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Encyclopedia > Suicide
George Grie: The way out or Suicidal ideation, 2007
Suicide
History of suicide
List of suicides
Suicide rate
Views on suicide
Medical | Cultural
Legal | Philosophical
Religious | Right to die
Suicide crisis
Intervention | Prevention
Crisis hotline | Suicide watch
Types of suicide
Suicide methods | Copycat suicide
Cult suicide | Euthanasia
Familicide | Forced suicide
Internet suicide | Mass suicide
Murder-suicide | Ritual suicide
Suicide attack | Suicide pact
Suicide by cop | Teenage suicide
Related phenomena
Self-harm | Suicidal ideation
Suicide note
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Suicide (Latin suicidium, from sui caedere, to kill oneself) is primarily the act of intentionally terminating one's own life, though it is also used as a metaphor for the "willful destruction of one's self-interest" either as an individual or as a group.[1] Suicide may occur for a number of reasons, including depression, shame, pain, financial difficulties or other undesirable situations. Nearly one million people worldwide die by suicide annually.[2] There are an estimated 10 to 20 million attempted suicides every year.[3] Look up suicide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Flying-Dutchman (2006). ... Suicide has been committed by people from all walks of life since the beginning of known history. ... For incidents of suicide depicted in fiction, see List of suicides in fiction. ... World map of suicide rates per 100,000. ... Modern medical views on suicide consider suicide to be a mental health issue. ... Various human cultures may have views on suicide not directly or solely linked to religious views of suicide. ... This page concerns suicide. ... In ethics and other branches of philosophy suicide poses a difficult question, answered differently by philosophers from different times and traditions. ... There are a variety of religious views of suicide. ... For the 1987 film, see Right to Die (film) The term right to die refers to various issues around the death of an individual when that person could continue to live with the aid of life support, or in a diminished or enfeebled capacity. ... A suicide crisis, suicidal crisis, or potential suicide, is a situation in which a person is attempting to kill himself or is seriously contemplating or planning to do so. ... Modern medical views on suicide consider suicide to be a mental health issue rather than allowing that individuals can make a sane or reasoned choice to take their own life. ... Various suicide prevention strategies have been used: Promoting mental resilience through optimism and connectedness. ... As a suicide prevention initiative, this sign on the Golden Gate Bridge promotes a special telephone that connects to a crisis hotline. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A suicide method is any means by which a person purposely kills him- or herself. ... A copycat suicide is defined as a duplication or copycat of another suicide that the person attempting suicide knows about either from local knowledge or due to accounts or depictions of the original suicide on television and in other media. ... Cult suicide is that phenomenon by which some cults, have led to their membership committing suicide. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... A familicide is a type of murder or murder-suicide in which at least one spouse and one or more children are killed. ... Forced suicide is a method of execution where the victim is given the choice of committing suicide or facing an alternative they perceive as worse, such as suffering torture; having friends or family members imprisoned, tortured or killed; or losing honor, position or means. ... An Internet suicide is a suicide pact made between individuals who meet on the Internet. ... Mass suicide occurs when a number of people kill themselves together with one another or for the same reason and is usually connected to a real or perceived persecution. ... A murder suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before, or while killing himself. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ... A suicide pact describes the suicides of two or more individuals in an agreed-upon plan. ... Suicide-by-cop is a suicide method in which someone deliberately acts in a threatening way towards a law enforcement officer, with the main goal of provoking a lethal response (e. ... Teenage suicide is the self-killing of a teenager. ... Self-harm (SH) is deliberate injury to ones own body. ... Suicidal ideation is common medical term for the mere thoughts about and of plans of committing suicide, not the actual following through or act itself. ... A suicide note is a message left by someone who later attempts or commits suicide. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... For other uses, see Depression. ... For other uses, see Shame (disambiguation). ...


Views on suicide have been influenced by cultural views on existential themes such as religion, honor, and the meaning of life. Most Western and Asian religions—the Abrahamic religions, Hinduism—consider suicide a dishonorable act; in the West it was regarded as a serious crime and offense against God due to religious belief in the sanctity of life. Japanese views on honor and religion led to seppuku, one of the most painful methods of suicide, to be respected as a means to atone for mistakes or failure or a form of protest during the samurai era. In the 20th century, suicide in the form of self-immolation has been used as a form of protest, and in the form of kamikaze and suicide bombing as a military or terrorist tactic. Sati was a Hindu funeral practice in which the widow would immolate herself on her husband’s funeral pyre.[4] Honor (or honor) comprises the reputation, self-perception or moral identity of an individual or of a group. ... This article is about the concept of the meaning of life. ... Symbols of the three main Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Eastern (yellow) religions in each country. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Symbol of Jain philosophy It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Inviolability. ... Hara-kiri redirects here. ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... Thích Quảng Đức pictured during his self-immolation. ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near KyÅ«shÅ« on May 11, 1945. ... A suicide bombing is an attack using a bomb in which the individual(s) carrying the explosive materials composing the bomb intend(s) and expect(s) to die upon detonation (see suicide). ... // Ceremony of Burning a Hindu Widow with the Body of her Late Husband, from Pictorial History of China and India, 1851. ... For other uses, see Funeral (disambiguation). ... A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ... Thích Quảng Đức pictured during his self-immolation. ... An Ubud cremation ceremony in 2005. ...


Medically assisted suicide (euthanasia, or the right to die) is a controversial ethical issue involving people who are terminally ill, in extreme pain, and/or have minimal quality of life through injury or illness. Self-sacrifice for others is not usually considered suicide, as the goal is not to kill oneself but to save another. Euthanasia (Greek, good death) is the practice of killing a person or animal, in a painless or minimally painful way, for merciful reasons, usually to end their suffering. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... For the 1987 film, see Right to Die (film) The term right to die refers to various issues around the death of an individual when that person could continue to live with the aid of life support, or in a diminished or enfeebled capacity. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... This article is about incurable disease. ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the economic and philosophical concept. ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health) can be defined as a state of poor health. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning to make sacred, from Old French, from Latin sacrificium : sacer, sacred; sacred + facere, to make) is commonly known as the...


The predominant view of modern medicine is that suicide is a mental health concern, associated with psychological factors such as the difficulty of coping with depression, inescapable suffering or fear, or other mental disorders and pressures. Suicide is sometimes interpreted in this framework as a "cry for help" and attention, or to express despair and the wish to escape, rather than a genuine intent to die.[5] Most people who attempt suicide do not complete suicide on a first attempt; those who later gain a history of repetitions are significantly more at risk of eventual completion.[6] Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... Despair in common usage is the condition of having abandoned hope. ...

Contents

Suicidal phenomena

Death of Cleopatra by Reginald Arthur.
Death of Cleopatra by Reginald Arthur.
The Reconciliation of the Montagues and Capulets over the Dead Bodies of Romeo and Juliet by Frederick Leighton
A homeless girl contemplates drowning herself.
A homeless girl contemplates drowning herself.
The suicide of Lucretia, a legendary rape victim
The suicide of Lucretia, a legendary rape victim

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Cleopatra redirects here. ... For other uses, see Romeo and Juliet (disambiguation). ... Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton (December 31, 1830 - January 25, 1896) was an English painter and sculptor. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 367 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (464 × 757 pixel, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 367 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (464 × 757 pixel, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2451, 403 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2451, 403 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Death of Lucretia by Sandro Botticelli Lucretia is a legendary figure in the history of the Roman Republic. ...

