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Encyclopedia > Sugar beet
Sugar beet
Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil.
Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Amaranthaceae
Subfamily: Chenopodiaceae
Genus: Beta
Species: B. vulgaris
Binomial name
Beta vulgaris
L.

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), a member of the Chenopodiaceae family, is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose. It is grown commercially for sugar. Download high resolution version (423x640, 67 KB)Two sugar beet roots. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families See text. ... Type Genus Amaranthus L. Subfamilies Amaranthoideae Chenopodioideae Gomphrenoideae Salicornioideae Salsoloideae The flowering plant family Amaranthaceae, the Amaranth family, contains about 160 genera and 2,400 species. ... Chenopodium capitatum from Thomé (1885) Chenopodiaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. ... Species (not necessarily a complete list) Beta adanensis Beta atriplicifolia Beta lomatogona Beta nana Beta patellaris Beta patula Beta procumbens Beta trigyna Beta trojana Beta vulgaris Beta is a genus in the flowering plant family Amaranthaceae. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Chenopodium capitatum from Thomé (1885) Chenopodiaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ...


The sugar beet is directly related to the beetroot, chard and fodder beet, all descended by cultivation from the sea beet. Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus Beta vulgaris, commonly known as beet is a flowering plant species in the family Chenopodiaceae. ... For other uses, see Chard (disambiguation). ... Sea Beet is the wild ancestor of common vegetables such as beetroot, sugar beet and swiss chard. ...


The European Union, the United States, and Russia are the world's three largest sugar beet producers,[1] although only the European Union and Ukraine are significant exporters of sugar from beet. Beet sugar accounts for 30% of the world's sugar production.

Contents

Culture

Sugar beet is a hardy biennial plant that can be grown commercially in a wide variety of temperate climates. During its first growing season, it produces a large (1–2 kg) storage root whose dry mass is 15–20% sucrose by weight. If not harvested, during its second growing season, the nutrients in this root are consumed to produce the plant's flowers and seeds. In commercial beet production, the root is harvested after the first growing season, when the root is at its maximum size. A Biennial plant is a plant that takes between twelve and twenty-four months to complete its lifecycle. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... For other uses, see Weight (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...

Sugar beet output in 2005
Sugar beet output in 2005

In most temperate climates, beets are planted in the spring and harvested in the autumn. At the northern end of its range, growing seasons as short as 100 days can produce commercially viable sugarbeet crops. In warmer climates, such as in California's Imperial Valley, sugarbeets are a winter crop, being planted in the autumn and harvested in the spring. In recent years, Syngenta AG has developed the so-called tropical sugar beet. It allows the plant to grow in tropical and subtropical regions. Beets are planted from a small seed; 1 kg of beet seed comprises 100,000 seeds and will plant over a hectare of ground (1 lb will plant about an acre). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,425 × 625 pixels, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of sugar beet output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (France - 31,242,510 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,425 × 625 pixels, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of sugar beet output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (France - 31,242,510 tonnes). ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Imperial Valley and the Salton Sea, as seen from the Space shuttle. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ...


Up until the latter half of the 20th century, sugarbeet production was highly labor-intensive, as weed control was managed by densely planting the crop, which then had to be manually thinned with a hoe two or even three times during the growing season. Harvesting also required many workers. Although the roots could be lifted by a plough-like device which could be pulled by a horse team, the rest of the preparation was by hand. One laborer grabbed the beets by their leaves, knocked them together to shake free loose soil, and then laid them in a row, root to one side, greens to the other. A second worker equipped with a beet hook (a short handled tool something between a billhook and a sickle) followed behind, and would lift the beet and swiftly chop the crown and leaves from the root with a single action. Working this way he would leave a row of beet that could then be forked into the back of a cart. Agricultural square bladed hoe. ... An example of a Newtown pattern billhook. ... Using a sickle A sickle is a curved, hand-held agricultural tool typically used for harvesting grain crops before the advent of modern harvesting machinery. ...

Top Ten Sugar Beet Producers - 2005
(million metric ton)
Flag of France France 29
Flag of Germany Germany 25
Flag of the United States United States 25
Flag of Russia Russia 22
Flag of Ukraine Ukraine 16
Flag of Turkey Turkey 14
Flag of Italy Italy 12
Flag of Poland Poland 11
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 8
Flag of Spain Spain 7
World Total 242
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
[2]

Today, mechanical sowing, herbicide application for weed control and mechanical harvesting has removed this reliance on workers. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and... An herbicide is used to kill unwanted plants. ...

