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Encyclopedia > Sugar
Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.
Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.
Sugar, granulated
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 390 kcal   1620 kJ
Carbohydrates     99.98 g
- Sugars  99.91 g
- Dietary fiber  0 g  
Fat 0 g
Protein 0 g
Water 0.03 g
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.019 mg   1%
Calcium  1 mg 0%
Iron  0.01 mg 0%
Potassium  2 mg   0%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Sugars, brown
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 380 kcal   1580 kJ
Carbohydrates     97.33 g
- Sugars  96.21 g
- Dietary fiber  0 g  
Fat 0 g
Protein 0 g
Water 1.77 g
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.008 mg   1%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.007 mg   0%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  0.082 mg   1%
Vitamin B6  0.026 mg 2%
Folate (Vit. B9)  1 μg  0%
Calcium  85 mg 9%
Iron  1.91 mg 15%
Magnesium  29 mg 8% 
Phosphorus  22 mg 3%
Potassium  346 mg   7%
Sodium  39 mg 3%
Zinc  0.18 mg 2%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Magnified crystals of refined sugar.
Magnified crystals of refined sugar.

Sugar (the word stems from the Sanskrit sharkara) consists of a class of edible crystalline substances including sucrose, lactose, and fructose. Human taste-buds interpret its flavor as sweet. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet, but also appears in fruit, honey, sorghum, sugar maple (in maple syrup), and in many other sources. It forms the main ingredient in much candy. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type-2 diabetes, obesity and tooth-decay. Look up Sugar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3456x2304, 1476 KB) Summary The sugar was on a ruler, and the black marks are 1mm apart. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3456x2304, 1476 KB) Summary The sugar was on a ruler, and the black marks are 1mm apart. ... In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Taste buds are small structures on the upper surface of the tongue, soft palate, and epiglottis that provide information about the taste of food being eaten. ... This article is about flavor as a sensory impression. ... Look up Sweet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... Binomial name Acer saccharum Marshall The Sugar Maple Acer saccharum is a prominent tree in the hardwood forests of eastern North America. ... Bottled maple syrup produced in Quebec. ... For other uses, see Candy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ...

Contents

Terminology

Popular

In non-scientific use, the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. In this informal sense, the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ...


Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel, preservation, and texture) of beverages and food. Commercially-produced table-sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars, including palm sugar and fructose, generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. This article is about flavor as a sensory impression. ... In many areas related to the testing and evaluating of foodstuffs,such as wine-tasting and rheology, mouthfeel is a product’s physical and chemical interaction in the mouth from initial perception on the palate, to first bite, through mastication to swallowing. ... The word drink is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids, see Drinking. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... Palm sugar was originally made from the sugary sap of the Palmyra palm or the date palm. ... Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... This article is about the maize plant. ...


Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. Generically known as "syrups", they may also have other more specific names such as "honey" or "molasses". In cooking, a syrup (from Arabic شراب sharab, beverage, via Latin siropus) is a thick, viscous liquid, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars, but showing little tendency to deposit crystals. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ...


Scientific

Scientifically, sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"), such as glucose, store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the...


In a list of ingredients, any word that ends with "ose" will likely denote a sugar. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood-plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ...


Culinary/nutritional

In culinary terms, the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs, alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist, and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood-sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb), and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). Sour redirects here. ... For other uses, see Sweetness (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sugar substitute. ... In medicine, blood sugar is a term used to refer to levels of glucose in the blood. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Etymology: French calorie, from Latin calor (heat), from calere (to be warm). ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Species About 150 species, including: Stevia eupatoria Stevia ovata Stevia plummerae Stevia rebaudiana Stevia salicifolia Stevia serrata Stevia is a genus of about 150 species of herbs and shrubs in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), native to subtropical and tropical South America and Central America. ... For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... Saccharin[2] is the oldest artificial sweetener. ... In general terms, eating is the process of consuming something edible. ... Chemical reactions are also known as chemical changes. ...


History

Early use of sugar-cane in Asia

Originally, people chewed the cane raw to extract its sweetness. Later, the Indians discovered how to crystallize sugar during the Gupta dynasty, around 350 AD.[1] John F. Robyt (1998) locates the two most probable origins of sugar cultivation as North East India or the South Pacific, which provide evidence of sugarcane cultivation as early as 10,000 BC and 6,000 BC respectively.[2] Further archaeological evidence associates sugar with the Indus valley.[2] The Gupta dynasty ruled the Gupta Empire of India, from around 320 to 550. ... North-East India is the easternmost region of India consisting of the following states: Nagaland Arunachal Pradesh Mizoram Manipur Meghalaya Tripura Sikkim Assam Sikkim became an Indian protectorate in 1947 and a full state in 1975. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ...


This cultivation spread to the Indian subcontinent during early antiquity.[1] Sugar culture spread from India to China, and from China it spread even further.[2] However, sugar remained relatively unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals which would prove easier to store and to transport.[1] Indian sailors, consumers of clarified butter and sugar, spread this food through various trade routes.[1] In South Asia, the Middle East and China, sugar became a staple of cooking and desserts. Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Sugarcane juice is a type of drink commonly found in Hong Kong, Singapore, and also in countries where sugarcane is grown commercially. ... A trade route is a commonly used path of travel for those (e. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Not to be confused with Desert. ...


Some evidence suggests that the Greeks under Alexander the Great may have taken sugar from India during their retreat.[3] It would later spread to Europe and to Africa.[3] For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Early refining methods involved grinding or pounding the cane in order to extract the juice, and then boiling down the juice or drying it in the sun to yield sugary solids that looked like gravel. The Sanskrit word for "sugar" (sharkara), also means "gravel". Similarly, the Chinese use the term "gravel sugar" (Traditional Chinese: 砂糖) for table sugar. Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ...


Cane sugar outside Asia

A sugar-cane cutter in Cuba.
A sugar-cane cutter in Cuba.

During the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, Arab entrepreneurs adopted the techniques of sugar production from India and then refined and transformed them into a large-scale industry. Arabs set up the first sugar mills, refineries, factories and plantations. The Arabs and Berbers diffused sugar throughout the Arab Empire and beyond across much of the Old World, including Western Europe after they conquered the Iberian Peninsula in the 8th century AD.[4] Crusaders also brought sugar home with them to Europe after their campaigns in the Holy Land, where they encountered caravans carrying "sweet salt". Crusade chronicler William of Tyre, writing in the late 12th century, described sugar as "very necessary for the use and health of mankind". Image File history File linksMetadata Evstafiev-zafra. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Evstafiev-zafra. ... The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... This article is about crop plantations. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The Umayyad conquest of Hispania (711–718) commenced when an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of Northwest Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... William of Tyre (c. ...