Suicidal ideation

Main article: Suicidal ideation

Suicidal ideation is a medical term for thoughts about suicide, which may range from vague or unformed urges to meticulously detailed plans and posthumous instructions. The condition requires professional intervention to determine its extent, including the presence of a suicide plan and the patient's means to commit suicide. Severe suicidal ideation is a medical emergency requiring immediate treatment.[7] Suicidal ideation is common medical term for the mere thoughts about and of plans of committing suicide, not the actual following through or act itself. ... Medical terminology is a process of accurately describing the human body and associated components, conditions, processes and procedures in a science based manner. ... Posthumous means after death. ... {{Otheruses4|the medical term|the Australian television series|Medical Emergenc an immediate threat to a persons life or long term health. ...


Suicidal gestures and attempts

Sometimes, a person will make actions resembling suicide attempts while not being fully committed. This is called a suicidal gesture. Prototypical methods might be a non-lethal method of self-harm that leaves obvious signs of the attempt, or simply a lethal action at a time when the person considers it likely that he/she will be rescued or prevented from fully carrying it out. A prototype is an original type, form, or instance of some thing serving as a typical example, basis, epitome, or standard for other things of the same category. ... Self-harm (SH) is deliberate injury to ones own body. ...


On the other hand, a person who genuinely wishes to die may survive, due to lack of knowledge, unwillingness to try methods that may end in permanent damage to her- or himself (in the event of an attempt which does not result in death), unwillingness to try methods which may harm others, an unanticipated rescue, among other reasons. There may be conflict, whereby a genuinely suicidal person can be desperate enough to want to kill themselves but at the same time, too afraid to go through with the extreme measures that are needed to guarantee death. It may be incorrect to state that a person who survived an overdose was issuing a 'cry for help' when in reality it was a suicide attempt that simply did not result in death. This highlights a basic fact that it is not easy to kill oneself in a way that is not traumatic or painful, hence the phenomenon of assisted suicides. This is referred to as a suicide attempt.

Edouard Manet: Suicide, 1877
Edouard Manet: Suicide, 1877

Distinguishing between a suicide attempt and a suicidal gesture may be difficult. Intent and motivation are not always fully discernible since so many people in a suicidal state are genuinely conflicted over whether they wish to end their lives. One approach, assuming that a sufficiently strong suicide intent will ensure death, considers all near-suicides to be suicidal gestures. This, however, does not explain why so many people whose suicide attempts do not result in death end up with severe injuries, often permanent, which are most likely undesirable to those who are making a suicidal gesture. (See: self-harming.) Another possibility is those wishing merely to make a suicidal gesture may end up accidentally killing themselves, perhaps by underestimating the lethality of the method chosen or by overestimating the possibility of external intervention by others. Suicide-like acts should generally be treated as seriously as possible, because if there is an insufficiently strong reaction from loved ones from a suicidal gesture, this may motivate future and ultimately more committed attempts. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1751, 316 KB) Description: Title: de: Selbstmörder Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Zürich Current location (gallery): de: Sammlung E. G. Bührle Other notes: Source: The Yorck Project: DVD... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1751, 316 KB) Description: Title: de: Selbstmörder Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Zürich Current location (gallery): de: Sammlung E. G. Bührle Other notes: Source: The Yorck Project: DVD... Édouard Manet (portrait by Nadar) Édouard Manet (January 23, 1832 - April 30, 1883) was a noted French painter. ... This article focuses on repetitive self-injury, not severe self-injury inflicted during psychosis, such as eye enucleation and amputation. ...


In the technical literature the use of the terms parasuicide, or deliberate self-harm (DSH) are preferred – both of these terms avoid the question of the intent of the actions.


Nearly half of all suicides are preceded by an attempt at suicide that does not end in death. Those with a history of such attempts are 23 times more likely to eventually end their own lives than those without.[8] Those who attempt to harm themselves are, as a group, quite different from those who actually die from suicide; females attempt suicide much more frequently than males, however males are four times more likely to die from their attempt.[9]


Suicide crisis

Main article: Suicide crisis

A suicide being attempted, or a situation in which a person is seriously contemplating suicide or has strong suicidal thoughts, is considered by public safety authorities to be a medical emergency requiring suicide intervention. A suicide crisis, suicidal crisis, or potential suicide, is a situation in which a person is attempting to kill himself or is seriously contemplating or planning to do so. ... Suicidal ideation is common medical term for the mere thoughts about and of plans of committing suicide, not the actual following through or act itself. ... {{Otheruses4|the medical term|the Australian television series|Medical Emergenc an immediate threat to a persons life or long term health. ... Modern medical views on suicide consider suicide to be a mental health issue rather than allowing that individuals can make a sane or reasoned choice to take their own life. ...


Suicide note

Main article: Suicide note

A suicide note is a written message left by someone who attempts, or dies by suicide, though a large number of people who complete suicide do not leave one.[10] Studies give inconsistent results as to the proportion of people who leave suicide notes - with a range of approx. 12 to 37%. Motivations for leaving a note range widely, from seeking closure with loved ones to exacting revenge against others by blaming them for the decision. It may also contain a few sentences apologizing to those they have left behind. A suicide note is a message left by someone who later attempts or commits suicide. ... In psychology, closure may refer to the state of experiencing an emotional conclusion to a difficult life event, such as the breakdown of a close interpersonal relationship or the death of loved one. ...


Related phenomena

Euthanasia

Euthanasia machine invented by Dr Philip Nitschke, on display at Science Museum, London.
Euthanasia machine invented by Dr Philip Nitschke, on display at Science Museum, London.
Main article: Euthanasia

Individuals who wish to end their own life may enlist the assistance of another person to achieve death, e.g. by a deadly poison. The other person, usually a family member or physician, may help carry out the act if the individual lacks the physical capacity to do so even with the supplied means. According to different moral views, this may not be considered a form of suicide. The assistant may think of it as acting in behalf of the individual, perhaps to end suffering, while opponents regard it as akin to murder. Assisted suicide is a contentious moral and political issue in many countries, as seen in the scandal surrounding Dr. Jack Kevorkian, a medical practitioner who supported euthanasia, was found to have helped patients end their own lives, and was sentenced to jail time. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1069x750, 104 KB) Summary Four terminally-ill people chose to end their lives using this machine. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1069x750, 104 KB) Summary Four terminally-ill people chose to end their lives using this machine. ... Philip Nitschke (born 1947) is an Australian medical doctor, Humanist and founder of the pro-euthanasia group Exit. ... The Science Museum on Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London is part of the National Museum of Science and Industry. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... Jack Kevorkian during his public appearance in January 2008 Jack Kevorkian (pronounced [1]) (born on May 26, 1928 [2]) is an American pathologist. ...


Murder-suicide

The motivation for the murder in murder-suicide can be purely criminal in nature or be perceived by the perpetrator as an act of care for loved ones in the context of severe depression. The severely depressed person may see the world as a terrible place and can feel that they are helping those they care about by removing them from it. Thoughts like this are generally regarded as a medical emergency requiring suicide intervention. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... A murder suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before, or while killing himself. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... {{Otheruses4|the medical term|the Australian television series|Medical Emergenc an immediate threat to a persons life or long term health. ...


Since crime just prior to suicide is often perceived as being without consequences, it is not uncommon for suicide to be linked with homicide. Motivations may range from guilt to evading punishment, insanity, part of a suicide pact, or exacting revenge on those whom they feel are responsible. Homicide (Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut, kill) refers to the act of killing another human being. ... This article is about the emotion. ... A suicide pact describes the suicides of two or more individuals in an agreed-upon plan. ...