A beet harvester
A beet harvester

Harvesting is now entirely mechanical. The beet harvester chops the leaf and crown (which is high in non-sugar impurities) from the root, lifts the root, and removes excess soil from the root in a single pass over the field. A modern harvester is typically able to cover six rows at the same time. The beet is left in piles at the side of the field and then conveyed into a trailer for delivery to the factory. The conveyor removes more soil -a farmer would be penalized at the factory for excess soil in his load. Image File history File links Beetharvester. ... Image File history File links Beetharvester. ...


If beet is to be left for later delivery, it is formed into clamps. Straw bales are used to shield the beet from the weather. Provided the clamp is well built with the right amount of ventilation, the beet does not significantly deteriorate. Beet that is frozen and then defrosts, produce complex carbohydrates that cause severe production problems in the factory. In the UK, loads may be hand examined at the factory gate before being accepted. A Storage Clamp is used in the agricultural industry for temporary storage of root crops such as potato, turnip, swede, Mangelwurzel etc. ...


In the US, the fall harvest begins with the first hard frost, which arrests photosynthesis and the further growth of the root. Depending on the local climate, it may be carried out in few weeks or be prolonged throughout the winter months. The harvest and processing of the beet is referred to as "the campaign", reflecting the organization required to deliver crop at a steady rate to processing factories that run 24 hours a day for the duration of the harvest and processing (for the UK the campaign lasts approx 5 months). In the Netherlands this period is known as "de bietencampagne", a time to be careful when driving local roads in the area the beets are grown. The reason for this is the naturally high clay content of the soil, causing slippery roads when soil falls from the trailers during transport. The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ...


Processing

Reception

A sugar beet factory located in Shropshire, England.
A sugar beet factory located in Shropshire, England.

After harvesting, the beets are hauled to the factory. Delivery in the UK is by hauler or, for local farmers, by tractor and trailer. Railways and boats were once used in the UK, but no longer. Some beet was carried by rail in the Republic of Ireland, until the 2006 shutdown of sugar beet production in the country due to the end of subsidies. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x776, 223 KB) The British Sugar factory at Alscott, Shropshire. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x776, 223 KB) The British Sugar factory at Alscott, Shropshire. ... Shropshire (pronounced /, -/), alternatively known as Salop[6] or abbreviated Shrops[7], is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Each load entering is weighed and sampled before tipping onto the reception area, typically a "flat pad" of concrete, where it is moved into large heaps. The beet sample is checked for

  • soil tare - the amount of non beet delivered
  • crown tare - the amount of low sugar beet delivered
  • sugar content ("pol") - amount of sucrose in the crop
  • nitrogen content - for recommending future fertilizer use to the farmer.

From these the actual sugar content of the load is calculated and the grower's payment determined. Polarimetry is the measurement of the polarisation of light; a polarimeter is the scientific instrument used to make these measurements. ...


The beet is moved from the heaps into a central channel or gulley where it is washed towards the processing plant.


Diffusion

After reception at the processing plant the beet roots are washed, mechanically sliced into thin strips called cossettes, and passed to a machine called a diffuser to extract their sugar content into a water solution.


Diffusers are long (many metres) vessels in which the beet slices go in one direction while hot water goes in the opposite direction. The movement may either be by a rotating screw or the whole unit rotates and the water and cossettes move through internal chambers. There are three common designs of diffuser, the horizontal rotating 'RT' (from "Raffinière Tirlemontoise", the manufacturer), inclined screw 'DDS' (De Danske Sukkerfabrikker), or vertical screw "Tower". A less common design uses a moving belt of cossettes and water is pumped onto the top of the belt and pours through. In all cases the flow rates of cossettes and water are in the ratio one to two. Typically cossettes take about 90 minutes to pass through the diffuser, the water only 45 minutes. These are all countercurrent exchange methods that extract more sugar from the cossettes using less water than if they merely sat in a hot water tank. The liquid exiting the diffuser is called raw juice. The colour of raw juice varies from black to a dark red depending on the amount of oxidation which is itself dependent on diffuser design. Tienen (French: Tirlemont) is a municipality in the province of Flemish Brabant, in Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism used to transfer some component of a fluid from one flowing current of fluid to another across a permeable barrier between them. ...