The 1390s saw the development of a better press, which doubled the juice obtained from the cane. This permitted economic expansion of sugar plantations to Andalucia and to the Algarve. The 1420s saw sugar-production extended to the Canary Islands, Madeira and the Azores. For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... Algarve NUTS II region, and the district of Faro in Portugal. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi...


In August 1492 Christopher Columbus stopped at Gomera in the Canary Islands, for wine and water, intending to stay only four days. He became romantically involved with the Governor of the island, Beatrice de Bobadilla, and stayed a month. When he finally sailed she gave him cuttings of sugar-cane, which became the first to reach the New World. Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... La Gomera is also a Guatemalan city in the department of Escuintla, see La Gomera, Guatemala La Gomera is a Spanish island, the second smallest island of the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ...


The Portuguese took sugar to Brazil. Hans Staden, published in 1555, writes that by 1540 Santa Catalina Island had 800 sugar-mills and that the north coast of Brazil, Demarara and Surinam had another 2000. Approximately 3000 small mills built before 1550 in the New World created an unprecedented demand for cast iron gears, levers, axles and other implements. Specialist trades in mold-making and iron-casting developed in Europe due to the expansion of sugar-production. Sugar-mill construction developed technological skills needed for a nascent industrial revolution in the early 17th-century.[citation needed] Hans Staden (with beard) watching an indigenous tribe in Brazil practicing cannibalism. ... Categories: Philippines geography stubs | Municipalities in the Philippines ... Brown sugar typical of that bought in Western supermarkets Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. ... The Republic of Suriname, more commonly known as Suriname or Surinam, (formerly known as Netherlands Guiana and Dutch Guiana) is a country in northern South America, in between French Guiana to the east and Guyana to the west. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... For other uses, see Gear (disambiguation). ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


After 1625 the Dutch carried sugar-cane from South America to the Caribbean islands — where it became grown from Barbados to the Virgin Islands. The years 1625 to 1750 saw sugar become worth its weight in gold.[citation needed] Contemporaries often compared[citation needed] the worth of sugar with valuable commodities including musk, pearls, and spices. Prices declined slowly as production became multi-sourced, especially through British colonial policy. Formerly an indulgence of the rich, sugar became increasingly common among the poor. Sugar-production increased in mainland North American colonies, in Cuba, and in Brazil. African slaves became the dominant source of plantation-workers, as they proved resistant to the diseases of malaria and yellow fever. (European indentured servants remained in shorter supply, susceptible to disease and overall forming a less economic investment. European diseases such as smallpox had reduced the numbers of local Native Americans.) But replacement of Native American with African slaves also occurred because of the high death-rates on sugar-plantations. The British West Indies imported almost 4 million slaves, but had only 400,000 Blacks left after slavery ended in the British Empire in 1838. Slave redirects here. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... An indentured servant (also called a bonded laborer) is a labourer unde from the employer in exchange for an extension to the period of their indenture, which could thereby continue indefinitely. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Brazilian Indian chiefs The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... The abolition of slavery must rank as one of the greatest achievements of recorded history. ...


With the European colonization of the Americas, the Caribbean became the world's largest source of sugar. These islands could supply sugar-cane using slave-labor and produce sugar at prices vastly lower than those of cane-sugar imported from the East. Thus the economies of entire islands such as Guadaloupe and Barbados became based on sugar-production. By 1750 the French colony known as Saint-Domingue (subsequently the independent country of Haiti) became the largest sugar-producer in the world. Jamaica too became a major producer in the 18th century. Sugar-plantations fueled a demand for manpower; between 1701 and 1810 ships brought nearly one million slaves to work in Jamaica and in Barbados. Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... The Caribbean The history of the Caribbean reveals the significant role the region played in the colonial struggles of the European powers between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. ... Guadeloupe, in the Caribbean Sea, is an archipelago with a total area of 1,704 km² located in the Eastern Caribbean. ... Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ... A sugarcane plantation at Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, 2005 A plantation is a large tract of monoculture, as a tree plantation, a cotton plantation, a tea plantation or a tobacco plantation. ...


During the eighteenth century, sugar became enormously popular and the sugar-market went through a series of booms. The heightened demand and production of sugar came about to a large extent due to a great change in the eating habits of many Europeans. For example, they began consuming jams, candy, tea, coffee, cocoa, processed foods, and other sweet victuals in much greater numbers. Reacting to this increasing craze, the islands took advantage of the situation and began producing more sugar. In fact, they produced up to ninety percent of the sugar that the western Europeans consumed. Some islands proved more successful than others when it came to producing the product. And in Barbados and the British Leeward Islands sugar provided 93% and 97% respectively of exports. In economics, the term boom and bust refers to the movement of an economy through economic cycles due to changes in aggregate demand. ... Jam from berries Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruits natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. ... For other uses, see Candy (disambiguation). ... The Leeward Islands are the northern islands of the Lesser Antilles. ...


Planters later began developing ways to boost production even more. For example, they began using more manure when growing their crops. They also developed more advanced mills and began using better types of sugar-cane. Despite these and other improvements, the price of sugar reached soaring heights, especially during events such as the revolt against the Dutch[citation needed] and the Napoleonic Wars. Sugar remained in high demand, and the islands' planters knew exactly how to take advantage of the situation. Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack...


As Europeans established sugar-plantations on the larger Caribbean islands, prices fell, especially in Britain. By the eighteenth century all levels of society had become common consumers of the former luxury product. At first most sugar in Britain went into tea, but later confectionery and chocolates became extremely popular. Many Britons (especially children) also ate jams.[citation needed] Suppliers commonly sold sugar in solid cones and consumers required a sugar nip, a pliers-like tool, to break off pieces. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... For other uses, see Candy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ...


Sugar-cane quickly exhausts the soil in which it grows, and planters pressed larger islands with fresher soil into production in the nineteenth century. In this century, for example, Cuba rose to become the richest land in the Caribbean (with sugar as its dominant crop) because it formed the only major island land-mass free of mountainous terrain. Instead, nearly three-quarters of its land formed a rolling plain — ideal for planting crops. Cuba also prospered above other islands because Cubans used better methods when harvesting the sugar crops: they adopted modern milling-methods such as water-mills, enclosed furnaces, steam-engines, and vacuum-pans. All these technologies increased productivity. Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ...


