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Encyclopedia > Sugarcane
Sugar Cane
Sugarcane cut
Sugarcane cut
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Saccharum
L.
Species

Saccharum arundinaceum
Saccharum bengalense
Saccharum edule
Saccharum officinarum
Saccharum procerum
Saccharum ravennae
Saccharum robustum
Saccharum sinense
Saccharum spontaneum
Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1712, 1298 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sugar Sugarcane Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Hemerocallis flower, with three flower parts in each whorl Wheat, an economically important monocot The monocotyledons or Monocots are a group of flowering plants, (angiosperms) dominating great parts of the earth. ... families see text Poales is a botanical name at the rank of order. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Binomial name Saccharum spontaneum Kans grass (Saccharum spontaneum) is a grass native to South Asia. ...

Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical regions of the Old World. They have stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in sugar and measure 2 to 6 meters tall. All of the sugarcane species interbreed, and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids. Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Andropogoneae is a tribe of grasses (family Poaceae) widespread throughout tropical and temperate regions. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... // This article is about a biological term. ...

Contents

Cultivation and uses

About 200 countries grow the crop to produce 1,324 million tons (more than six times the amount of sugar beet produced). As of the year 2005, the world's largest producer of sugar cane by far is Brazil.[1] Uses of sugar cane include the production of sugar, Falernum, molasses, rum, soda, cachaça (the national spirit of Brazil) and ethanol for fuel. The bagasse that remains after sugarcane crushing may be burned to provide both heat energy, used in the mill, and electricity, which is typically sold to the consumer electricity grid. It may also, because of its high cellulose content, be used as raw material for paper and cardboard, branded as ecofriendly as it is made from a by-product of sugar production. Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... Falernum is a sweet syrup used in Tropical and Caribbean drinks. ... Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Cachaça Java, from Salinas-MG, Brazil Cachaça (IPA: ) is the most popular distilled alcoholic beverage in Brazil. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


History

For a longer history, see Sugar.
Sugar crystals
Sugar crystals

Sugarcane was originally from tropical Southeast Asia. Different species likely originated in different locations with S. barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea.[2] The thick stalk stores energy as sucrose in the sap. From this juice, sugar is extracted by evaporating the water. Crystallized sugar was reported 5000 years ago in India. Around the eighth century A.D., Arabs introduced sugar to the Mediterranean and it was cultivated in Spain. It was among the early crops brought to the Americas by Spaniards. Brazil is currently the biggest sugar cane producing country. This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1194x798, 1041 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sugar ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1194x798, 1041 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sugar ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ...


Sugarcane was, and still is, extensively grown in the Caribbean, where it was first brought by Christopher Columbus during his second voyage to The Americas, initially to the island of Hispaniola. In colonial times, sugar was a major product of the triangular trade of New World raw materials, European manufactures, and African slaves. France found its sugarcane islands so valuable it effectively traded its portion of Canada, famously dubbed "a few acres of snow", to Britain for their return of Guadeloupe, Martinique and St. Lucia at the end of the Seven Years' War. The Dutch similarly kept Suriname, a sugar colony in South America, instead of seeking the return of the New Netherlands (New Amsterdam). Cuban sugarcane produced sugar that received price supports from and a guaranteed market in the USSR; the dissolution of that country forced the closure of most of Cuba's sugar industry. Sugarcane remains an important part of the economy of Belize, Barbados, Haiti along with the Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Grenada, and other islands. The sugarcane industry is a major export for the Caribbean, but it is expected to collapse with the removal of European preferences by 2009 “West Indian” redirects here. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Early map of Hispaniola The island of Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... An historic example of three way trade in the North Atlantic Triangular trade is a historical term indicating trade between three ports or regions. ... Slave redirects here. ... A few acres of snow (in the original French, Quelques arpents de neige) is a quotation from Voltaire popularly understood to be a sneering evaluation of New Frances — and, by extension, Canadas — lack of mercantile value and strategic importance to France. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... New Netherland (Dutch Nieuw-Nederland, Latin: Nova Belgica) was the territory claimed by the Netherlands on the eastern coast of North America in the 17th century. ...