The used cossettes, or pulp, exits the diffuser at about 95% moisture but low sucrose content. Using screw presses, the wet pulp is then pressed down to 75% moisture. This recovers additional sucrose in the liquid pressed out of the pulp, and reduces the energy needed to dry the pulp. The pressed pulp is dried and sold as animal feed, while the liquid pressed out of the pulp is combined with the raw juice or more often introduced into the diffuser at the appropriate point in the countercurrent process.


During diffusion there is a degree of breakdown of the sucrose into invert sugars and these can undergo further breakdown into acids. These breakdown products are not only losses of sucrose but also have knock-on effects reducing the final output of processed sugar from the factory. To limit (thermophilic) bacterial action the feed water may be dosed with formaldehyde and control of the feed water pH is also practised. There have been attempts at operating diffusion under alkaline conditions but the process has proven problematic - the improved sucrose extraction in the diffuser offset by processing problems in the next stages. R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point -53 °C Related Compounds Related aldehydes acetaldehyde benzaldehyde Related compounds ketones carboxylic acids Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Formaldehyde (methanal) is the chemical compound with the formula... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ...


Carbonatation

The raw juice contains many impurities that must be removed before crystallization. This is accomplished via carbonatation. First, the juice is mixed with hot milk of lime (a suspension of calcium hydroxide in water). This treatment precipitates a number of impurities, including multivalent anions such as sulfate, phosphate, citrate and oxalate, which precipitate as their calcium salts and large organic molecules such as proteins, saponins and pectins, which aggregate in the presence of multivalent cations. In addition, the alkaline conditions convert the simple sugars, glucose and fructose, along with the amino acid glutamine, to chemically stable carboxylic acids. Left untreated, these sugars and amines would eventually frustrate crystallization of the sucrose. Carbonatation is the process used in the production of sugar crystals from sugar beets, whereby raw beet juice is mingled with milk of lime and carbon dioxide gas in carbonation tanks. ... Milk of lime is a watery emulsion of calcium hydrate produced by macerating quicklime in water. ... Velence is a town in the county of Fejér. ... An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Chemical strucutre of citric acid. ... An oxalate (called also: ethanedioate) is a salt or ester of oxalic acid. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Saponins are the glycosides of 27 carbon atom steroids, or 30 carbon atom triterpenes. ... Pectin, a white to light brown powder, is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of higher terrestrial plants. ... A cation is an ion with positive charge. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Glutamine (abbreviated as Gln or Q; Glx or Z represents either glutamine or glutamic acid) is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted...


Next, carbon dioxide is bubbled through the alkaline sugar solution, precipitating the lime as calcium carbonate (chalk). The chalk particles entrap some impurities and absorb others. A recycling process builds up the size of chalk particles and a natural flocculation occurs where the heavy particles settle out in tanks (clarifiers). A final addition of more carbon dioxide precipitates more calcium from solution; this is filtered off, leaving a cleaner golden light brown sugar solution called thin juice. Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... The Needles, situated on the Isle Of Wight, are part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation. ... Look up absorption in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Before entering the next stage the thin juice may receive soda ash to modify the pH and sulphitation with a sulfur-based compound to reduce colour formation due to decomposition of monosaccharides under heat. Sodium carbonate or soda ash, Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


Evaporation

The thin juice is concentrated via multiple-effect evaporation to make a thick juice, roughly 60% sucrose by weight and similar in appearance to pancake syrup. Thick juice can be stored in tanks for later processing reducing load on the crystallization plant. In chemical engineering, a multiple-effect evaporator is an apparatus for efficiently using the heat of steam to evaporate water. ...


Crystallization

The thick juice is fed to the crystallizers, recycled sugar is dissolved into it and the resulting syrup is called "mother liquor". This is concentrated further by boiling under vacuum in large vessels and seeded with fine sugar crystals. These crystals grow, as sugar from the mother liquor forms around them. The resulting sugar crystal and syrup mix is called a massecuite (from French "cooked mass"). The massecuite is passed to a centrifuge where the liquid is removed from the sugar crystals. Remaining syrup is rinsed off with water and the crystals dried in a granulator using warm air. The remaining syrup is fed to another crystallizer from which a second batch of sugar is produced. This sugar ("raw") is of lower quality with a lot of colour and impurities and is the main source of the sugar that is re-dissolved into the mother liquor. The syrup from the raw is also sent to a crystalliser. From this a very low quality sugar crystal is produced (known in some systems as "AP sugar") that is also redissolved. The syrup separated is molasses; still containing sugar but with too much impurity to be economically processed further. This article is about the scientific device. ... Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ...