After the Haïtian Revolution established the independent state of Haiti, sugar production in that country declined and Cuba replaced Saint-Domingue as the world's largest producer. The Haïtian Revolution (1791-1804) was the most successful of the many African slave rebellions in the Western Hemisphere and established Haïti as a free, black republic, the first of its kind. ...


Long established in Brazil, sugar-production spread to other parts of South America, as well as to newer European colonies in Africa and in the Pacific, where it became especially important in Fiji. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


In Colombia, the planting of sugar started very early on, and entrepreneurs imported many African slaves to cultivate the fields. The industrialization of the Colombian industry started in 1901 with the establishment of the first steam-powered sugar mill by Santiago Eder. This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


While no longer grown by slaves, sugar from developing countries has an on-going association with workers earning minimal wages and living in extreme poverty.


The rise of beet sugar

In 1747 the German chemist Andreas Marggraf identified sucrose in beet-root. This discovery remained a mere curiosity for some time, but eventually Marggraf's student Franz Achard built a sugarbeet-processing factory at Cunern in Silesia (in present-day Poland), under the patronage of King Frederick William III of Prussia (reigned 1797 - 1840). While never profitable, this plant operated from 1801 until it suffered destruction during the Napoleonic Wars (ca 1802 - 1815). This German man was credited (in the West) with discovering a pure form of Zinc ... Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus Beta vulgaris, commonly known as beet is a flowering plant species in the family Chenopodiaceae. ... Franz Karl Achard Franz Karl Achard (April 28, 1753, Berlin - April 20, 1821, Wohlau-Cunern) was a Prussian chemist, physicist and biologist. ... ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... The Napoleonic Wars lasted from 1804 until 1815. ...


Napoleon, cut off from Caribbean imports by a British blockade, and at any rate not wanting to fund British merchants, banned imports of sugar in 1813. The beet-sugar industry that emerged in consequence grew, and today sugar-beet provides approximately 30% of world sugar production. Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the developed countries, the sugar industry relies on machinery, with a low requirement for manpower. A large beet-refinery producing around 1,500 tonnes of sugar a day needs a permanent workforce of about 150 for 24-hour production.


Mechanization

Beginning in the late 18th century, the production of sugar became increasingly mechanized. The steam engine first powered a sugar-mill in Jamaica in 1768, and soon after, steam replaced direct firing as the source of process heat. // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ...


In 1813 the British chemist Edward Charles Howard invented a method of refining sugar that involved boiling the cane juice not in an open kettle, but in a closed vessel heated by steam and held under partial vacuum. At reduced pressure, water boils at a lower temperature, and this development both saved fuel and reduced the amount of sugar lost through caramelization. Further gains in fuel-efficiency came from the multiple-effect evaporator, designed by the African-American engineer Norbert Rillieux (perhaps as early as the 1820s, although the first working model dates from 1845). This system consisted of a series of vacuum pans, each held at a lower pressure than the previous one. The vapors from each pan served to heat the next, with minimal heat wasted. Today, many industries use multiple-effect evaporators for evaporating water. Edward Charles Howard was a Brittish chemist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In chemical engineering, a multiple-effect evaporator is an apparatus for efficiently using the heat of steam to evaporate water. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... Robert Norbert Rillieux (March 18, 1806-October 8, 1894), inventor and engineer, is most noted for inventing the multiple-effect evaporator, an energy-efficient means of evaporating water. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The process of separating sugar from molasses also received mechanical attention: David Weston first applied the centrifuge to this task in Hawaii in 1852. Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ... This article is about the scientific device. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Etymology

In the case of sugar, the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar,[5] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara.[4] It came to English by way of French, Spanish and/or Italian, which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar, the Spanish word azúcar, the Italian word zucchero, the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). (Compare the OED.) The Greek word for "sugar", zahari, means "sugar" or "pebble". Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). Etymologies redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


As a food

Originally a luxury, sugar eventually became sufficiently cheap and common to influence standard cuisine. Britain and the Caribbean islands have cuisines where the use of sugar became particularly prominent. This is a list of inhabited islands in the Caribbean. ...


Sugar forms a major element in confectionery and in desserts. Cooks use it as a food preservative as well as for sweetening. It has been suggested that Candy be merged into this article or section. ... Not to be confused with Desert. ... A cook is a person that prepares food for consumption. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Human health

Some commentators[attribution needed] have suggested links between sugar-consumption and health hazards, including obesity and tooth-decay.


Tooth-decay

Tooth-decay has arguably become the most prominent health-hazard associated with the consumption of sugar. Oral bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans live in dental plaque and metabolize sugars into lactic acid. High concentrations of acid may result on the surface of a tooth, leading to tooth demineralization.[6][7] Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... Binomial name Streptococcus mutans Clarke 1924 Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria commonly found in the human oral cavity and is a significant contributor to tooth decay. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ...


The American Dental Association sees[citation needed] tooth decay as caused "mostly" by starchy foods like breadsticks, cereals and potato-chips that linger on teeth and prolong acid-production, not by simple sugars that dissolve rapidly in the mouth. The American Dental Association (ADA) is an American advocacy group that promotes Oral Health Care and the field of dentistry. ...


Diabetes

Diabetes, a disease that causes the body to metabolize sugar poorly, occurs when either: This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...

  1. the body's cells ignore insulin, a chemical that allows the metabolizing of sugar (Type 2 diabetes)
  2. the body attacks the cells producing the insulin (Type 1 diabetes)

When glucose builds up in the bloodstream, it can cause two problems: Not to be confused with inulin. ...

  1. in the short term, cells become starved for energy because they do not have access to the glucose
  2. in the long term, frequent glucose build-up can damage many of the body's organs, including the eyes, kidneys, nerves and/or heart

Authorities advise diabetics to avoid sugar-rich foods to prevent adverse reactions.[8]


Obesity

In the United States of America, a scientific/health debate has started[citation needed] over the causes of a steep rise in obesity in the general population — and one view posits increased consumption of carbohydrates in recent decades as a major factor.[9] Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Obesity can result from a number of factors including:

  • an increased intake of energy-dense foods — high in fat and sugars but low in vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients (see United Nations advice below); and
  • decreased physical activity.[10]

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I and Continuous indicates that the population in the United States has increased its proportion of energy-consumption from carbohydrates and decreased its proportion from total fat while obesity has increased. This implies, along with the United Nations report cited below, that obesity may correlate better with sugar-consumption than with fat-consumption, and that reducing fat-consumption while increasing sugar-consumption actually increases the level of obesity. The following table summarizes this study (based on the proportion of energy-intake from different food sources for US Adults 20-74 years old, as carried out by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD[11]):

Year Male/Female Carbohydrate Fat Protein Obesity
1971 Male 42.4% 36.9% 16.5% 12.1%
1971 Female 45.4% 36.1% 16.9% 16.6%
2000 Male 49.0% 32.8% 15.5% 27.7%
2000 Female 51.6% 32.8% 15.1% 34.0%

Another study[citation needed] published in 2002 and conducted by the National Academy of Sciences over a 3-year period concluded: “There is no clear and consistent association between increased intakes of added sugars and BMI.” (BMI or "body-mass Index" measures body-weight and height.) President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... A graph of body mass index is shown above. ...


