspaper published in the United States and the oldest to have been published continually as a daily. ... Keith Rupert Murdoch AC, KCSG (born 11 March 1931) is an Australian born United States citizen who is a global media executive and is the controlling shareholder, chairman and managing director of News Corporation, based in New York. ... 1211 Avenue of the Americas (Sixth Avenue), where News Corporation is based News Corporation (abbreviated to News Corp) (NYSE: NWS, NYSE: NWSa, ASX: , LSE: NCRA) is an American media conglomerate company and the third worlds largest. ... The Prime Minister of Israel is the elected head of the Israeli government. ...   (‎, Binyamin Bibi Netanyahu, born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel and is Chairman of the Likud Party. ...


Supporters of the term homicide bombing argue that since the primary purpose of such a bombing is to kill other people rather than merely to end one's own life, the term homicide is a more accurate description than suicide. Others argue that homicide bombing is a less useful term, since it fails to capture the distinctive feature of suicide bombings, namely the bombers' use of means which they are aware will inevitably bring about their own deaths. For instance, Timothy McVeigh and Theodore Kaczynski could both ostensibly be called "homicide bombers," but neither could be called a "suicide bomber." To this extent it has also been argued that most bombings are "homicide bombings", as loss of life is their inherent aim. For the Navy sailor, see Timothy R. McVeigh. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


"Genocide bombing"