A famous example of murder-suicide is the double murder-suicide of professional wrestler Chris Benoit, who was found hanging in his home along with the bodies of his wife and son. Christopher Michael Benoit (IPA: ) (May 21, 1967 – June 24, 2007) was a Canadian professional wrestler who wrestled for Extreme Championship Wrestling, World Championship Wrestling, and World Wrestling Entertainment. ...


A murder-suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before, at the same time as, or after killing him or herself.


The combination of murder and suicide can take various forms, including:

  • Suicide to facilitate murder, as in suicide bombing
  • Suicide after murder to escape punishment
  • Suicide after murder as a form of self-punishment due to guilt
  • Having a combined objective of suicide and murder
  • Considering one's suicide as the main act, but murdering one's children first, to avoid them becoming orphans, to be together in an expected afterlife, in the context of severe depression where the person feels he is sparing his loved ones from a horrible life, or simply just to experience the act
  • Joint suicide in the form of killing the other with consent, and then killing oneself
  • Punishment - taking revenge on those deemed responsible and escaping the world seen as a terrible place, as in many school shootings
  • Some cases of cult suicide may also involve murder. Conversely, many spree killings have ended in suicide.

Suicide attack

Main article: Suicide attack

A suicide attack is when an attacker perpetrates an act of violence against others, typically to achieve a military or political goal, that foreseeably results in his or her own death as well. Suicide bombings have been prominent in the news in recent years as an act of terrorism. Other historical examples include the assassination of Tsar Alexander II and the in part successful kamikaze (Divine Wind) attacks by Japanese air pilots during the Second World War. As the WW2 progressed some pilots where locked into their cockpits to prevent escape. In that situation, the Japanese almost always chose to die with honor in an attempt to take out an aircraft carrier in the Carrier War. They tended to aim for the elevators which, when crippled, would stop the carrier from launching planes. A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near Kyūshū on May 11, 1945. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Self-injury

Main article: Self-injury

Self-injury is not a suicide attempt; however, initially self-injury was erroneously classified as a suicide attempt. There is a non-causal correlation between self-harm and suicide; both are most commonly a joint effect of depression. Self-harm (SH) is deliberate injury to ones own body. ... Joint effect is a logical fallacy of causation in which two phenomena that have a common cause are thought to be cause and effect themselves. ...


Suicide methods

Suicides by firearm in the United States, by gender and age, 1999–2005. Data from the CDC.
Suicides by firearm in the United States, by gender and age, 1999–2005. Data from the CDC.
Main article: Suicide methods

In countries where firearms are readily available, many suicides involve the use of firearms. Over 52% of suicides that occurred in the United States in 2005 were by firearm.[11] Asphyxiation methods (including hanging) and toxification (poisoning and overdose) are fairly common as well. Both comprised about 40% of suicides in the U.S. during the same time period. Other methods of suicide include blunt force trauma (jumping from a building or bridge, stepping in front of a train, or car collision, for example). Exsanguination or bloodletting (slitting one's wrist or throat), intentional drowning, self-immolation, electrocution, and intentional starvation are other suicide methods. A suicide method is any means by which a person purposely kills him- or herself. ... A firearm is a kinetic energy weapon that fires either a single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced by action of the rapid confined burning of a propellant. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... This article is about death by hanging. ... For biological toxicity, see toxin and poison. ... A drug overdose occurs when a chemical substance (i. ... In medicine, blunt force trauma is a type of physical trauma caused by impact from a blunt object. ... Exsanguination (also known colloquially as bleeding out) is the fatal process of total blood loss. ... Sign warning of possible electric shock hazard An electric shock can occur upon contact of a humans body with any source of voltage high enough to cause sufficient current flow through the muscles or hair. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ...


Reasons for suicide

Causes of suicide

There are a variety of reasons posited or given for suicide:

Mental disorder or mental illness are terms used to refer psychological pattern that occurs in an individual and is usually associated with distress or disability that is not expected as part of normal development or culture. ... Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. ... Unrequited love is love that is not reciprocated, even though reciprocation is usually deeply desired. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Look up Punishment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Abuser redirects here. ... This article is about the emotion. ... For other uses, see Shame (disambiguation). ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ... Absurdism is a philosophy stating that the efforts of humanity to find meaning in the universe will ultimately fail (and, hence, are absurd) because no such meaning exists, at least in relation to humanity. ... In the Is the glass half empty or half full? phenomenon, the pessimistic approach would be to pick half empty. ... This article is about the philosophical position. ... Cult typically refers to a cohesive social group devoted to beliefs or practices that the surrounding culture considers outside the mainstream, with a notably positive or negative popular perception. ... Loneliness is an emotional state in which a person experiences a powerful feeling of emptiness and isolation. ... Hara-kiri redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Suicide and mental illness

Studies show a high incidence of psychiatric disorders in suicide victims at the time of their death with the total figure ranging from 98%[12] to 87.3%[13] with mood disorders and substance abuse being the two most common. In schizophrenia suicide can be triggered by either the depression that is common with this disorder, or in response to command auditory hallucinations. Suicide among people suffering from bipolar disorder is often an impulse, which is due to the sufferer's extreme mood swings (one of the main symptoms of bipolar disorder), or also possibly an outcome of delusions occurring during an episode of mania or psychotic depression. Severe depression is considered a terminal illness due to the likelihood of suicide when left untreated.[14] The Scream, the famous painting commonly thought of as depicting the experience of mental illness. ... A mood disorder is a condition whereby the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances. ... Also see Alcoholism and Drug addiction. ... A hallucination is a perception in the absence of a stimulus that the person may or may not believe is real. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... A delusion is commonly defined as a false belief, and is used in everyday language to describe a belief that is either false, fanciful or derived from deception. ... This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... Psychotic depression is one of the most severe forms of the general depressive diseases in which the person experiences moments of delusional or paranoid being. ...

World map of suicide rates per 100,000.
World map of suicide rates per 100,000.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... World map of suicide rates per 100,000. ...

Epidemiology

Main article: Epidemiology of suicide

According to official statistics, about a million people die by suicide annually, more than those murdered or killed in war.[15] According to 2005 data, suicides in the U.S. outnumber homicides by nearly 2 to 1 and ranks as the 11th leading cause of death in the country, ahead of liver disease and Parkinson's disease.[16]


Gender and suicide: In the Western world, males die much more often by means of suicide than do females, although females attempt suicide more often. This pattern has held for at least a century.[17] Some medical professionals believe this stems from the fact that males are more likely to end their lives through effective violent means (guns, knives, hanging, etc.), while women primarily use more failure-prone methods such as overdosing on medications; again, this has been the case for at least a century.[18] This article is about the Male sex. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... This article is about the video game. ... traditional Norse knife A knife is a sharp-edged hand tool used for cutting. ...

United States suicide rates for white men, by Health Service Area, 1988–1992. This map and the map at right use the same color scale: note the large difference in rates between men and women. The regional patterns for men and women are similar, but not the same. From [13].
United States suicide rates for white men, by Health Service Area, 1988–1992. This map and the map at right use the same color scale: note the large difference in rates between men and women. The regional patterns for men and women are similar, but not the same. From [13].
United States suicide rates for white women, by Health Service Area, 1988–1992. From [14].
United States suicide rates for white women, by Health Service Area, 1988–1992. From [14].

Others ascribe the difference to inherent differences in male/female psychology. Greater social stigma against male depression and a lack of social networks of support and help with depression are often identified as key reasons for men's disproportionately higher level of suicides, since suicide as a "cry for help" is not seen by men as an equally viable option. Typically males die from suicide three to four times more often as females, and not unusually five or more times as often.