There are variations on the above system, with different recycling and crystallisation paths.


Other uses

Beverages

In a number of countries, most notably the Czech Republic, sugar from sugar beet is used to make a type of "rum" which is now known as tuzemak. On the Åland Islands, a similar drink is made under the brand name Kobba Libre. In some European countries, especially in the Czech Republic and Germany, sugar beet is also used to make rectified spirit and vodka. This article is about the beverage. ... “Aland” redirects here. ... Rectified spirit or rectified alcohol is high concentration alcohol purified by the process of rectification (repeated or fractional distillation). ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ...


Sugar beet syrup

An unrefined sugary syrup can be produced directly from sugar beet. This thick, dark syrup is produced by cooking shredded sugar beet for several hours, then pressing the resulting sugar beet mash and concentrating the juice produced until it has the consistency similar to that of honey. No other ingredients are used. In Germany, particularly the Rhineland area, this sugar beet syrup is used as a spread for sandwiches, as well as for sweetening sauces, cakes and desserts. For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ...


Commercially, if the syrup has a Dextrose Equivalency above 30 DE, the product has to be hydrolyzed and converted to a high-fructose syrup, much like high-fructose corn syrup, or iso-glucose syrup in the EU. Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ... High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is any of a group of corn syrups that have undergone enzymatic processing in order to increase their fructose content and are then mixed with pure corn syrup (100% glucose) to reach their final form. ...


Betaine

Betaine can be isolated from the by-products of sugar beet processing. Production is chiefly by chromatagraphic separation using techniques such as the "moving bed". Trimethylglycine (Betaine) functions very closely with choline, folic acid, vitamin B12, and a form of the amino acid methionine known as S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe). ...


Uridine

Uridine can be isolated from sugar beet. Uridine in combination with omega 3 fatty acids has been shown to alleviate depression.[3] Uridine is a molecule (known as a nucleoside) that is formed when uracil is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N1-glycosidic bond. ... Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids found in certain fish tissues, and in vegetable sources such as flax seeds, walnuts, and canola oil. ... In everyday language depression refers to any downturn in mood, which may be relatively transitory and perhaps due to something trivial. ...


Alternative fuel

There are plans by BP and Associated British Foods to use agricultural surpluses of sugar beet to produce biobutanol in East Anglia in the United Kingdom. This article is about the energy corporation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Butanol (butyl alcohol) is a higher alcohol with a 4 carbon atom structure and a general formula of C4H10O. There are 4 different isomeric structures for butanol (refer to box). ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ...


History

A geneticist evaluates sugar beet plants for resistance to the fungal disease Rhizoctonia root rot.
A geneticist evaluates sugar beet plants for resistance to the fungal disease Rhizoctonia root rot.

Although beets have been grown as vegetables and for fodder since antiquity (a large root vegetable appearing in 4000-year old Egyptian temple artwork may be a beet), their use as a sugar crop is relatively recent. As early as 1590, the French botanist Olivier de Serres extracted a sweet syrup from beetroot, but the practice did not become common. The Prussian chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf used alcohol to extract sugar from beets (and carrots) in 1747, but his methods did not lend themselves to economical industrial-scale production. His former pupil and successor Franz Karl Achard began selectively breeding sugar beet from the White Silesian fodder beet in 1784. By the beginning of the 19th century, his beet was approximately 5–6 percent sucrose by weight, compared to around 20 percent in modern varieties. Under the patronage of Frederick William III of Prussia, he opened the world's first beet sugar factory in 1801, at Cunern in Silesia. Download high resolution version (600x913, 97 KB)Image Number K8992-1 Root-rotting fungi can weaken, stunt, or kill sugar beet plants. ... Download high resolution version (600x913, 97 KB)Image Number K8992-1 Root-rotting fungi can weaken, stunt, or kill sugar beet plants. ... Olivier de Serres (1529 – 1619) was a French author and soil scientist whose Théâtre dArgriculture was the text book of French agriculture in the 1600s. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... This German man was credited (in the West) with discovering a pure form of Zinc ... Franz Karl Achard Franz Karl Achard (April 28, 1753, Berlin - April 20, 1821, Wohlau-Cunern) was a Prussian chemist, physicist and biologist. ... Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ...