Another attempted replacement is genocide bombing. The term was coined in 2002 by Canadian member of parliament Irwin Cotler, in an effort to replace the term homicide bomber as a substitute for "suicide bomber."[80] The intention was to focus attention on the alleged intention of genocide by militant Palestinians in their calls to "Wipe Israel off the map."[81] Irwin Cotler, PC , MP , OC , BA , BCL , LL.D , Ph. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Boris Johnson, suggested in a 'Spectator' editorial on 23 July 2005 that, “As far as we can make out, there would be little to prevent the police leading the Archbishop of Canterbury off in chains for preaching on Samson’s bringing-down of the temple” if proposed laws against “indirect incitement of terrorist activities” were enacted, which the “Home Office Minister Hazel Blears has suggested … could be used to prosecute anyone who described a suicide-attacker as a ‘martyr’.”
  2. ^ The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism Figure 1, p.128
  3. ^ The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism Figure 2, p.129
  4. ^ Pape's tabulation of suicide attacks runs from 1980 to early 2004. (Pape, Dying to Win (2005))
  5. ^ The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism p.131, 133
  6. ^ Global Politician, Mac Haque, 12/9/2005 "9. Media and eye witness accounts about bomb attacks are unreliable as onus is not to report facts, but to advance colorfully convoluted theories aimed at convincing people at large, that this was a suicide bomb or bomber."http://www.globalpolitician.com/21463-bangladesh
  7. ^ New Statesman, John Pilger 03 Oct. 2005 http://www.newstatesman.com/200510030009
  8. ^ Pape, Dying to Win, (2005), p.28-9
  9. ^ Disabled Often Carry Out Afghan Suicide Missions
  10. ^ Sageman, Marc, Understanding Terror Networks, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004, 81-90
  11. ^ The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism
  12. ^ a b povterr.pdf
  13. ^ Freedom squelches terrorist violence
  14. ^ Pape, Dying to Win (2005) p.128
  15. ^ Pape, Dying to Win (2005) p.92
  16. ^ The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism p.130
  17. ^ Pape, Dying to Win (2005) p.110-3
  18. ^ Pape, Dying to Win (2005) p.60
  19. ^ Pape, Dying to Win (2005) p.200-216
  20. ^ Sara Jackson Wade and Dan Reiter, "Does Democracy Matter? Regime Type and Suicide Terrorism," Journal of Conflict Resolution 51:2 (April 2007).
  21. ^ The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism p.131
  22. ^ The Shuhada Cult of Martyrdom in Islamic Jihad
  23. ^ 72 Black Eyed Virgins
  24. ^ Pape, Dying to Win, (2005), p.209
  25. ^ Hugh Barlow, Dead for Good: Martyrdom and the Rise of the Suicide Bomber, (Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, 2007)
  26. ^ from Pape, Dying to Win (2005), computed from Table 1 on p15
  27. ^ Scott Atran, "The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism" p.131, 133
  28. ^ March 14, 2008 The Independent/UK "The Cult of the Suicide Bomber" by Robert Fisk "month-long investigation by The Independent, culling four Arabic-language newspapers, official Iraqi statistics, two Beirut news agencies and Western reports"
  29. ^ Virgins? What virgins?
  30. ^ Virgins? What virgins?
  31. ^ '72 Black Eyed Virgins': A Muslim Debate on the Rewards of Martyrs
  32. ^ Does the Koran really promise Islamic martyrs 72 virgins?
  33. ^ The number of houris is based on a hadith collected by Al-Tirmidhi in the Book of Sunan (volume IV, chapters on "The Features of Paradise as described by the Messenger of Allah," Chapter 21: "About the Smallest Reward for the People of Paradise," Hadith 2687): "It was mentioned by Daraj Ibn Abi Hatim that Abu-al-Haytham Abdullah Ibn Wahb narrated from Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri, who heard the Prophet Muhammad saying: 'The smallest reward for the people of Paradise is an abode where there are 80,000 servants and 72 wives, over which stands a dome decorated with pearls, aquamarine, and ruby, as wide as the distance from Al-Jabiyyah [a Damascus suburb] to Sana'a.'" Google search accessed July 6, 2007 found 262,000 hits for "72 virgins" in quotation marks.
  34. ^ Terrorism and Suicide bombings
  35. ^ a b Bodi, Faisal (2001). Bombing for God. Special report: Israel and the Middle East. Guardian Newspapers Limited. Retrieved on 2006-07-19. - "In the Muslim world, then, we celebrate what we call the martyr-bombers. To us they are heroes defending the things we hold sacred. Polls in the Middle East show 75% of people in favour of martyr-bombings."
  36. ^ Fatwa Bank
  37. ^ Dubai TV, May 5, 2004
  38. ^ On Saudi TV Channel 1, April 2, 2004,
  39. ^ On Channel 1 of Egyptian TV, April 23, 2004
  40. ^ Palestinian Authority TV, May 21, 2004
  41. ^ After London, Tough Questions for Muslims
  42. ^ Grand Sheikh condemns suicide bombings
  43. ^ lailatalqadr.com, April 4, 2002.
  44. ^ Cleric condemns suicide attacks
  45. ^ AN-NISA (WOMEN)
  46. ^ Euthanasia: Types and Rulings
  47. ^ Committing Suicide Is Strictly Forbidden in Islam
  48. ^ The Islamic Ruling on the Permissibility of Martyrdom Operations
  49. ^ Fatwa of Sheikh Yousef Al-Qaradhawi
  50. ^ The Hijacked Caravan