Excess male mortality from suicide is also evident from data from non-western countries. In 1979–81, 74 territories reported one or more cases of suicides. Two of these reported equal rates for both sexes: Seychelles and Kenya. Three territories reported female rates exceeding male rates: Papua New Guinea, Macau, French Guiana. The remaining 69 territories had male suicide rates greater than female suicide rates.[19]


Barraclough found that the female rates of those aged 5–14 equaled or exceeded the male rates only in 14 countries, mainly in South America and Asia.[20] South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


National suicide rates sometimes tend to remain stable. For example, the 1975 rates for Australia, Denmark, England, France, Norway, and Switzerland were within 3.0 per 100,000 of population from the 1875 rates.[21] The rates in 1910–14 and in 1960 differed less than 2.5 per 100,000 of the population in Australia, Belgium, Denmark, England and Wales, Ireland, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Scotland, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, and the Netherlands.[22]

Suicides per 100,000 people per year[23]
Rank Country Males Females Total Year
1 Flag of Lithuania Lithuania 70.1 14.0 40.2 2004
2 Flag of Belarus Belarus 63.3 10.3 35.1 2003
3 Flag of Russia Russia 61.6 10.7 34.3 2004
4 Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 51.0 8.9 29.2 2003
5 Flag of Hungary Hungary 44.9 12.0 27.7 2003
6 Flag of Guyana Guyana 42.5 12.1 27.2 2003
7 Flag of South Korea South Korea[24][25] N/A N/A 26.1 2005
8 Flag of Slovenia Slovenia 37.9 13.9 25.6 2004
9 Flag of Latvia Latvia 42.9 8.5 24.3 2004
10 Flag of Japan Japan 35.6 12.8 24.0 2004

There are considerable differences in national suicide rates among various countries. Findings from two studies showed a range from 0 to more than 40 suicides per 100,000 of population.[26] Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guyana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ...


National suicide rates, apparently universally, show a long-term upward trend. This trend has been well-documented in European countries.[27] The trend for national suicide rates to rise slowly over time might be an indirect result of the gradual reduction in deaths from other causes, i.e. falling death rates from causes other than suicide uncover a previously hidden predisposition towards suicide.[28][29] There may also be an explanation in the reduced stigma attached to survivors as suicide is no longer a crime or a sin. This may allow coroners to record more suicides as such and so increase stats.

Suicides in the U.S. by gender, age, and racial or ethnic group, 1999–2005.
Suicides in the U.S. by gender, age, and racial or ethnic group, 1999–2005.

Ethnic groups and suicide: In the USA, Asian-Americans are more likely to die by suicide than any other ethnic group. Caucasians die by suicide more often than African Americans do. This is true for both genders. Non-Hispanic Caucasians are nearly 2.5 times more likely to kill themselves than are African Americans or Hispanics.[30] The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Hispanic (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ; Latin: , adjective from Hispānia, the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically denoted relation to the ancient Hispania and its peoples. ...


Age and suicide: In the USA, males over the age of seventy die by suicide more often than younger males. There is no such trend for females. Older non-Hispanic Caucasian men are much more likely to kill themselves than older men or women of any other group, which contributes to the relatively high suicide rate among Caucasians.


Season and suicide: People die by suicide more often during spring and summer. The idea that suicide is more common during the winter holidays (including Christmas in the northern hemisphere) is a common misconception.[31] There is also potential risk of suicide in some people experiencing Seasonal affective disorder. For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... Light therapy lamp for Seasonal Affective Disorder Seasonal affective disorder, also known as winter depression, is an affective, or mood, disorder. ...


Other reasons

Suicide as a form of defiance and protest

Heroic suicide, for the greater good of others, is often celebrated. For instance, Mahatma Gandhi went on a hunger strike to prevent fighting between Hindus and Muslims, and, although he was stopped before dying, it appeared he would have willingly succumbed to starvation. This attracted attention to Gandhi's cause, and generated a great deal of respect for him as a spiritual leader. In the 1960s, Buddhist monks, most notably Thích Quảng Đức, in South Vietnam drew Western attention to their protests against President Ngô Đình Diệm by burning themselves to death. Also in the 1960s, Quaker Norman Morrison committed suicide by self-immolation to protest the United States involvement in the Vietnam War. Similar events were reported during the Cold War in eastern Europe, such as the deaths of Ryszard Siwiec and later of Jan Palach and Jan Zajíc following the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, or Romas Kalanta's self-immolation in the main street of Kaunas, Lithuania in 1972. More recently, in 2006, an American anti-war activist, Malachi Ritscher, died by suicide by self-immolation as a protest against the Iraq war. In Ireland there exists a long tradition of hunger strike to the death against British rule, predominantly in Northern Ireland during the infamous 1981 hunger strikes, led by Bobby Sands, which resulted in 10 deaths. The period caused international outrage as shown, for example, by the Indian parliament standing for two minutes of silence or, more bemusingly, the Iranian government renaming the street in Tehran on which the British Embassy stands to "Bobby Sands Street", named after the first hunger-striker to die in 1981. Before the Republic of Ireland got its independence there were also examples of hunger striking, such as Terence McSwiney in Cork. Critics may see such suicides as counter-productive, arguing that these people would probably achieve a comparable or greater result by spending the rest of their lives in active struggle. This is a contentious issue, especially when one considers that the Northern Ireland hunger strikers who died trying to obtain certain prisoners rights (e.g. POW status, right to wear own clothes, right not to have to work, etc.) actually had nearly all their requests eventually granted in the years after the spate of 1981 hunger strikes happened. “Gandhi” redirects here. ... A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt or to achieve a goal such as a policy change. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... Occident redirects here. ... Ngô Đình Diệm â–¶(?) «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of the Republic of Vietnam (1955–63). ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... A Vietnamese tribute to Morrisons suicide Norman Morrison (December 29, 1933 - November 2, 1965), born in Erie, Pennsylvania, was a Baltimore Quaker best known for committing suicide at age 31 in an act of self-immolation to protest the United States involvement in the Vietnam War. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... Ryszard Siwiec Ryszard Siwiec self-immolating Ryszard Siwiec (1909—September 12, 1968) was a Polish accountant and former Home Army soldier who set himself on fire in Warsaw during a national harvest festival on September 8, 1968 at the Stadion DziesiÄ™ciolecia in protest against the Soviet-led invasion of... The memorial to Jan Palach and Jan Zajíc in front of the National Museum Jan Palach (August 11, 1948 – January 19, 1969) was a Czech student who committed suicide by self-immolation as a political protest. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Romas Kalanta (d. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Kaunas County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.nÉ™s... Malachi Ritscher (Mark David Ritscher; January 13, 1954 - November 3, 2006) was a musician, recording engineer, and anti-war protester. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Robert Gerard Sands (Irish: [1][2]), commonly known as Bobby Sands, (9 March 1954 – 5 May 1981), was a Provisional Irish Republican Army volunteer and member of the UK parliament who died on hunger strike whilst in HM Prison Maze (also known as Long Kesh) for the possession of firearms. ... Terence MacSwiney Terence Joseph MacSwiney (pronounced MacSweeney; Irish name: Traolach Mac Suibhne) (1879 - October 25, 1920) was born in Cork City, County Cork Ireland. ... This article is about the city in the Republic of Ireland. ...



People who commit suicide may not always be suffering from depression or despair. Some people may kill themselves for the purpose of experiencing life after death, or have a different existential, religious or philosophical motive. This points out that views of suicide are individually and culturally subjective.