Gout

Researchers have implicated sugary drinks high in fructose in a surge in cases of the painful joint-disease gout.[12]


United Nations nutritional advice

In 2003, four United Nations agencies, (including the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)) commissioned a report compiled by a panel of 30 international experts. The panel stated that the total of free sugars (all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by manufacturers, cooks or consumers, plus sugars naturally present in honey, syrups and fruit juices) should not account for more than 10% of the energy intake of a healthy diet, while carbohydrates in total should represent between 55% and 75% of the energy-intake.[13] UN and U.N. redirect here. ... WHO redirects here. ... FAO redirects here. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ...


Debate on extrinsic sugar

Argument continues as to the value of extrinsic sugar (sugar added to food) compared to that of intrinsic sugar (naturally present in food). Adding sugar to food particularly enhances taste, but does increase the total number of calories, among other negative effects on health and physiology. Etymology: French calorie, from Latin calor (heat), from calere (to be warm). ...


In the United States of America, sugar has become increasingly evident in food products, as more food-manufacturers add sugar or high-fructose corn-syrup to a wide variety of consumables. Candy-bars, soft drinks, chips, snacks, fruit-juice, peanut-butter, soups, ice-cream, jams, jellies, yogurt, and many breads have added sugars. Five Alive, for example, portrayed by its suppliers as "all natural" and featuring pictures of five different types of fruit on its label, comprises only 41% fruit juice, having high-fructose corn-syrup as its prime ingredient. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) refers to a group of corn syrups which have undergone enzymatic processing in order to increase their fructose content and are then mixed with pure corn syrup (100% glucose) to reach their final form. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Many doctors argue that health authorities should classify sugar and high-fructose corn-syrup as food additives.[14] A few MDs go so far as to call refined sugar a poison.[15] Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ...


The anthropologist and dentist Weston A. Price, writing in 1939,[16] correlated the use of refined sugar (and refined grains) with malnutrition in pregnant women, malformation of the palate and jaw in their children, followed by cramping of teeth in adolescence (leading to crooked teeth and the removal of wisdom teeth molars). Price correlated other ailments and the impaired function of the pituitary or master gland with consumption of refined sugar, as well as rates of infant mortality, subnormal intelligence, delinquency, and incarceration. He also correlated the underdevelopment of the pelvis, which in women would lead to complications (pain, death, etc.) in childbirth. Wisdom teeth are third molars that usually appear between the ages of 16 and 24 (although they may appear when older or younger). ... | Latin = hypophysis, glandula pituitaria | GraySubject = 275 | GrayPage = 1275 | Image = Gray1180. ...


Virtually all of these symptoms became the norm in modern populations consuming typical amounts of refined sugar and other "modern foods of commerce".[citation needed] Besides the rotting of teeth, interruptible or resumable merely by removing or re-introducing white sugar into a diet,[citation needed] the correlations with consumption of refined sugar may relate less to the consumption of refined sugar itself than to the absence of the consumption of "nourishment",[original research?] a category in which Price did not include refined sugar. Nutrition is interpreted as the study of the organic process by which an organism assimilates and uses food and liquids for normal functioning, growth and maintenance and to maintain the balance between health and disease. ...


A United Nations study[17] directly creates a definition that includes all extrinsic sugars and separates them completely from intrinsic sugars, labeling them directly as a cause of obesity and of other preventable chronic diseases.


Concerns of vegetarians and vegans

The sugar-refining industry often uses bone-char (calcinated animal bones) for decolorizing.[18] This concerns vegans and vegetarians; about a quarter of the sugar in the U.S. gets processed using bone-char as a filter and the rest gets processed with activated carbon. As bone-char does not get into the sugar, the relevant authorities consider sugar processed this way as parve/kosher. Bone char, also known as bone black or animal charcoal, is a granular black material produced by calcinating animal bones: the bones are heated to high temperatures in the absence of air to drive off volatile substances. ... Calcination (also referred to as Calcining) is thermal treatment process applied to ores and other solid materials in order to bring about a thermal decomposition, phase transition, or removal of a volatile fraction. ... Activated carbon Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or activated coal, is a general term which covers carbon material mostly derived from charcoal. ... Kosher foods are those that meet certain criteria of Jewish law. ... The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ...


Vegetarians and vegans may also object to the impact that the burning of the cane-fields (a common part of the harvesting practice) has on insects, rats, snakes, and other life residing in the fields.[19] This article is about life in general. ...


Production

Harvested sugarcane from India ready for processing.
Harvested sugarcane from India ready for processing.

Table sugar (sucrose) comes from plant sources. Two important sugar crops predominate: sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and sugar beets (Beta vulgaris), in which sugar can account for 12% to 20% of the plant's dry weight. Some minor commercial sugar crops include the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), and the sugar maple (Acer saccharum). In the financial year 2001/2002, worldwide production of sugar amounted to 134.1 million tonnes. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1712, 1298 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sugar Sugarcane Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1712, 1298 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sugar Sugarcane Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... Binomial name L. The Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm in the genus Phoenix, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... Binomial name Acer saccharum Marshall The Sugar Maple Acer saccharum is a prominent tree in the hardwood forests of eastern North America. ... A fiscal year or financial year is a 12-month period used for calculating annual (yearly) financial reports in businesses and other organizations. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ...


The first production of sugar from sugar-cane took place in India. Alexander the Great's companions reported seeing "honey produced without the intervention of bees" and it remained exotic in Europe until the Arabs started cultivating it in Sicily and Spain. Only after the Crusades did it begin to rival honey as a sweetener in Europe. The Spanish began cultivating sugar-cane in the West Indies in 1506 (and in Cuba in 1523). The Portuguese first cultivated sugar-cane in Brazil in 1532. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...


