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Encyclopedia > Sugar maple
How to read a taxoboxSugar Maple
Sugar Maple leaves
Sugar Maple leaves
Conservation status
Secure
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Sapindales
Family: Aceraceae
Genus: Acer
Species: A. saccharum
Binomial name
Acer saccharum
Marshall

The Sugar Maple Acer saccharum is a prominent tree in the hardwood forests of eastern North America. It is the largest American maple, reaching heights of 30-37 m tall[citation needed]. This article explains how to read a taxobox. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1967 KB) Summary Acer saccharum foliage. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... Orders See text. ... Families See text Sapindales is a botanical name for an order of flowering plants. ... Type Genus Acer L. Genera   AcerL. - Maple   DipteroniaOliver The Aceraceae (Maple family) comprises between 120-150 species of trees and shrubs. ... Distribution Species See List of Acer species Maples are trees or shrubs in the genus Acer. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Humphry Marshall ( October 10, 1722 - November 5, 1801 ) was an American botanist and plant dealer. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1749x1740, 62 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sugar Maple ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Distribution Species See List of Acer species Maples are trees or shrubs in the genus Acer. ...

A farm with a Sugar Maple in the front yard
A farm with a Sugar Maple in the front yard

The leaves are deciduous, 8-15 cm long and equally wide with five palmate lobes. The basal lobes are relatively small, while the upper lobes are larger and deeply notched. In contrast with the angular notching of the Silver Maple, however, the notches tend to be rounded at their interior. The fall color is often spectacular, ranging from bright yellow through orange to fluorescent red-orange. The leaf buds are pointy and brown colored. The recent years growth twigs are green, and turn dark brown. Sugar Maple From http://www. ... Sugar Maple From http://www. ... The leaves of a Beech tree A leaf with laminar structure and pinnate venation In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off). ... Binomial name Acer saccharinum L. The Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum) is a species of maple native to the eastern United States and adjacent parts of southeast Canada. ...


The flowers are in corymbs of 5-10 together, yellow-green and without petals; flowering occurs in early spring after 30-55 growing degree days. The fruit is a double samara with two winged seeds, the seeds are globose, 7-10 mm diameter, the wing 2-3 cm long. The seeds fall from the tree in autumn. A Phalaenopsis flower A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... White-fruited Rowan (Sorbus glabrescens) corymb; note the branched structure A panicle is a compound raceme; a branched, indeterminate inflorescence with pedicellate flowers (and fruit) attached along the secondary branches (in another words, a branched cluster of flowers in which the branches are racemes). ... Growing degree days (GDD) are a heuristic tool in phenology. ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ... Maple samara or key A samara is a type of fruit in which a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue develops from the ovary wall. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...


It is closely related to the Black Maple, which is sometimes included in this species but sometimes separated as Acer nigrum. The western American Bigtooth Maple (Acer grandidentatum) is also treated as a variety or subspecies of Sugar Maple by some botanists. Binomial name Acer nigrum The Black Maple is a hardwood tree closely related to the Sugar Maple. ... Binomial name Acer grandidentatum Nutt. ...


The Sugar Maple is also often confused with the Norway Maple, though they are not closely related within the genus. The Sugar Maple is most easily identified by clear sap in the leaf petiole (the Norway Maple has white sap), brown sharp-tipped buds (the Norway Maple has blunt green or reddish purple buds), and shaggy bark on older trees (the Norway Maple bark has small grooves). Also, the leaf lobes of the Sugar Maple have a more triangular shape, in contrast to the squarish lobes of the Norway Maple. A number of species of Lepidoptera feed on Norway Maple foliage; see list. ... Leaf of Dog Rose (Rosa canina), showing the petiole and two leafy stipules In botany, the petiole is the small stalk attaching the leaf blade to the stem. ...

Contents

Ecology

The Sugar Maple is an immensely important species to the ecology of many forests in North America. Pure stands are common, and it is a major component of many forest types. It often forms associations with the American Beech, forming the beech-maple forest type, common in northern areas. Other associations include Sugar Maple-Yellow Birch (which is most important beyond the northern limit of beech), Sugar Maple-American Basswood, Sugar Maple-White Ash and Sugar Maple-Ironwood-Red Oak. Sugar Maples engage in hydraulic lift, drawing water from lower soil layers and exuding that water into upper, drier soil layers. This not only benefits the tree itself but also many other plants growing around it. Binomial name Fagus grandifolia Ehrenb. ... Binomial name Betula alleghaniensis Britt. ... Binomial name Tilia americana L. Tilia americana is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree in the genus Tilia, native to eastern North America. ... Binomial name Fraxinus americana L. The White Ash (Fraxinus americana) is one of the largest of the ash genus Fraxinus, growing to 35 m tall. ... Binomial name Quercus rubra L. The Northern red oak, Quercus rubra (Quercus borealis in some older references), is an oak in the red oak group (Quercus section Lobatae). ...

The bark of the Sugar Maple
The bark of the Sugar Maple

Sugar Maple is among the most shade tolerant of large deciduous trees. Among North American maples its shade tolerance is exceeded only by the Striped Maple, a smaller tree. Like other maples, its shade tolerance is manifested in its ability to germinate and persist under a closed canopy as an understory plant, and respond with rapid growth to the increased light formed by a gap in the canopy. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3264x2448, 3822 KB) Species identification performed by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3264x2448, 3822 KB) Species identification performed by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. ... Shade tolerance is an ecological concept that refers to plants abilities to tolerate low light levels. ... Binomial name Acer pensylvanicum L. The Striped Maple or Moosewood (Acer pensylvanicum) is a small tree of northern forests in eastern North America from southern Ontario east to New Brunswick and south to eastern Illinois and New Jersey, and also at high elevations in the Appalachian Mountains much farther south...