  51. ^ The Hijacked Caravan: Refuting Suicide Bombings as Martyrdom Operations in Contemporary Jihad Strategy
  52. ^ Defending The Transgressed By Censuring The Reckless Against The Killing Of Civilians
  53. ^ Feb 2007 interview with Christiane Amanpour of CNN: [1]
  54. ^ Why the bombers are so angry at us
  55. ^ Vincetto Olivetti,Terror's Source2002
  56. ^ Tariq Ali,The Clash of Fundamentalism:Crusades, Jihads and Modernity2002
  57. ^ John Esposito,""Unholy War:Terror in the Name of Islam2003
  58. ^ Nazih Ayubi,Political Islam1991
  59. ^ Mohammed Hafez,2003
  60. ^ Vincetto Olivetti,Terror's Source,2002
  61. ^ Edge
  62. ^ Sagemna, Marc (2007). Leaderless Jihad. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 
  63. ^ THE WORLD QUESTION CENTER 2008 — Page 9
  64. ^ Beevor, Antony. Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Penguin Books, 2002, ISBN 0-670-88695-5. Page 238
  65. ^ Japanese kill 26 at Tel Aviv airport
  66. ^ PA Indoctrination of Children to Seek Shahada
  67. ^ Palestinian Media Watch - Homepage
  68. ^ Europe's Palestinian Children What Hope for Them?
  69. ^ ADL: Palestinian Summer Camps Teach Terror Tactics, Espouse Hatred Some Found to Be Funded by UNICEF
  70. ^ 'Paradise Camps' Teach Palestinian Children To Be Suicide Bombers
  71. ^ Handicapped boy who was made into a bomb
  72. ^ Image of bombers' deadly journey
  73. ^ Through No Fault of Their Own: Punitive House Demolitions during the al-Aqsa Intifada B'Tselem, November 2004
  74. ^ Human Rights Issues for the Palestinian population - April 2005 Ed Farrian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  75. ^ Fatal Terrorist Attacks in Israel Since the DOP (Sept 1993)
  76. ^ Islamic terrorists justifiably target Israeli civilians
  77. ^ Quoted in Mia Bloom, Dying to Kill: The Allure of Suicide Terror (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005) p. 3-4.
  78. ^ Khaled Abou Al-Fadl: The Great Theft. Wrestling Islam from the Extremists (HarperCollins 2005. ISBN 0-06-056339-7) p.243
  79. ^ homicide bombing
  80. ^ Kesher Talk (June 24, 2002). Retrieved on 2006-05-13.
  81. ^ Washington Times Commentary. Retrieved on 2006-05-13.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Christiane Amanpour, CBE (born January 12, 1958) (in Persian: ) is the chief international correspondent for CNN. // Shortly after her birth in London, her British mother Patricia, and her father Mohammed, an Iranian airline executive, moved the family to Tehran. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... The University of Pennsylvania Press (or Penn Press) was originally incorporated with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania on 26 March 1890, and the imprint of the University of Pennsylvania Press first appeared on publications in the closing decade of the nineteenth century--among the earliest such imprints in America. ... Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ... BTselem (Hebrew: , in the image of, as in Genesis 1:27) is an Israeli non-governmental organization (NGO) that describes itself as The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories. ... Mia Mellissa Bloom (1968–) is the author of several publications. ... Dr. Khaled Abou El Fadl (born 1963 in Kuwait) is a controversial professor of law at the UCLA School of Law where he teaches Islamic law, immigration, human rights, international and national security law. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Jing Ke (Chinese: 荊軻; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching Ko) was a guest residing in the estates of Dan, crown prince of Yan and renowned for his failed assassination of the Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang who reigned from 221 BC to 210 BC. His story is told in the chapter... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Forlorn hope is a military term that comes from the Dutch verloren hoop, which should be translated as lost troop although in Dutch it can also mean lost hope. The Dutch phrase fortutiously sounding like a accurate statement of the units future in English. ... This article is about the military tactic. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Picture of the Baby Suicide Bomber The Baby Suicide Bomber refers to a photo that received wide media shock and attention. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Though the majority of suicide bombers were and are male, female suicide bombers have carried out a number of attacks since 1985. ... There have been several documented incidents of donkeys and mules being used to deliver bombs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Hamas. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: NPOV: similar articles on one-sided violence committed by Israelis have been deleted for being NPOV fork. ... The US media do not report that the Israeli defense force had killed 82 Palestinian Children before there was a single suicide attack in the current Intifada, beginning in 2000. ... List of suicide attacks carried out by Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades The criteria used for this list: deliberate attacks committed by Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades suicide bombers against civilians. ...