Most cane-sugar comes from countries with warm climates, such as Brazil, India, China, Thailand, Mexico and Australia, the top sugar-producing countries in the world.[20] Brazil overshadows most countries, with roughly 30 million tonnes of cane-sugar produced in 2006, while India produced 21 million, China 11 million, and Thailand and Mexico roughly 5 million each. Viewed by region, Asia predominates in cane-sugar production, with large contributions from China, India and Thailand and other countries combining to account for 40% of global production in 2006. South America comes in second place with 32% of global production; Africa and Central America each produce 8% and Australia 5%. The United States, the Caribbean and Europe make up the remainder, with roughly 3% each.[21] This article is about the metric tonne. ...


Beet-sugar comes from regions with cooler climates: northwest and eastern Europe, northern Japan, plus some areas in the United States (including California). In the northern hemisphere, the beet-growing season ends with the start of harvesting around September. Harvesting and processing continues until March in some cases. The availability of processing-plant capacity, and the weather both influence the duration of harvesting and processing - the industry can lay up harvested beet until processed, but frost-damaged beet becomes effectively unprocessable.


The European Union (EU) has become the world's second-largest sugar exporter. The Common Agricultural Policy of the EU sets maximum quotas for members' production to match supply and demand, and a price. Europe exports excess production quota (approximately 5 million tonnes in 2003). Part of this, "quota" sugar, gets subsidised from industry levies, the remainder (approximately half) sells as "C quota" sugar at market prices without subsidy. These subsidies and a high import tariff make it difficult for other countries to export to the EU states, or to compete with the Europeans on world markets. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a system of European Union agricultural subsidies and programmes. ... In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ...


The United States sets high sugar prices to support its producers, with the effect that many former consumers of sugar have switched to corn syrup (beverage-manufacturers) or moved out of the country (candy-makers). Tate & Lyle brand Corn Syrup being moved by tank car Corn syrup is a syrup, made using corn (maize) starch as a [feedstock], and composed mainly of [glucose]. A series of two [enzyme|enzymatic] reactions are used to convert the corn starch to corn syrup. ...


The cheap prices of glucose syrups produced from wheat and corn (maize) threaten the traditional sugar market. Used in combination with artificial sweeteners, they can allow drink-manufacturers to produce very low-cost goods. Corn syrup, known as glucose syrup outside the United States, is a syrup made from corn starch and composed mainly of glucose. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... A sweetener is a food additive which adds the basic taste of sweetness to a food. ...


Cane

Main article: Sugarcane

Since the 6th century BC cane-sugar producers have crushed the harvested vegetable material from sugar-cane in order to collect and filter the juice. They then treat the liquid (often with lime (calcium oxide)) to remove impurities and then neutralize it. Boiling the juice then allows the sediment to settle to the bottom for dredging out, while the scum rises to the surface for skimming off. In cooling, the liquid crystallizes, usually in the process of stirring, to produce sugar crystals. Centrifuges usually remove the uncrystallized syrup. The producers can then either sell the resultant sugar, as is, for use; or process it further to produce lighter grades. This processing may take place in another factory in another country. Sugar cane is the fourth in the list for agriculture in china. Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime, quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... This article is about the scientific device. ...


Beet

Sugar beets
Sugar beets
Main article: Sugar beet

Beet-sugar producers slice the washed beets, then extract the sugar with hot water in a "diffuser". An alkaline solution ("milk of lime" and carbon dioxide from the lime kiln) then serves to precipitate impurities (see carbonatation). After filtration, evaporation concentrates the juice to a content of about 70% solids, and controlled crystallisation extracts the sugar. A centrifuge removes the sugar crystals from the liquid, which gets recycled in the crystalliser stages. When economic constraints prevent the removal of more sugar, the manufacturer discards the remaining liquid, now known as molasses. Download high resolution version (423x640, 67 KB)Two sugar beet roots. ... Download high resolution version (423x640, 67 KB)Two sugar beet roots. ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... Diffuser can refer to any device that diffuses in some manner such as: Diffuser (automotive), a shaped section of a cars underbody which improves the cars aerodynamic properties Diffuser (breathing set part), a device fitted over an underwater breathing sets blowoff hole to break up the resulting... Milk of lime is a watery emulsion of calcium hydrate produced by macerating quicklime in water. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Carbonatation is the process used in the production of sugar crystals from sugar beets, whereby raw beet juice is mingled with milk of lime and carbon dioxide gas in carbonation tanks. ... Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ...


Sieving the resultant white sugar produces different grades for selling.


Cane versus beet

Little perceptible difference exists between sugar produced from beet and that from cane. Chemical tests can distinguish the two, and some tests aim to detect fraudulent abuse of European Union subsidies or to aid in the detection of adulterated fruit-juice. Juice is the liquid naturally contained in plants. ...


The production of sugar-cane needs approximately four times as much water as the production of sugar-beet, therefore some countries that traditionally produced cane-sugar (such as Egypt) have seen the building of new beet-sugar factories recently. On the other hand, sugar cane tolerates hot climates better. Some sugar-factories process both sugar cane and sugar beets and extend their processing period in that way. 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The production of sugar results in residues which differ substantially depending on the raw materials used and on the place of production. While cooks often use cane molasses in food-preparation, humans find molasses from sugar-beet unpalatable, and it therefore ends up mostly as industrial fermentation feedstock (for example in alcohol distilleries), or as animal-feed. Once dried, either type of molasses can serve as fuel for burning. Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed livestock, such as cattle, sheep, chickens and pigs. ...


Culinary sugars

Grainier, raw sugar.
Grainier, raw sugar.

So-called raw sugars comprise yellow to brown sugars made by clarifying the source syrup by boiling and drying with heat, until it becomes a crystalline solid, with minimal chemical processing.[citation needed] Raw beet sugars result from the processing of sugar-beet juice, but only as intermediates en route to white sugar. Types of raw sugar include demerara, muscovado, and turbinado. Mauritius and Malawi export significant quantities of such specialty sugars. Manufacturers sometimes prepare raw sugar as loaves rather than as a crystalline powder, by pouring sugar and molasses together into molds and allowing the mixture to dry. This results in sugar-cakes or loaves, called jaggery or gur in India, pingbian tang in China, and panela, panocha, pile, piloncillo and pão-de-açúcar in various parts of Latin America. In South America, truly raw sugar, unheated and made from sugar-cane grown on farms, does not have a large market-share. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 731 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1696 × 1392 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 731 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1696 × 1392 pixel, file size: 1. ... Demerara is used as the generic name of a type of specialty raw cane sugar often used in home baking and in sweetening coffee. ... Muscovado is a type of unrefined sugar with a strong molasses flavour. ... Turbinado sugar, sold by the brand Sugar in the Raw among others, is a type of sugar cane extract. ... A block of Indian jaggery (gur) Cleaning of pans prior to manufacture of jaggery Preparation of jaggery Jaggery is the traditional unrefined sugar used in India. ...