Judicial suicide

A person who has committed a crime will often commit suicide to avoid prosecution and disgrace:

  • Colonel Alfred Redl was presented with the evidence of his espionage and shot himself to avoid a trial.
  • In The Unpleasantness at the Bellona Club, Lord Peter Wimsey presents Dr. Penberthy with evidence proving that he is a murderer, then leaves him in a room with a loaded gun. A shot rings out, and the club members rush in to find the dead doctor, along with a signed confession.
  • Bud Dwyer, a Pennsylvanian politician stuck a pistol in his mouth on live television to avoid a jail sentence and shame for his supposed involvement in a money scandal.
  • More recently, Deborah Jeane Palfrey, dubbed the DC Madam by the media, was convicted on April 15, 2008 of racketeering, using the mail for illegal purposes, and money laundering. On May 1, 2008 she was found dead by hanging and apparent suicide.

Alfred Redl was an Austro-Hungarian officer, who rose to head the counter-intelligence efforts of Austria-Hungary. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... The Unpleasantness at the Bellona Club is a 1928 novel by Dorothy L. Sayers, her fourth featuring Lord Peter Wimsey. ... Early paperback edition cover of Murder Must Advertise Lord Peter Death Bredon Wimsey is a fictional character in a series of detective novels and short stories by Dorothy L. Sayers, in which he solves mysteries — usually murder mysteries. ... R. Budd Dwyer (November 21, 1939–January 22, 1987) was a Republican American politician born in St. ... Deborah Jeane Palfrey (born 1956) is the former owner of Pamela Martin and Associates, which the United States government alleges was a prostitution service in Washington, D.C. She has been charged with operating a house of prostitution. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

Military suicide

Main article: Suicide attack
A kamikaze attack on the escort carrier USS White Plains
A kamikaze attack on the escort carrier USS White Plains

In the desperate final days of World War II, many Japanese pilots volunteered for kamikaze missions in an attempt to forestall defeat for the Empire. Near the end of WW2 the Japanese attempted to design a small bomb laden aircraft whose only purpose was kamikaze missions. However, the craft was a failure, partly because its range was insubstantual to that of other more conventional planes but also because it was produced at a far greater cost than even the Japanese felt necessary to spend on their kamikaze pilots. In Nazi Germany, many soldiers and government officials (including Adolf Hitler and many in his inner circle) killed themselves rather than surrender to Allied forces; Luftwaffe squadrons were formed to smash into American B-17s during daylight bombing missions, in order to delay the highly-probable Allied victory, although in this case, inspiration was primarily the Soviet and Polish taran ramming attacks, and death of the pilot was not a desired outcome. Whether such pilots were engaging in heroic, selfless actions or if immense social pressure motivated them is a matter of historical debate. The Japanese also built one-man "human torpedo" suicide submarines. A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (900x720, 65 KB) Licensing Source: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (900x720, 65 KB) Licensing Source: http://www. ... USS White Plains (CVE-66) was laid down on 11 February 1943 at Vancouver, Wash. ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near KyÅ«shÅ« on May 11, 1945. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is an American four-engine heavy bomber aircraft developed for the US Army Air Corps (USAAC). ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... In warfare, ramming is a technique that was used in the air, sea and tank combat. ... // CGI image of two frogmen with Siebe Gorman CDBA rebreathers riding a human torpedo. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ...

Two Japanese Imperial Marines who committed suicide by shooting themselves rather than surrender to a U.S. Marine, Tarawa, Gilbert Islands in the Pacific, 1943.
Two Japanese Imperial Marines who committed suicide by shooting themselves rather than surrender to a U.S. Marine, Tarawa, Gilbert Islands in the Pacific, 1943.
With a torn picture of his Führer beside his clenched fist, a dead general of the Volkssturm lies on the floor of city hall, Leipzig, Germany. He committed suicide rather than face U.S. Army troops who captured the city.
With a torn picture of his Führer beside his clenched fist, a dead general of the Volkssturm lies on the floor of city hall, Leipzig, Germany. He committed suicide rather than face U.S. Army troops who captured the city.

However, suicide has been fairly common in warfare throughout history. Soldiers and civilians committed suicide to avoid capture and slavery (including the wave of German and Japanese suicides in the last days of World War II). Commanders committed suicide rather than accept defeat. Spies and officers have often committed suicide to avoid revealing secrets under interrogation and/or torture. Behaviour that could be seen as suicidal occurred often in battle, for instance a soldier falling on a grenade to save his comrades. Other examples include soldiers under cannon fire at the Battle of Waterloo who took fatal hits rather than duck and place their comrades in harm's way.[verification needed] The Charge of the Light Brigade in the Crimean War, Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg in the American Civil War, and the charge of the French cavalry at the Battle of Sedan in the Franco-Prussian War were assaults that continued even after it was obvious to participants that the attacks were unlikely to succeed, and would probably be fatal to most of the attackers. Japanese infantrymen usually fought to the last man, launched "banzai" suicide charges, and committed suicide during the Pacific island battles in World War II. At Saipan and Okinawa, civilians joined in the suicides. Suicidal attacks by pilots were common in the 20th century: the attack by U.S. torpedo planes at the Battle of Midway was very similar to kamikaze. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 788 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1496 × 1138 pixel, file size: 634 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 788 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1496 × 1138 pixel, file size: 634 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 752 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2100 × 1675 pixel, file size: 716 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 752 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2100 × 1675 pixel, file size: 716 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Falling on a grenade refers to the act of laying on top of a live hand grenade, usually with the intention of saving others nearby. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... For the poem about the charge, see The Charge of the Light Brigade (poem). ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants Prussia Bavaria France Commanders Wilhelm I Helmuth von Moltke Napoleon III Patrice MacMahon Auguste-Alexandre Ducrot Strength 200,000 774 cannon 120,000 564 cannon Casualties 2,320 dead 5,980 wounded 700 missing (9,000 total) 3,000 dead 14,000 wounded 21,000 captured 82,000 surrendered... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Banzai charge (or banzai attack) is a term related to the Japanese samurai spirit and ideology of not accepting the shame of defeat. ... The Pacific Ocean has an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands; the exact number is unknown. ... Saipan seen from the air A map of Saipan, Tinian & Aguijan For other uses, see Saipan (disambiguation). ... This article is about the prefecture. ... A torpedo bomber is a bomber aircraft designed primarily to attack ships with torpedoes, but they could also carry out conventional bombings. ... Belligerents United States Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 264 carrier aircraft,[1] 16 floatplanes Casualties and... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near Kyūshū on May 11, 1945. ...


Ritual suicide

Ritual suicide is the act of suicide motivated by a religious, spiritual, or traditional ritual.


An extreme interpretation of Hindu custom historically practiced, mostly in the 2nd millennium, was self-immolation by a widow as an assurance that she will be with her husband for the next life. This, however, is extreme, and is looked down upon by other Hindus in most cases. Other rituals of self-immolation or self-starvation were used by Hindu, Jain and Buddhist monks for religious or philosophical purposes, or as a form of extreme non-violent protest. In China, some groups would practice suicide for similar reasons. In Japan, rituals of suicide like seppuku by men and jigai by women were practiced. Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Hara-kiri redirects here. ... The wife of Onodera Junai, one of the Forty-seven Ronin, prepares for her suicide. ...


Dutiful suicide

Dutiful suicide is an act, or attempted act, of fatal self-violence at one's own hands done in the belief that it will secure a greater good, rather than to escape harsh or impossible conditions. It can be voluntary, to relieve some dishonor or punishment, or imposed by threats of death or reprisals on one's family or reputation (a kind of murder by remote control). It can be culturally traditional or generally abhorred; it can be heavily ritualized as in seppuku or purely functional. Dutiful suicide can be distinguished from a kamikaze or suicide bomb attack, in which a fighter consumes his own life in delivering a weapon to the enemy. Perhaps the most famous example of dutiful suicide is a soldier in a foxhole throwing his body on a live grenade to save the lives of his comrades.