External links

This article is about the British television station. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ... Screenshot of About. ... David Brooks David Brooks (born August 11, 1961) is a columnist for The New York Times who has become one of the prominent voices of conservative politics in the United States. ... The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ... Salim Mansur, PhD, is a Muslim and is an Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Western Ontario Canada. ... Mohammed Hafez is the author of Suicide Bombers in Iraq: The Strategy and Ideology of Martyrdom. ... Map of Colombo with its administrative districts Coordinates: , District Colombo District Government  - Mayor Uvaiz Mohammad Imitiyaz (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 37. ... Douglas Devananda is a Sri Lankan Tamil politician. ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ...

Further reading

  • Mohammed Hafez (2007), Suicide Bombers in Iraq: The Strategy and Ideology of Martyrdom, (Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace) ISBN-13: 978-1-601270-04-7
  • Hugh Barlow (2007), Dead for Good: Martyrdom and the Rise of the Suicide Bomber. (Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers) ISBN 1-59451-324-4
  • Jayawardena, Hemamal., Forensic Medical Aspects of Terrorist Explosive Attacks (Paperback), Zeilan Press (2007),ISBN 978-09793-62422
  • Rex Hudson (2002), Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why: The 1999 Government Report on Profiling Terrorists, Lyons Press, ISBN 1-58574-754-8
  • Mia Bloom (2005), Dying to Kill: The Allure of Suicide Terror, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-13320-0
  • Robert Pape (2005), Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism, Random House, ISBN 1-4000-6317-5
  • Diego Gambetta, Editor (2005), Making Sense of Suicide Missions, OUP, ISBN 0-19-927699-4
  • Farhad Khosrokhavar, translated by David Macey (2005), Suicide Bombers: Allah's New Martyrs, Pluto Press, ISBN 0-7453-2283-2
  • Martin Kramer. 1996. Sacrifice and "Self-Martyrdom" in Shi'ite Lebanon.
  • Bernard B. Fall. 1966. Hell in a Very Small Place: The Siege of Dien Bien Phu. Da Capo Press. (References to suicide bombers on pages 352 and 368).
  • Rosemarie Skaine (2006), Female suicide bombers, McFarland Publishers, ISBN 0-7864-2615-2
  • M.R. Narayan Swamy. 1996. Tigers of Lanka: From Boys to Guerrillas, 2nd Ed. Vijitha Yapa Bookshop (Colombo).
  • Dr. Eyad Sarraj. "Why we have become Suicide Bombers".התאבדות
  • Gerhart Scheit. 2005. Suicide Attack ISBN 3-924627-87-8 (German)
  • Reuter, Christoph trans. Ragg-Kirby, Helena. My Life is a Weapon: A Modern History of Suicide Bombing. Princeton University Press: Princeton, 2004.
  • Davis, Joyce M. (2004). Martyrs: Innocence, Vengeance, and Despair in the Middle East. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6681-8. 
Mohammed Hafez is the author of Suicide Bombers in Iraq: The Strategy and Ideology of Martyrdom. ... Proposed new USIP headquarters, construction to begin 2007. ... Robert Anthony Pape, Jr. ... Martin Kramer (b. ... Bernard B. Fall (November 19, 1926-February 21, 1967) was a prominent war correspondent, historian, political scientist, and expert on Indochina during the 1950s and 1960s. ... Rosemarie Keller Skaine (born Grand Island, Nebraska) is an American author and sociologist. ... Though the majority of suicide bombers were and are male, female suicide bombers have carried out a number of attacks since 1985. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Suicide Attack (694 words)
The narrator quotes Lieutenant General Kawabe, one of the leaders of the Army's kamikaze attacks in the Philippines and Okinawa, in his explanation of why he did not consider a kamikaze attack to be the same as a suicide attack:
During this suicidal attack on the night of May 24-25, 1945, one plane succeeded in landing, and ten Army soldiers came out of the plane to destroy 9 planes and damage 26 before U.S. Marines killed them (O'Neill 1999, 234-5).
Suicide Attack contains some outstanding Japanese wartime newsreels, including several extended ones, but the rest of this documentary is definitely not worth the effort.
The Suicide Attack Phenomenon (2780 words)
The effectiveness of suicide attacks is derived from the ability of the perpetrator, more often than not, to choose the precise time and place of attack, causing numerous casualties and damage to the innocent and provides public exposure to the terrorists’ cause.
Suicide attacks became the most favored method of terror by terrorists groups and were adopted in many parts of the world, such as Kashmir, Indonesia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Chechnya, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kenya, and Tanzania and up to the most disastrous terrorist attacks in history, on September 11th 2001.
The suicide attacks phenomenon is multifaceted: once the suicide bomber is mentally ready for the mission, he can be equipped with an explosive belt, a handbag or a backpack; he can drive a car or a truck, or use an aircraft or a vessel to ram the desired target.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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