The development of the European beet sugar industry was encouraged by the Napoleonic Wars. In 1807 the British began a blockade of France, preventing the import of sugarcane from the Caribbean. Partly in response, in 1812, Frenchman Benjamin Delessert came up with a sugar extraction process suitable for industrial application, and in 1813, Napoleon instituted a retaliatory embargo. By the end of the wars, over 300 beet sugar mills operated in France and central Europe. Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... West Indies redirects here. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ...


The first U.S. sugar beet mill opened in 1838.


Agriculture

Sugar beet is an important part of a rotating crop cycle. Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ...


Sugar beet plants are susceptible to rhizomania ("root madness") which turns the bulbous tap root into many small roots making the crop economically unprocessable. Strict controls are enforced in European countries to prevent the spread, but it is already endemic in some areas. Continual research looks for varieties with resistance as well as increased sugar yield. Sugar beet breeding research in the United States is most prominently conducted at various USDA Agricultural Research Stations, including one in Fort Collins, Colorado, headed by Linda Hanson and Leonard Panella, one in Fargo, North Dakota, headed by John Wieland, and one at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan, headed by J. Mitchell McGrath. The City of Fort Collins, a home rule municipality situated on the Cache la Poudre River along the Colorado Front Range, is the county seat and most populous city in Larimer County, Colorado. ... “Fargo” redirects here. ... Michigan State University (MSU) is a co-educational public research university in East Lansing, Michigan USA. Founded in 1855, it was the pioneer land-grant institution and served as a model for future land-grant colleges in the United States under the 1862 Morrill Act. ... Location in Michigan Coordinates: , Country State Counties Ingham, Clinton Incorporation 1907 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Samir Singh (D)  - City Manager Theodore J. Stanton Area  - City  11. ...


Other economically important members of the Chenopodioideae subfamily: Genera See text The Chenopodioideae is a subfamily of the of the Amaranthaceae, formerly treated as a distinct family, Chenopodiaceae. ...

A beet (called beetroot in the United Kingdom and its former colonies, as well as table beet, garden beet, blood turnip or red beet) is a plant of the genus Beta of which both the leaves and root are edible. ... For other uses, see Chard (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Beta vulgaris Mangelwurzel or mangold wurzel (Beta vulgaris), is a root vegetable of the family Chenopodiaceae, genus Beta (the beets). ...

See also

Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.fao.org/es/ess/top/commodity.jsp?lang=EN&commodity=157&CommodityList=157&year=2003&yearLyst=2003
  2. ^ http://faostat.fao.org/faostat/form?collection=Production.Crops.Primary&Domain=Production&servlet=1&hasbulk=0&version=ext&language=EN
  3. ^ http://onhealth.webmd.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=55995

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Beta vulgaris
Look up Sugar beet in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Sugar Process at the American Crystal Sugar Company website
  • How Beet Sugar is Made
  • Growing Sugar Crystals
  • CSM sugar
  • Guardian (UK) article on how sugar beet can be used for fuel
  • Sugar beet culture in the northern Great Plains area hosted by the University of North Texas Government Documents Department

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sugar beet crop — an alternate to cane -DAWN - Business; October 09, 2006 (824 words)
Sugar beet can be grown in lower Sindh where climate is more favourable than in the Punjab, particularly in the last stage of maturity.
The data of a sugar mill in the NWFP reveals that the cost of sugar made from beet is dearer by about Rs4 per kg because of the non-availability of bagasse.
Sugar beet is a Rabi crop and therefore it impacts production of wheat and oilseed crops as it competes with these crops for land and water.
SUGAR BEET NEMATODE (1941 words)
The sugar beet nematode, Heterodera schachtii is a major parasite of sugar beets.
It was first identified in 1859 on sugar beets near Halle, Germany, and was first observed in the United States as early as 1895.
Counter is registered for suppression of the sugar beet nematode and is useful for low to moderate nematode populations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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