Examples
  • Disgraced Roman patricians were sometimes allowed to commit suicide to spare themselves a trial and penalties against their families.[citation needed]
  • Erwin Rommel, found to have foreknowledge of the German attempt on Hitler's life, was threatened with public trial, execution and reprisals on his family unless he killed himself, which he did.[citation needed]

Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was perhaps the most famous German Field Marshal of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname The Desert Fox (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he waged... Public trial or open trial is a trial open to public, as opposed to the secret trial. ...

Impact of suicide

It is estimated that each suicide in the United States leaves an average of six people intimately affected by the death, either as a spouse, parent, significant other, sibling, or child of the deceased person. These people are referred to as survivors.[32] Of course, this estimate does not represent the total number of people who may be affected by an individual suicide. For example, the suicide of a child may leave not only his/her immediate family to make sense of the act, but also his/her extended family, school and entire community.


As with any death, family and friends of a suicide victim feel grief associated with loss. However, suicide deaths leave behind a unique set of issues for the survivors. Suicide survivors are often overwhelmed with psychological trauma that vary depending on the factors comprising the event, including discovery of the body. The survivor's trauma can leave him/her feeling guilty, angry, remorseful, helpless, and confused. It can be especially difficult for survivors because many of their questions as to the victim's final decision are left unanswered, even if a suicide note is left behind (the "why" questions). Moreover, survivors often feel that they should have intervened in some way to prevent the suicide, even if the suicide comes as a surprise and there are no obvious warning signs (the "coulda, shoulda, woulda" or "if only" questions). Along with this sense of regret and failure, there is sometimes relief if the survivor's relationship with the victim was difficult, strained, or otherwise complicated. Given this complex and conflicting set of emotions associated with a loved one's suicide, survivors usually find it difficult to discuss the death with others, even with those who have also faced the death of a loved one, but by some other means. These feelings cause survivors to feel isolated from their network of family and friends and often making them reluctant to form new relationships as well.[33] It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the psyche that occurs as a result of a traumatic event. ... This article is about the emotion. ... People feel remorse when reflecting on their actions that they believe are wrong. ... Look up Confusion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Confusion can have the following meanings: Unclarity or puzzlement, e. ...


Fortunately, "survivor support groups" can offer counseling and help bring many of the issues associated with suicide out into the open. They can also help survivors reach out to their own friends and family who may be feeling similarly and thus begin the healing process. In addition, counseling services and therapy can provide invaluable support to the bereaved. Some such groups can be found online, providing a forum for discussion amongst survivors of suicide.[34]


Economic impact

Deaths and injuries from suicidal behavior represent $25 billion each year in direct costs, including health care services, funeral services, autopsies and investigations, and indirect costs like lost productivity.[35][36]


These costs may be counterbalanced by economic gains. Expenditure on those who would have continued living is reduced, including pensions, social security, health care services for those with brain disorders ("mentally ill"),[37] as well as other normal budgetary expenditure per head of living population.


Views on suicide

Medical

Main article: Suicide intervention

Modern medicine treats suicide as a mental health issue. Overwhelming or persistent suicidal thoughts are considered an emotional crisis. Mental health professionals advise that people who have expressed plans to kill themselves be encouraged to seek help. This is especially relevant if the means (weapons, drugs, or other methods) are available, or if the patient has crafted a detailed plan for executing the suicide. Medical personnel and mental health professionals frequently receive special training to look for suicidal signs in patients. Individuals suffering from depression are considered a high-risk group for suicidal behavior. Suicide hotlines are widely available for people seeking help anonymously.[38] Modern medical views on suicide consider suicide to be a mental health issue rather than allowing that individuals can make a sane or reasoned choice to take their own life. ...


In the United States, individuals who express the intent to harm themselves are automatically determined to lack the present mental capacity to refuse treatment, and can be transported to the emergency department against their will. An emergency physician will determine whether inpatient care at a mental health care facility is warranted. This is sometimes referred to as being "committed". A court hearing may be held to determine the patient's competence. The emergency room is the American English term for a room, or group of rooms, within a hospital that is designed for the treatment of urgent and medical emergencies. ... An emergency physician is a physician who works at an emergency department to care for acutely ill patients. ... A psychiatric hospital (also called, at various places and times, mental hospital or mental ward, historically often asylum, lunatic asylum, or madhouse), is a hospital specialising in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ... Involuntary commitment is the practice of using legal means or forms as part of a mental health law to commit a person to a mental hospital, insane asylum or psychiatric ward without their informed consent, against their will or over their protests. ... In law, competence is conerns the mental capacity of a individual to participate in legal proceedings. ...


Criminal

In some jurisdictions, an act or incomplete act of suicide is considered to be a crime. More commonly, a surviving party member who assisted in the suicide attempt will face criminal charges. This page concerns suicide. ...


In Brazil, if the help is directed to a minor, the penalty is applied in its double and not considered as homicide. In Italy and Canada, instigating another to suicide is also a criminal offense. In Singapore, assisting in the suicide of a mentally handicapped person is a capital offense. In India, abetting suicide of a minor or a mentally challenged person can result in a possible death penalty, otherwise a maximum 10 years prison term.[39]


In North Korea, suicide is considered treason against the party and is punishable by death.[citation needed] Due to Kim Il Sung's decree that the seed of class enemies should be destroyed to the third generation, families of persons who have committed suicide are sent to labor camps with life sentences.[citation needed] The Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland is a North Korean united front led by the Workers Party of Korea (WPK). ... Kim Il-sung (April 15, 1912–July 8, 1994) was a Korean Communist politician and the ruler of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea) from 1948 until his death. ... // Traditionally, a generation has been defined as “the average interval of time between the birth of parents and the birth of their offspring. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ... Life imprisonment is a term used for a particular kind of sentence of imprisonment. ...

A tantō knife prepared for seppuku
A tantō knife prepared for seppuku

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2300x1704, 297 KB) fr: Un sabre court japonais (wakisashi) prêt pour un suicide rituel (seppuku) Work by Rama File links The following pages link to this file: Seppuku ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2300x1704, 297 KB) fr: Un sabre court japonais (wakisashi) prêt pour un suicide rituel (seppuku) Work by Rama File links The following pages link to this file: Seppuku ... Two Tantō tantō blade hidden in a fan-shaped mounting A Tantō (短刀) is a Japanese knife or dagger with a blade length of about 15 - 30 cm (6 - 12). There is a disputed saying about the tantō, wakizashi, and katana stating they are The Tantō differs from the others as... Hara-kiri redirects here. ...

Cultural

In the Warring States Period and the Edo period of Japan, samurai who disgraced their honor chose to end their own lives by seppuku, a method in which the samurai takes a sword and slices into his abdomen, causing a fatal injury. The cut is usually performed diagonally from the top corner of the samurai's writing hand, and has long been considered an honorable form of death (even when done to punish dishonor). Though such a wound would be fatal, seppuku was not always technically suicide, as the samurai's assistant (the kaishaku) would usually stand by to cut short any suffering by quickly administering a fatal cut to the back of the neck (just short of decapitation), sometimes as soon as the first tiny incision into the abdomen was made. Various human cultures may have views on suicide not directly or solely linked to religious views of suicide. ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... The abdomen in a human and an ant. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ...