  1. ^ Link and reference involving U.N. FAO production figures
  2. ^ Peter Sharpe (26 October 1998). Sugar Cane: Past and Present. Southern Illinois University Carbondale.

. is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...

Sugar cane Saccharum officinarum at Kew Gardens, London
Sugar cane Saccharum officinarum at Kew Gardens, London
Saccharum officinarum grown in Hawaii
Saccharum officinarum grown in Hawaii
Sugar cane field on Madeira
Sugar cane field on Madeira
Sugarcane flowering, Australia.
Sugarcane flowering, Australia.
Sugarcane field in India.
Sugarcane field in India.

Sugarcane production greatly influenced many tropical Pacific islands, most particularly Hawaii and Fiji. In these islands, sugar came to dominate the economic and political landscape after the arrival of powerful European and American agricultural business, which promoted immigration from various Asian countries for workers to tend and harvest the crop. Sugar-industry policies eventually established the ethnic makeup of the island populations that now exist, profoundly affecting modern politics and society in the islands. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1712x2288, 2571 KB) Sugar cane Saccharum officinarum at Kew Gardens, London, England. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1712x2288, 2571 KB) Sugar cane Saccharum officinarum at Kew Gardens, London, England. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1209 KB) Summary Description: Small sugar cane field on Madeira Source: own work Date: 2006-04-07 Author: Hannes Grobe Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Sugarcane Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1209 KB) Summary Description: Small sugar cane field on Madeira Source: own work Date: 2006-04-07 Author: Hannes Grobe Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Sugarcane Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x800, 171 KB) Sugarcane flowering. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x800, 171 KB) Sugarcane flowering. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... →this is tuff i mean kyle carters tuff Tuamotu, French Polynesia The Pacific Ocean contains an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands; the exact number has not been precisely determined. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ...


Brazil is a major grower of sugarcane, which is used to produce sugar and provide the ethanol used in making gasoline-ethanol blends (gasohol) for transportation fuel. Grain alcohol redirects here. ... The use of alcohol as a fuel for internal combustion engines, either alone or in combination with other fuels, has been given much attention mostly because of its possible environmental and long-term economical advantages over fossil fuels. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ...


Cultivation

Sugarcane cultivation requires a tropical or subtropical climate, with a minimum of 600 mm (24 in) of annual moisture. It is one of the most efficient photosynthesizers in the plant kingdom, able to convert up to 2 percent of incident solar energy into biomass[citation needed]. In prime growing regions, such as Peru, Brasil, Colombia, Australia, Ecuador, Cuba and Hawaii, sugarcane can produce 20 kg for each square meter exposed to the sun.[citation needed] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 2. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ...


Sugarcane is propagated from cuttings, rather than from seeds; although certain types still produce seeds, modern methods of stem cuttings have become the most common method of reproduction. Each cutting must contain at least one bud, and the cuttings are usually planted by hand. Once planted, a stand of cane can be harvested several times; after each harvest, the cane sends up new stalks, called ratoons. Usually, each successive harvest gives a smaller yield, and eventually the declining yields justify replanting. Depending on agricultural practice, two to ten harvests may be possible between plantings.[citation needed]


Sugarcane is harvested by hand or mechanically. Hand harvesting accounts for more than half of the world's production, and is especially dominant in the developing world. When harvested by hand, the field is first set on fire. The fire spreads rapidly, burning away dry dead leaves, and killing any venomous snakes hiding in the crop, but leaving the water-rich stalks and roots unharmed. With knives (usually Cane knives, but Machetes are also commonly used), harvesters then cut the standing cane just above the ground. A skilled harvester can cut 500 kg of sugarcane in an hour.[citation needed] For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... A venomous snake is a snake that uses modified saliva, venom, delivered through fangs in its mouth, to immobilize or kill its prey. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...

Sugarcane mechanical harvest in Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil.
Sugarcane mechanical harvest in Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil.