Mill white sugar, also called plantation white, crystal sugar, or superior sugar, consists of raw sugar where the production process does not remove colored impurities, but rather bleaches them white by exposure to sulfur dioxide. Though the most common form of sugar in sugarcane-growing areas, this product does not store or ship well; after a few weeks, its impurities tend to promote discoloration and clumping. Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ...

Blanco directo, a white sugar common in India and other south Asian countries, comes from precipitating many impurities out of the cane juice by using phosphatation — a treatment with phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide similar to the carbonatation technique used in beet-sugar refining. In terms of sucrose purity, blanco directo is more pure than mill white, but less pure than white refined sugar. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article is about orthophosphoric acid. ... It has been suggested that Portlandite be merged into this article or section. ...


White refined sugar has become the most common form of sugar in North America as well as in Europe. Refined sugar can be made by dissolving raw sugar and purifying it with a phosphoric acid method similar to that used for blanco directo, a carbonatation process involving calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide, or by various filtration strategies. It is then further purified by filtration through a bed of activated carbon or bone char depending on where the processing takes place. Beet sugar refineries produce refined white sugar directly without an intermediate raw stage. White refined sugar is typically sold as granulated sugar, which has been dried to prevent clumping. North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about orthophosphoric acid. ... Carbonatation is the process used in the production of sugar crystals from sugar beets, whereby raw beet juice is mingled with milk of lime and carbon dioxide gas in carbonation tanks. ... Activated carbon Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or activated coal, is a general term which covers carbon material mostly derived from charcoal. ... Bone char, also known as bone black or animal charcoal, is a granular black material produced by calcinating animal bones: the bones are heated to high temperatures in the absence of air to drive off volatile substances. ...


Granulated sugar comes in various crystal sizes — for home and industrial use — depending on the application:

  • Coarse-grained sugars, such as sanding sugar (also called "pearl sugar", "decorating sugar", nibbed sugar or sugar nibs) adds "sparkle" and flavor for decorating to baked goods, candies, cookies/biscuits and other desserts. The sparkling effect occurs because the sugar forms large crystals which reflect light. Sanding sugar, a large-crystal sugar, serves for making edible decorations. It has larger granules that sparkle when sprinkled on baked goods and candies and will not dissolve when subjected to heat.
  • Normal granulated sugars for table use: typically they have a grain size about 0.5 mm across
  • Finer grades result from selectively sieving the granulated sugar
    • caster (or castor[22]) (0.35 mm), commonly used in baking
    • superfine sugar, also called baker's sugar, berry sugar, or bar sugar — favored for sweetening drinks or for preparing meringue
  • Finest grades

Retailers also sell sugar cubes or lumps for convenient consumption of a standardised amount. Suppliers of sugar-cubes make them by mixing sugar crystals with sugar syrup. Jakub Kryštof Rad invented sugar-cubes in 1841. This article is about the food. ... A biscuit is a type of food. ... Lemon meringue muffins For the Dominican folk dance and the music it is performed to, see merengue. ... Confectioners sugar Powdered sugar (in Britain, Australia, Canada, and most of the Commonwealth icing sugar) is a very finely ground form of sugar that is synonymous with confectioners sugar. ... Anticaking agents are used in such things as table salt to keep the product from forming lumps, making it better for packaging, transport and for the consumer. ... Products treated with cornstarch Cornstarch, or cornflour, is the starch of the maize grain, commonly known as corn. ... Calcium phosphate is the name given to a family of minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with orthophosphates (PO43-), metaphosphates or pyrophosphates (P2O74-) and occasionally hydrogen or hydroxide ions. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Brown sugar crystals.
Brown sugar crystals.

Brown sugars come from the late stages of sugar refining, when sugar forms fine crystals with significant molasses-content, or from coating white refined sugar with a cane molasses syrup. Their color and taste become stronger with increasing molasses-content, as do their moisture-retaining properties. Brown sugars also tend to harden if exposed to the atmosphere, although proper handling can reverse this. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1194x798, 1041 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sugar ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1194x798, 1041 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sugar ... Brown sugar typical of that bought in Western supermarkets Brown sugar is an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals combined with molasses. ... In cooking, a syrup (from Arabic شراب sharab, beverage, via Latin siropus) is a thick, viscous liquid, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars, but showing little tendency to deposit crystals. ...


The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer, cook or consumer, plus sugars naturally present in honey, syrups and fruit-juices. This includes all the sugars referred to above. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all.


Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. Natural sugars come in fruit, grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form.


Chemistry

Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right), important molecules in the body.
Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right), important molecules in the body.

Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. Sugars include monosaccharides, disaccharides, trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides - containing 1, 2, 3, and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (-CHO) or ketone groups (C=O), where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds, making the sugars reactive. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. A notable exception, deoxyribose, as its name suggests, has a "missing" oxygen atom. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of water (H2O) per bond. Image File history File links Saccharose. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kÄ“me, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ... Trisaccharides are oligosaccharides composed of three monosaccharides. ... An oligosaccharide is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to six) of component sugars, also known as simple sugars. ... An aldehyde. ... Ketone group A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... Carbonyl group In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom : C=O. The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex (a metal carbonyl, e. ... Deoxyribose Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ...


As well as using classifications based on their reactive group, chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose, which form part of nucleic acids. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process, including NADH and ATP. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose, a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose, which has the formula C6H12O6, and then convert it for storage as an energy-reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch, or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. Glycolysis is the sequence of reactions that converts glucose into pyruvate with the concomitant production of a relatively small amount of ATP. The word is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (letting loose). ... Ribose Ribose, primarily seen as D-ribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Deoxyribose Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ or in older notation DPN+) is an important coenzyme found in cells. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ...


Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. In these closed-chain forms, the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree, so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium, with less than 0.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. Simple aromatic rings are aromatic organic compounds (also known as arenes or aromatics) that consist only of conjugated planar ring systems with delocalized pi electron clouds instead of discrete alternating single and double bonds. ... A burette, an apparatus for carrying out acid-base titration, is an important part of equilibrium chemistry. ...


Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides, creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. After digestion and absorption. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose, fructose, and galactose. A glycosidic bond is the linkage between two monosaccharides, that forms disaccharides and/or polysaccharides. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ...


The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. Note for example glycoproteins, proteins connected to one or more sugars. N-linked protein glycosylation (N-glycosylation of N-glycans) at Asn residues (Asn-x-Ser/Thr motifs) in glycoproteins[1]. Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbones. ...


Monosaccharides include fructose, glucose, galactose and mannose. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar - made from one glucose and one fructose), lactose (milk sugar - made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... D and L forms Haworth projection of mannose in its α-D-mannopyranose form. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... Maltose, or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) linkage. ...


Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose, producing invert sugar. This resulting syrup, sweeter than the original sucrose, has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ... Inverted sugar syrup is sucrose-based syrup treated with the glycoside hydrolase enzyme invertase or an acid, which splits each sucrose molecule into one glucose and one fructose molecule. ...


If combined with fine ash, sugar will burn with a blue flame.


Measuring sugar

See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis


Dissolved sugar content

Scientists use degrees Brix (symbol °Bx), introduced by Antoine Brix, as units of measurement of the mass ratio of dissolved substance to water in a liquid. A 25 °Bx sucrose solution has 25 grams of sucrose per 100 grams of liquid; or, to put it another way, 25 grams of sucrose sugar and 75 grams of water exist in the 100 grams of solution. It has been suggested that Öchsle scale and Baumé scale be merged into this article or section. ...


An infrared Brix sensor measures the vibrational frequency of the sugar molecules, giving a Brix degrees measurement. This does not equate to Brix degrees from a density or refractive index measurement because it will specifically measure dissolved sugar concentration instead of all dissolved solids. When using a refractometer, one should report the result as "refractometric dried substance" (RDS). One might speak of a liquid as having 20 °Bx RDS. This refers to a measure of percent by weight of total dried solids and, although not technically the same as Brix degrees determined through an infrared method, renders an accurate measurement of sucrose content, since sucrose in fact forms the majority of dried solids. The advent of in-line infrared Brix measurement sensors has made measuring the amount of dissolved sugar in products economical using a direct measurement.


Purity

Technicians usually measure the purity (sucrose content) of sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of plane-polarized light by a solution of sugar. Polarimetry is the measurement of the polarisation of light; a polarimeter is the scientific instrument used to make these measurements. ...


Baking weight/mass volume relationship

Sugar has a mass-to-volume relationship as follows:[23]

 Granular sugar 1 cup = 200g = 7 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 100g = 3.5 oz Brown sugar 1 cup = 220g = 7.8 oz 

Trade and economics

Historically one of the most widely-traded commodities in the world, sugar accounts for around 2% of the global dry cargo market.[citation needed] International sugar prices show great volatility, ranging from around 3 to over 60 cents per pound in the past 50 years. Of the world's 180-odd countries, around 100 produce sugar from beet or cane, a few more refine raw sugar to produce white sugar, and all countries consume sugar. Consumption of sugar ranges from around 3 kilograms per person per annum in Ethiopia to around 40 kg/person/yr in Belgium.[citation needed] Consumption per capita rises with income per capita until it reaches a plateau of around 35kg per person per year in middle-income countries. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

World raw-sugar price for the calendar years 1960 to 2006.
World raw-sugar price for the calendar years 1960 to 2006.

Many countries subsidize sugar-production heavily. The European Union, the United States, Japan and many developing countries subsidize domestic production and maintain high tariffs on imports. Sugar prices in these countries have often exceeded prices on the international market by up to three times; today, with world market sugar futures prices currently strong, such prices typically exceed world prices by two times. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Within international trade bodies, especially in the World Trade Organization, the "G20" countries led by Brazil have long argued that because these sugar markets essentially exclude cane-sugar imports, the G20 sugar-producers receive lower prices than they would under free trade. While both the European Union and United States maintain trade agreements whereby certain developing and less-developed countries (LDCs) can sell certain quantities of sugar into their markets, free of the usual import tariffs, countries outside these preferred trade régimes have complained that these arrangements violate the "most favoured nation" principle of international trade. This has led to numerous tariffs and levies in the past.[24] WTO redirects here. ... G20 countries. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... Most favoured nation (MFN), also called normal trade relations in the United States, is a status accorded by one nation to another in international trade. ...


In 2004, the WTO sided with a group of cane-sugar exporting nations (led by Brazil and Australia) and ruled the EU sugar-régime and the accompanying ACP-EU Sugar Protocol (whereby a group of African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries receive preferential access to the European sugar market) illegal.[25] In response to this and to other rulings of the WTO, and owing to internal pressures on the EU sugar-régime, the European Commission proposed on 22 June 2005 a radical reform of the EU sugar-régime, cutting prices by 39% and eliminating all EU sugar exports.[26] The African, Caribbean, Pacific and least developed country sugar-exporters reacted with dismay to the EU sugar proposals,[27]. On 25 November 2005 the Council of the EU agreed to cut EU sugar-prices by 36% as from 2009. It now seems[28] that the U.S. Sugar Program could become the next target for reform. However, some commentators expect heavy lobbying from the U.S. sugar-industry, which donated $2.7 million to US House and US Senate incumbents in the 2006 US election, more than any other group of US food-growers.[29] Especially prominent lobbyists include The Fanjul Brothers, so-called "sugar barons" who made the single largest individual contributions of soft money to both the Democratic and Republican parties in the political system of the United States of America.[30][31] For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The category of least developed countries is a social/economic classification status applied to 51 countries around the world by political scientists and economists through the United Nations. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Fanjul brothers -- Alfonso Alfy, José Pepe, Alexander, and Andres -- are owners of Flo-Sun, Inc. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January events January 1 Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... Soft money refers to money used to advance a particular political campaign in such a manner as to skirt the legal limits on how much money individuals or organizations are allowed to contribute to political campaigns (termed hard money). ...