Religious

In most forms of Christianity, suicide is considered a sin, based mainly on the writings of influential Christian thinkers of the Middle Ages, such as St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas; suicide was not considered a sin under the Byzantine Christian code of Justinian, for instance.[40][41]. Their arguments center around the commandment "Thou shalt not kill" (made applicable under the New Covenant by Jesus in Matthew 19:18), as well as the idea that life is a gift given by God which should not be spurned, and that suicide is against the "natural order" and thus interferes with God's master plan for the world.[42][43] However, it is believed that mental illness or grave fear of suffering diminishes the responsibility of the one completing suicide.[44] Counter-arguments include the following: that the sixth commandment is more accurately translated as "thou shalt not murder", not necessarily applying to the self; that taking one's own life no more violates God's plan than does curing a disease; and that a number of suicides by followers of God are recorded in the Bible with no dire condemnation.[45] There are a variety of religious views of suicide. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... St. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 - March 7, 1274) was a Catholic philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition, who gave birth to the Thomistic school of philosophy, which was long the primary philosophical approach of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is a fundamental work in jurisprudence issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... For other uses, see Ten Commandments (disambiguation). ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ...


Judaism focuses on the importance of valuing this life, and as such, suicide is tantamount to denying God's goodness in the world. Despite this, under extreme circumstances when there has seemed no choice but to either be killed or forced to betray their religion, Jews have committed individual suicide or mass suicide (see Masada, First French persecution of the Jews, and York Castle for examples) and as a grim reminder there is even a prayer in the Jewish liturgy for "when the knife is at the throat", for those dying "to sanctify God's Name". (See: Martyrdom). These acts have received mixed responses by Jewish authorities, regarded both as examples of heroic martyrdom, whilst others state that it was wrong for them to take their own lives in anticipation of martyrdom.[46] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mass suicide occurs when a number of people kill themselves together with one another or for the same reason and is usually connected to a real or perceived persecution. ... Combatants Jewish Sicarii Roman Empire Commanders Elazar ben Yair Lucius Flavius Silva Strength 960 15,000 Casualties 953 Unknown Masada (a romanisation of the Hebrew מצדה, Metzada, from מצודה, metzuda, fortress) is the name for a site of ancient palaces and fortifications in the South District of Israel on top of... The current Jewish community in France numbers around 606,561, according to the World Jewish Congress and 500,000 according to the Appel Unifié Juif de France (France Jewish community main organism), and is found mainly in the metropolitan areas of Paris, Marseille and Strasbourg. ... A view from the outside of the tower York Castle is part of the city of York. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ...


Suicide is not allowed in the religion of Islam; however, martyring oneself for Allah (during combat) is not the same as completing suicide. Suicide by Muslim standards is traditionally seen as a sign of disbelief in God.[47] The use of suicide bombing is therefore a controversial one in Islam. Groups like Hamas consider it necessary—for instance, in the struggle against occupation. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Ḥamas (; acronym: , or Ḥarakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement) is a democratically-elected Palestinian Sunni Islamist[1] militant organization and political party which currently holds a majority of seats in the legislative council of the Palestinian Authority. ...


In Hinduism, suicide is frowned upon and is considered equally sinful as murdering another. Hindu Scriptures state that one who commits suicide will become part of the spirit world, wandering earth until the time one would have otherwise died, had one not committed suicide.[48] The ghost can feel hunger and thirst, but can not eat or drink.[citation needed] Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Debate over suicide

Some see suicide as a legitimate matter of personal choice and a human right (colloquially known as the right to die movement), and maintain that no one should be forced to suffer against their will, particularly from conditions such as incurable disease, mental illness, and old age that have no possibility of improvement. Proponents of this view reject the belief that suicide is always irrational, arguing instead that it can be a valid last resort for those enduring major pain or trauma. This perspective is most popular in continental Europe,[49] where euthanasia and other such topics are commonly discussed in parliament, although it has a good deal of support in the United States as well. In ethics and other branches of philosophy suicide poses a difficult question, answered differently by philosophers from different times and traditions. ... For the 1987 film, see Right to Die (film) The term right to die refers to various issues around the death of an individual when that person could continue to live with the aid of life support, or in a diminished or enfeebled capacity. ...


A narrower segment of this group considers suicide something between a grave but condonable choice in some circumstances and a sacrosanct right for anyone (even a young and healthy person) who believes they have rationally and conscientiously come to the decision to end their own lives. Notable supporters of this school of thought include German pessimist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer,[50] and Scottish empiricist David Hume.[51] Adherents of this view often advocate the abrogation of statutes that restrict the liberties of people known to be suicidal, such as laws permitting their involuntary commitment to mental hospitals. Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation. ... For other persons named David Hume, see David Hume (disambiguation). ...