With mechanical harvesting, a sugarcane combine (or chopper harvester), a harvesting machine originally developed in Australia, is used. The Austoft 7000 series was the original design for the modern harvester and has now been copied by other companies including Cameco. The machine cuts the cane at the base of the stalk, separates the cane from its leaves, and deposits the cane into a cart while blowing the cut leaves back onto the field. Such machines can harvest 100 tonnes of cane each hour, but cane harvested using these machines must be transported to the processing plant rapidly; once cut, sugarcane begins to lose its sugar content, and damage inflicted on the cane during mechanical harvesting accelerates this decay. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 606 KB) Sugarcane harvest in São Paulo state, Brazil. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 606 KB) Sugarcane harvest in São Paulo state, Brazil. ... Jaboticabal is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. ... São Paulo is a state in Brazil. ... A LEXION Combine. ...


Sugar cane is cultivated in almost all the world only for some months of the year, in a period called 'safra'. The only place in the world where there is no 'safra', and therefore sugar cane is cultivated and produced year round is Colombia in South America.[citation needed] Safra may refer to: People: Edmond J. Safra Lily Safra, chairman of the Edmond J. Safra Philanthropic Foundation Jacob Safra Joseph Safra Safra A. Catz Organizations: Banco Safra Safra Group Safra National Bank of New York Bank Jacob Safra Switzerland Else: AL-Safra Category: ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Pests

The most important sugarcane pests are: the larvae of some lepidoptera species, including the turnip moth; the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis); the Mexican rice borer (Eoreuma loftini); leaf-cutting ants; termites; spittlebugs (especially Mahanarva fimbriolata and Deois flavopicta); and the beetle Migdolus fryanus.. A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... Binomial name Agrotis segetum Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 The Turnip Moth (Agrotis segetum) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ...


Diseases

This article is a list of diseases of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. ...

Processing

Traditionally, sugarcane has been processed in two stages. Sugarcane mills, located in sugarcane-producing regions, extract sugar from freshly harvested sugarcane, resulting in raw sugar for later refining, and in "mill white" sugar for local consumption. Sugar refineries, often located in heavy sugar-consuming regions, such as North America, Europe, and Japan, then purify raw sugar to produce refined white sugar, a product that is more than 99 percent pure sucrose. These two stages are slowly becoming blurred. Increasing affluence in the sugar-producing tropics has led to an increase in demand for refined sugar products in those areas, where a trend toward combined milling and refining has developed. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ...


Milling

In a sugar mill, sugarcane is washed, chopped, and shredded by revolving knives. The shredded cane is repeatedly mixed with water and crushed between rollers; the collected juices (called garapa in Brazil) contain 10–15 percent sucrose, and the remaining fibrous solids, called bagasse, are burned for fuel. Bagasse makes a sugar mill more than self-sufficient in energy; the surplus bagasse can be used for animal feed, in paper manufacture, or burned to generate electricity for the local power grid. Garapa is the Brazilian Portuguese term for the juice of raw sugar cane, a very popular drink in several Latin America countries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The cane juice is next mixed with lime to adjust its pH to 7. This mixing arrests sucrose's decay into glucose and fructose, and precipitates out some impurities. The mixture then sits, allowing the lime and other suspended solids to settle out, and the clarified juice is concentrated in a multiple-effect evaporator to make a syrup about 60 percent by weight in sucrose. This syrup is further concentrated under vacuum until it becomes supersaturated, and then seeded with crystalline sugar. Upon cooling, sugar crystallizes out of the syrup. A centrifuge is used to separate the sugar from the remaining liquid, or molasses. Additional crystallizations may be performed to extract more sugar from the molasses; the molasses remaining after no more sugar can be extracted from it in a cost-effective fashion is called blackstrap. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... In chemical engineering, a multiple-effect evaporator is an apparatus for efficiently using the heat of steam to evaporate water. ... In physics, the term supersaturation or oversaturation refers to a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under existing circumstances. ... This article is about the scientific device. ... Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ...