Human influences have contributed to the decline of the Sugar Maple in many regions. Its role as a species of mature forests has led it to be replaced by more opportunistic species in areas where forests are cut over. The Sugar maple also exhibits a greater susceptibility to pollution than other species of maple. Acid rain and soil acidification are some of the primary contributing factors to maple decline. Also, the increased use of salt over the last several decades on streets and roads has decimated the sugar maple's role as a "street-front" tree. Acid rain (or more accurately acid precipitation)[1] occurs when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are emitted into the atmosphere, undergo chemical transformations and are absorbed by water droplets in clouds. ... Soil acidification is the buildup of hydrogen cations, also called protons, in the soil. ... Maple decline describes the loss of vigor and dieback in forests or urban plantings of maple trees. ...


In some parts of Eastern North America, particularly near urbanized areas, the Sugar Maple is being displaced by the Norway Maple. The Norway Maple is also highly shade tolerant, but is considerably more tolerant of urban conditions than the Sugar Maple, making it a natural replacement in those areas heavily disturbed by human activities. A number of species of Lepidoptera feed on Norway Maple foliage; see list. ...


Conservation

Conservation status by subnation
Conservation status by subnation

The sugar maple is secure in most of its range, but is considered "Vulnerable" in Georgia, and possibly has been extirpated from North Dakota. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1749x1740, 63 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sugar Maple ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1749x1740, 63 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sugar Maple ... Extirpation is the localized extinction of a species. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ...


Cultivation and uses

The Sugar Maple is one of the most important Canadian trees, being (with Black Maple) the major source of sap for making maple syrup; Sugar Maple being regarded as slightly better. Many maples can be used as a sap source for maple syrup, but none of the others are as good as these two. This list includes many of the common large shrubs of Canada, as well as the trees. ... Binomial name Acer nigrum The Black Maple is a hardwood tree closely related to the Sugar Maple. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The wood is one of the hardest of the maples, and is prized for furniture and flooring. Bowling alleys and bowling pins are both commonly manufactured from sugar maple. Trees with wavy wood grain, called "birdseye maple", are especially valued. Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... Bowling ball and two pins Ten-pin bowling lane This article is about the group of games. ... Cutting Board made of Birdseye Maple Birdseye maple has a distinctive pattern that looks like tiny, swirling eyes disrupting the smooth lines of grain. ...


The Sugar Maple is a favorite street and garden tree, because it is easy to propagate and transplant, is fairly fast-growing, and has beautiful fall color; however, its intolerance of pollution and compacted soils common to inner city conditions make it a frequent victim of maple decline. It also has some of the most dense shade to be found in shade trees. The shade and the shallow, fibrous roots may interfere with grass growing under the trees. Deep well-drained loam is the best rooting medium, although Sugar Maple can grow well on sandy soil which does not become excessively dry. Poorly drained areas are unsuitable and the species is especially short-lived on flood-prone clay flats. Its salt tolerance is low and it is very sensitive to boron. Maple decline describes the loss of vigor and dieback in forests or urban plantings of maple trees. ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ... Loam is soil composed of a relatively even mixture of three mineral particle size groups: sand, silt, and clay. ... General Name, Symbol, Number boron, B, 5 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 13, 2, p Appearance black/brown Atomic mass 10. ...

Cultivars
  • 'Apollo' - columnar.
  • 'Arrowhead' - pyramidal crown.
  • 'Astis' (Steeple®) - heat-tolerant; good in southeastern USA. Oval crown.
  • 'Bonfire' - fast-growing.
  • 'Columnare'
  • 'Fall Fiesta' - tough-leaved, colorful in season.
  • 'Green Mountain' - durable foliage resists heat and drought.
  • 'Legacy' - tough, vigorous and popular.
  • 'Monumentale' - columnar.
  • 'Newton Sentry' - very narrow.
  • 'Sweet Shadow' - lacy foliage.
  • 'Temple's Upright' - columnar.
  • 'Unity' - very hardy Manitoba cultivar.

Sugar Maple is the State Tree of New York, Vermont, West Virginia and Wisconsin. Its leaf is also featured on the Canadian Flag. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2448x3000, 4494 KB) Species identification performed by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2448x3000, 4494 KB) Species identification performed by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Official languages English and French, per mandate of the Constitution Act 1982 Flower Prairie Crocus Tree White Spruce Bird Great Grey Owl Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 14... This List of U.S. state trees includes official trees of the following states and U.S. possessions: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia National Grove of State Trees External link USDA list of state trees and flowers Categories: | | ... NY redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42°30N to 47°3N  - Longitude 86°49W to 92°54W Population  Ranked... Flag Ratio: 1:2 (1965-Present) The National Flag of Canada (), popularly known as the Maple Leaf Flag (French: lUnifoli the one-leaved), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre, featuring a red stylized 11-pointed maple leaf. ...


References

  • Horton, J. L., & Hart, S.C. (1998). Hydraulic lift: a potentially important ecosystem process. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13 (6): 232-235.
  • Canham, C. D. (1989). Different Respones to Gaps Among Shade-Tollerant Tree Species. Ecology 70 (3): 548-550.
  • Brisson, J., Bergeron, Y., Bouchard, A., & Leduc, A. (1994). Beech-maple dynamics in an old-growth forest in southern Quebec, Canada. Ecoscience (Sainte-Foy) 1 (1): 40-46.
  • Duchesne, L., Ouimet, R., & Houle, D. (2002). Basal Area Growth of Sugar Maple in Relation to Acid Deposition, Stand Health, and Soil Nutrients. Journal of Environmental Quality 31: 1676-1683.
  • Godman, Yawney and Tubbs. Sugar Maple
  • Acer saccharum
  • Acer saccharum images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Acer saccharum

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