See also

alt. ... The American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP) was founded in 1987 by a group of experts on suicide who wanted to create a 501(c)3 organization to fund research in suicide prevention. ... Cult suicide is that phenomenon by which some cults, have led to their membership committing suicide. ... Mass suicide occurs when a number of people kill themselves together with one another or for the same reason and is usually connected to a real or perceived persecution. ... Euthanasia (Greek, good death) is the practice of killing a person or animal, in a painless or minimally painful way, for merciful reasons, usually to end their suffering. ... Jack Kevorkian during his public appearance in January 2008 Jack Kevorkian (pronounced [1]) (born on May 26, 1928 [2]) is an American pathologist. ... This article is about the concept of the meaning of life. ... In quantum mechanics, quantum suicide is a thought experiment which was independently proposed in 1987 by Hans Moravec and in 1988 by Bruno Marchal, and further developed by Max Tegmark in 1998, that attempts to distinguish between the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and the Everett many-worlds interpretation by... For other uses, see Russian roulette (disambiguation). ... The Samaritans redirects here. ... Senicide is the abandonment to death or killing of the elderly. ... Under English criminal law, the Suicide Act 1961 decriminalised the act of suicide so that those who failed in the attempt would no longer be prosecuted. ... A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ... Suicide was one of the groundbreaking books in the field of sociology. ... A Stop and drop style Suicide Booth on Futurama A suicide booth is a fictional machine for committing suicide. ... As a suicide prevention initiative, this sign on the Golden Gate Bridge promotes a special telephone that connects to a crisis hotline. ... A suicide method is any means by which a person purposely kills him- or herself. ... A suicide note is a message left by someone who later attempts or commits suicide. ... The Suicide Prevention Action Network USA (SPAN USA) is a 501(c)(3) organization that was founded in 1996 by Gerald and Elsie Weyrauch, whose 34-year-old daughter, Terri, died by suicide. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about incurable disease. ... Thousands of farmers have committed suicides in India in the last decade due to multiple reasons. ... World map of suicide rates per 100,000. ... The following is a list of current and historic sites frequently chosen to commit suicide, usually by jumping. ... For incidents of suicide depicted in fiction, see List of suicides in fiction. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster OnLine. Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
  2. ^ CIS: UN Body Takes On Rising Suicide Rates
  3. ^ Suicide and psychiatric diagnosis: a worldwide perspective. World Psychiatry (2002-10-01).
  4. ^ Indian woman commits sati suicide
  5. ^ WHO Europe - Suicide Prevention. World Health Organization (2005-01-15). Retrieved on 2007-12-11.
  6. ^ {{cite journal rlink = | coauthors = | year = 1988 | month = September | title = The Epidemiology of Teen Suicide: An Examination of Risk Factors | journal = Journal of Clinical Psychiatry | volume = 49 | issue = supp. | pages = 36–41 | id = PMID 3047106 | url = | accessdate = 2006-04-12 }}
  7. ^ Gliatto MF, Rai AK Evaluation and Treatment of Patients with Suicidal Ideation, American Family Physician, March 15, 1999
  8. ^ Shaffer, D.J. (September 1988). "The Epidemiology of Teen Suicide: An Examination of Risk Factors". Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 49 (supp.): 36–41. PMID 3047106. Retrieved on 2006-04-12. 
  9. ^ National Center for Health Statistics. Deaths: Injuries, 2002. Retrieved on 21 October 2007.
  10. ^ Suicide FAQs Canadian Mental Health Association] Retrieved on May 20, 2008
  11. ^ U.S. Suicide Statistics (2005). Retrieved on 2008-03-24.
  12. ^ Bertolote JM, Fleischmann A, De Leo D, Wasserman D. (2004) Psychiatric diagnoses and suicide: revisiting the evidence. Crisis., 25(4):147-55. PMID 15580849
  13. ^ Arsenault-Lapierre G, Kim C, Turecki G. (2004) Psychiatric diagnoses in 3275 suicides: a meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry, Nov 4;4:37. PMID 15527502
  14. ^ Shuster, JL.(2000) Can depression be a terminal illness? Journal of Palliative Medicine. Winter;3(4):493-5.
  15. ^ Suicide prevention. WHO Sites: Mental Health. World Health Organization (February 16, 2006). Retrieved on 2006-04-11.
  16. ^ 2005 Data. Suicide Prevention. Suicidology.org (2005). Retrieved on 2008-03-24.
  17. ^ 1920 World Book, Volume 9, page 5618
  18. ^ 1920 World Book, Volume 9, page 5618
  19. ^ Lester, Patterns, Table 3.3, pp. 31-33
  20. ^ Barraclough,B M. Sex ratio of juvenile suicide. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 1987, 26, 434-435.
  21. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1983; Lester, Patterns, 1996, p. 21
  22. ^ Lester, Patterns, 1996, p. 22
  23. ^ Country reports and charts available, World Health Organization, accessed on March 16, 2008.
  24. ^ Suicide in South Korea Case of Too Little, Too Late, OhmyNews KOREA
  25. ^ S. Korea has top suicide rate among OECD countries, Seoul, September 18, 2006 Yonhap News
  26. ^ La Vecchia, C., Lucchini, F., & Levi, F. (1994) Worldwide trends in suicide mortality, 1955-1989. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 90, 53-64.; Lester, Patterns, 1996, pp. 28-30.
  27. ^ Lester, Patterns, 1996, p. 2.
  28. ^ Baldessarini, R. J., & Jamison, K. R. (1999) Effects of medical interventions on suicidal behavior. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60 (Suppl. 2), 117-122.
  29. ^ Khan, A., Warner, H. A., & Brown, W. A. (2000) Symptom reduction and suicide risk in patients treated with placebo in antidepressant clinical trials. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 311-317.
  30. ^ [1]PDF (3.72 MiB)
  31. ^ "Questions About Suicide", Centre For Suicide Prevention, 2006. 
  32. ^ American Association of Suicidology - Survivors
  33. ^ Suicide - Frequently Asked Questions
  34. ^ Suicide - Support Groups
  35. ^ Preventing suicide. Retrieved on 2007-04-13.
  36. ^ The Cost of Suicide Mortality in New Brunswick, 1996 (1996). Retrieved on 2007-04-13.
  37. ^ Yang B, Lester D. Recalculating the economic cost of suicide. Death studies, 2007 Apr;31(4):351-61
  38. ^ National Suicide Prevention Lifeline 1-800-273-TALK.
  39. ^ [2]
  40. ^ [3]
  41. ^ [4]
  42. ^ [5]
  43. ^ [6]
  44. ^ [7]
  45. ^ [8]
  46. ^ Euthanasia and Judaism: Jewish Views of Euthanasia and Suicide. ReligionFacts.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-16.
  47. ^ [9]
  48. ^ Hindu Website. Hinduism and suicide
  49. ^ [10]
  50. ^ [11]
  51. ^ [12]

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Further reading

  • Jamison, Kay Redfield (2000). Night Falls Fast: Understanding Suicide. New York: Vintage, 448pgs. ISBN 0-375-701478. 
  • Simpson, George Gaylord; Durkheim, Emile (1997). Suicide: a study in sociology. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-684-83632-7. 
  • McDowell, Eugene E.; Stillion, Judith M. (1996). Suicide across the life span: premature exits. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-56032-304-3. 
  • Stone, Geo (2001). Suicide and attempted suicide. New York, NY: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-0940-5. 

External links

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medical procedure. ... Brain death is defined as a complete and irreversible cessation of brain activity. ... Clinical death occurs when a patients heartbeat and breathing have stopped. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... A persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a condition of patients with severe brain damage in whom coma has progressed to a state of wakefulness without detectable awareness. ... This article is about incurable disease. ... It has been suggested that Big killer be merged into this article or section. ... This is an index of lists of people who died, by cause of death, in alphabetical order of cause. ... // The following is a list of notable deaths in 2007. ... The Fountain of Eternal Life in Cleveland, Ohio Immortality (or eternal life) is the concept of living in physical or spiritual form for an infinite length of time, or in a state of timelessness. ... is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... Legal death is a legal pronouncement by a qualified person that further medical care is not appropriate, and that a patient should be considered dead under the law. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Maternal health. ... Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... For other uses, see Decomposition (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Funeral (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... Margaret of Spain, Empress of Austria, in Mourning, 1666; note the children and servants in mourning dress behind her. ... An ecological funeral, also known as promession, is a method for allowing the body of the deceased to decompose in an environmentally-friendly way. ... Resomation is a process for the lawful disposal of human remains, which is claimed by its practitioners to be highly ecologically favourable. ... Look up séance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Christian theology, the intermediate state refers to a persons existence between their death and resurrection. ... Judgment Day redirects here. ... Not to be confused with cryogenics. ... An out-of-body experience (OBE or sometimes OOBE), is an experience that typically involves a sensation of floating outside of ones body and, in some cases, perceiving ones physical body from a place outside ones body (autoscopy). ... NDE redirects here. ... The Lazarus Phenomenon is the unexpected return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after resuscitation has been abandoned. ... Near-Death studies is a school of psychology and psychiatry that studies the phenomenology and after-effects of a Near-death experience, also called NDE. The phenomenology of a NDE usually includes physiological, psychological and transcendental factors that come together to form an overall pattern when numerous NDE reports are... Reincarnation research is a field of inquiry that records and analyzes memories that subjects claim to have of past lives. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of intentionally ending ones own life. ... E. H. Langlois The fascination with death extends back as far as history tells. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... A sheep is led to the altar, 6th century BC Corinthian fresco. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... A Western depiction of Death as a skeleton carrying a scythe. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Suicide (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) (8787 words)
Suicidal individuals often have false beliefs about the lethality of their chosen suicide methods, greatly overestimating the lethality of over the counter painkillers while underestimating the lethality of handguns, for instance.
Suicide was of central concern for the twentieth century existentialists, who saw the choice to take one's life as impressed upon us by our experience of the absurdity or meaninglessness of the world and of human endeavor.
Suicide is, according to Sartre, an opportunity to stake out our understanding of our essence as individuals in a godless world For the existentialists, suicide was not a choice shaped mainly by moral considerations but by concerns about the individual as the sole source of meaning in a meaningless universe.
Focus Adolescent Services: Teen Suicide (0 words)
Friendships play key role in suicidal thoughts of girls ~ This research found that girls were nearly twice as likely to think about suicide if they had only a few friends and felt isolated from their peers.
Suicide and the Agony of Separateness ~ An attempter's "victim psychology" may be the logical outcome of his own subtle but deadly ego trip.
Teen depression and thoughts of suicide are more common than many adults assume and there are as many as 50 to 100 suicide attempts for every young person who actually takes his or her own life.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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