Raw sugar has a yellow to brown colour. If a white product is desired, sulfur dioxide may be bubbled through the cane juice before evaporation; this chemical bleaches many color-forming impurities into colourless ones. Sugar bleached white by this sulfitation process is called "mill white," "plantation white," and "crystal sugar." This form of sugar is the form most commonly consumed in sugarcane-producing countries. Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ...


Refining

The Santa Elisa sugarcane processing plant, one of the largest and oldest in Brazil, is located in Sertãozinho, Brazil. Photo by Renato M.E. Sabbatini
The Santa Elisa sugarcane processing plant, one of the largest and oldest in Brazil, is located in Sertãozinho, Brazil. Photo by Renato M.E. Sabbatini

In sugar refining, raw sugar is further purified. It is first mixed with heavy syrup and then centrifuged clean. This process is called 'affination'; its purpose is to wash away the outer coating of the raw sugar crystals, which is less pure than the crystal interior. The remaining sugar is then dissolved to make a syrup, about 70 percent by weight solids. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 497 pixelsFull resolution (1271 × 789 pixel, file size: 254 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 497 pixelsFull resolution (1271 × 789 pixel, file size: 254 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Renato M.E. Sabbatini Renato Marcos Endrizzi Sabbatini, Brazilian biomedical and computer scientist, educator, science writer, entrepreneur and administrator, born in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, on 20 February 1947. ...


The sugar solution is clarified by the addition of phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide, which combine to precipitate calcium phosphate. The calcium phosphate particles entrap some impurities and absorb others, and then float to the top of the tank, where they can be skimmed off. An alternative to this "phosphatation" technique is 'carbonatation,' which is similar, but uses carbon dioxide and calcium hydroxide to produce a calcium carbonate precipitate. This article is about orthophosphoric acid. ... It has been suggested that Portlandite be merged into this article or section. ... Calcium phosphate is the name given to a family of minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with orthophosphates (PO43-), metaphosphates or pyrophosphates (P2O74-) and occasionally hydrogen or hydroxide ions. ... Carbonatation is the process used in the production of sugar crystals from sugar beets, whereby raw beet juice is mingled with milk of lime and carbon dioxide gas in carbonation tanks. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ...


After any remaining solids are filtered out, the clarified syrup is decolorized by filtration through a bed of activated carbon; bone char was traditionally used in this role, but its use is no longer common. Some remaining colour-forming impurities adsorb to the carbon bed. The purified syrup is then concentrated to supersaturation and repeatedly crystallized under vacuum, to produce white refined sugar. As in a sugar mill, the sugar crystals are separated from the molasses by centrifuging. Additional sugar is recovered by blending the remaining syrup with the washings from affination and again crystallizing to produce brown sugar. When no more sugar can be economically recovered, the final molasses still contains 20–30 percent sucrose and 15–25 percent glucose and fructose. Activated carbon Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or activated coal, is a general term which covers carbon material mostly derived from charcoal. ... Bone char, also known as bone black or animal charcoal, is a granular black material produced by calcinating animal bones: the bones are heated to high temperatures in the absence of air to drive off volatile substances. ... Magnified view of refined sugar crystals. ... Brown sugar typical of that bought in Western supermarkets Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. ...


To produce granulated sugar, in which the individual sugar grains do not clump together, sugar must be dried. Drying is accomplished first by drying the sugar in a hot rotary dryer, and then by conditioning the sugar by blowing cool air through it for several days. Magnified view of refined sugar crystals. ...


Ribbon cane syrup

Evaporator with baffled pan and foam dipper for making ribbon cane syrup. Three Rivers Historical Society Museum at Browntown, South Carolina
Evaporator with baffled pan and foam dipper for making ribbon cane syrup. Three Rivers Historical Society Museum at Browntown, South Carolina

Ribbon cane is a subtropical type that was once widely grown in southern United States, as far north as coastal North Carolina. The juice was extracted with horse or mule-powered crushers; the juice was boiled, like maple syrup, in a flat pan, and then used in the syrup to form as a sweetener for other foods. It is not a commercial crop nowadays, but a few growers try to keep alive the old traditions and find ready sales for their product. Most sugarcane production in the United States occurs in Florida and Louisiana, and to a lesser extent in Hawaii and Texas. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x753, 701 KB)Evaporator with baffled pan and foam dipper for making ribbon cane syrup. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x753, 701 KB)Evaporator with baffled pan and foam dipper for making ribbon cane syrup. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Bottled maple syrup produced in Quebec. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ...