Small quantities of sugar, especially specialty grades of sugar, reach the market as 'fair trade' commodities; the fair-trade system produces and sells these products with the understanding that a larger-than-usual fraction of the revenue will support small farmers in the developing world. However, whilst the Fairtrade Foundation offers a premium of USD 60.00 per tonne to small farmers for sugar branded as "Fairtrade",[32] government schemes such the U.S. Sugar Program and the ACP Sugar Protocol offer premiums of around USD 400.00 per tonne above world market prices. However, the EU announced on 14 September 2007 that it would denounce the ACP Sugar Protocol with effect from 1 October 2009.[33][34] For other uses, see Fair trade (disambiguation). ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Sugar Association has launched a campaign to promote sugar over artificial substitutes. The Association now aggressively challenges many common beliefs regarding negative side effects of sugar consumption. The campaign aired a high-profile television-commercial during the 2007 Prime Time Emmy Awards on FOX Television. The Sugar Association uses the trademark tagline "Sugar: sweet by nature."[35] 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sugars

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Barley sugars are a traditional variety of English boiled sweet, or hard candy, yellow or orange in colour with an extract of barley added as flavouring. ... Butanol (butyl alcohol) is a higher alcohol with a 4 carbon atom structure and a general formula of C4H10O. There are 4 different isomeric structures for butanol (refer to box). ... Brown sugar typical of that bought in Western supermarkets Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. ... It has been suggested that Öchsle scale and Baumé scale be merged into this article or section. ... Caramel candy For other uses, see Caramel (disambiguation). ... Tate & Lyle brand Corn Syrup being moved by tank car Corn syrup is a syrup, made using corn (maize) starch as a [feedstock], and composed mainly of [glucose]. A series of two [enzyme|enzymatic] reactions are used to convert the corn starch to corn syrup. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Glycomics, or glycobiology is a discipline of biology that deals with the structure and function of oligosaccharides (chains of sugars). ... A bottle of golden syrup Golden syrup is a thick, amber-colored form of inverted sugar syrup, made in the process of refining sugar cane juice into sugar, or by treatment of a sugar solution with acid. ... Holing cane was a process by which the slave labor or gangs planted the sugar cane on the plantations. ... // Cane molasses Ephemerals Florida Crystals jaggers Muscovy panels (or pillowcases) Steens cane syrup Fanatics Curbings sugar Sugar beet molasses Sugar beet syrup Ballasts Pekmez Many fresh fruits, dried fruits and fruit juices are used as sweeteners: See List of fruits Amazon Barley malt syrup Brown rice syrup... Natural brown sugar (AKA raw sugar) is brown sugar where the molasses is not added to white sugar, but rather retained. ... Palm sugar was originally made from the sugary sap of the Palmyra palm or the date palm. ... Rock candy is a type of confectionery composed of relatively large sugar crystals. ... Species About 150 species, including: Stevia eupatoria Stevia ovata Stevia plummerae Stevia rebaudiana Stevia salicifolia Stevia serrata Stevia is a genus of about 150 species of herbs and shrubs in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), native to subtropical and tropical South America and Central America. ... Throughout the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, sugar was the main crop produced on the numerous plantations throughout the Caribbean. ... A sugarloaf was the traditional form, a soft cone like a vertically-stretched gumdrop, in which refined sugar was exported from the Caribbean and eastern Brazil from the 17th to 19th centuries. ... In food packaging, a sugar packet is a folded, and edge sealed, paper package containing one serving of sugar. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Vibora Luviminda, a secretive organization focused largely on Filipino labor issues, was founded in 1924 on the island of Maui by Manuel Fagel. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Adas, Michael (January 2001). Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. Temple University Press. ISBN 1566398320. Page 311.
  2. ^ a b c Robyt 1998: 19-21
  3. ^ a b James 2004: 4
  4. ^ a b Ahmad Y Hassan, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries, History of Science and Technology in Islam.
  5. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary.
  6. ^ http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/548toothdecay.html
  7. ^ http://www.animated-teeth.com/tooth_decay/t2_tooth_decay_caries.htm
  8. ^ http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/eating_ez/
  9. ^ http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9F04E2D61F3EF934A35754C0A9649C8B63
  10. ^ http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/index.html
  11. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
  12. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7219473.stm retrieved [2008-02-06]]
  13. ^ See table 6, page 56 of the WHO Technical Report Series 916, Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases: online at http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/AC911E/ac911e07.htm#bm07.1.3
  14. ^ M. Linda Vahrenkamp, "Your Immune System and Refined Sugars", Your Health Magazine
  15. ^ "Alan N. Speen, MD, "Sugar - Sweet Poison"".. Cited to document the existence of the allegation; without any endorsement of the view intended or implied.
  16. ^ Weston A. Price: Nutrition and Physical Degeneration: A Comparison of Primitive and Modern Diets and Their Effect. Hoeber: 1939. Retrieved from http://www.journeytoforever.org/farm_library/price/pricetoc.html2007-07-20
  17. ^ http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/AC911E/ac911e07.htm#bm07.1.3
  18. ^ http://www.vegfamily.com/articles/sugar.htm
  19. ^ http://www.sucrose.com/harvest.html
  20. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  21. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  22. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) classifies both spellings as correct, but "castor" used to prevail.
  23. ^ http://www.pantsblazing.com/convert/vol_weight.php?search=sugar
  24. ^ www.americansugarcouncil.gov/info/tariffhist/history01
  25. ^ http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/cases_e/1pagesum_e/ds266sum_e.pdf
  26. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/markets/sugar/index_en.htm
  27. ^ http://www.acpsec.org/en/trade/sugar/fiji_sugar_communique_e.htm
  28. ^ http://www.sugarcoalition.org/
  29. ^ New York Times, October 18, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/18/business/18sugar.html
  30. ^ New York Times, November 11, 2003, http://www.nytimes.com/2003/11/29/opinion/29SAT1.html
  31. ^ http://www.motherjones.com/news/special_reports/coinop_congress/97mojo_400/boller.html
  32. ^ http://fairtrade.net/sites/products/sugar/why.html
  33. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/trade/issues/bilateral/regions/acp/mao040407_en.htm
  34. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/trade/issues/bilateral/regions/acp/pr140907_en.htm
  35. ^ http://www.sugar.org/

Ahmad Y. al Hassan (born 1925) Chevalier of the Legion d’Honneur: Historian of Islamic and Arabic science and technology. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Adas, Michael (January 2001). Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. Temple University Press. ISBN 1566398320. 
  • Robyt, John (January 1998). Essentials of Carbohydrate Chemistry. Springer-Verlag New York, LLC. ISBN 0387949518. 
  • James, Glyn (2004). Sugarcane. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 063205476X. 
  • A C Hannah, The International Sugar Trade, Cambridge: Woodhead, 1996. ISBN 1-85573-069-3
  • William Dufty, Sugar Blues, ISBN 0-446-34312-9

External links

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

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