Production

Top 10 Sugarcane Producers - 2005
Country 1000 tonnes
Flag of Brazil Brazil 422,926
Flag of India India 232,300
Flag of the People's Republic of China China 87,768
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan 47,244
Flag of Mexico Mexico 45,195
Flag of Thailand Thailand 43,665
Flag of Colombia Colombia 39,849
Flag of Australia Australia 37,822
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia 29,505
Flag of the United States USA 25,307
World Total 1,011,581
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
[3]

Brown sugar still contains molasess that contains iron and calcium Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and...


Sugarcane as food

Sugarcane juice vendors in Dhaka, Bangladesh

In most countries where sugarcane is cultivated, there are several foods and popular dishes derived from it, such as: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1080x720, 138 KB) Sugarcane juice press in Dhaka Source: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1080x720, 138 KB) Sugarcane juice press in Dhaka Source: http://www. ... Sugarcane juice is a type of drink commonly found in Hong Kong and also in countries where sugarcane is grown commercially. ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ...

  • Direct consumption of raw sugarcane cylinders or cubes, which are chewed to extract the juice, and the bagasse is spat out
  • Freshly extracted juice (garapa, guarab, guarapa, guarapo, papelón, or caldo de cana) by hand or electrically operated small mills, with a touch of lemon and ice, makes a delicious and popular drink.
  • Molasses, used as a sweetener and as a syrup accompanying other foods, such as cheese or cookies
  • Rapadura, a candy made of flavored solid brown sugar in Brazil, which can be consumed in small hard blocks, or in pulverized form (flour), as an add-on to other desserts.
  • Sugarcane is also used in rum production, especially in the Caribbean.
  • Cane sugar syrup was the traditional sweetener in soft drinks for many years, but has been largely supplanted (in the US at least) by high-fructose corn syrup, which is less expensive, but does not taste quite like the sugar it replaces.

Garapa is the Brazilian Portuguese term for the juice of raw sugar cane, a very popular drink in several Latin America countries. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sugar substitute. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Rapadura is the Portuguese name for a traditional candy common in latin american countries such as Brazil and Venezuela (where it is known as papelón) and the Caribbean. ... For other uses, see Candy (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Desert. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Corn syrup, known as glucose syrup outside the United States, is a syrup made from corn starch and composed mainly of glucose. ...

References

  1. ^ Link and reference involving U.N. FAO production figures
  2. ^ Peter Sharpe (26 October 1998). Sugar Cane: Past and Present. Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
  3. ^ faostat.fao.org
  • Bailey, L. H. and Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus Third: A Concise Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada. MacMillan Publishing Company, New York

is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Saccharum
Look up Sugarcane in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Throughout the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, sugar was the main crop produced on the numerous plantations throughout the Caribbean. ... Gasoline on the left, alcohol on the right at a filling station in Brazil In Brazil, ethanol fuel is produced from sugar cane which is a more efficient source of fermentable carbohydrates than corn as well as much easier to grow and process. ... Cachaça Java, from Salinas-MG, Brazil Cachaça (IPA: ) is the most popular distilled alcoholic beverage in Brazil. ... Brand of artisanal cachaça in Brazil. ... Sugarcane juice is a type of drink commonly found in Hong Kong and also in countries where sugarcane is grown commercially. ...

External links

  • Ethical Sugar NGO - specialized on social, communitarian and environmental sugarcane issues

Further reading


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sugarcane - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1769 words)
Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of between 6 and 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical regions of the Old World.
Sugarcane cultivation requires a tropical or subtropical climate, with a minimum of 600 mm (24 in) of annual moisture.
Sugarcane is propagated from cuttings rather than from seed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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