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Sufism (Arabic: تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Kurdish Sufayeti, Persian: صوفی‌گری, sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf), is generally understood by scholars to be the inner or mystical dimension of Islam.[1] A practitioner of this tradition is generally known as a Sūfī (Arabic: صُوفِيّ), though some senior members of the tradition reserve this term for those practitioners who have attained the goals of the Sufi tradition. Another common denomination is the word Dervish (derived from Persian: درویش - darwīš). Arabic redirects here. ... Look up Kurdish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Farsi redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Arabic redirects here. ... For other uses, see Dervish (disambiguation). ... Farsi redirects here. ...


Shaykh Ahmad Zarruq, a 15th century Shadhili Sufi master, wrote in his major work "The Principles of Sufism" (Qawa`id al-Tasawwuf) that:[2] Sheikh Ahmed Zarruq (1442-1493) was a Shadhili Sufi Sheikh and founder of the Zarruqiyye branch of the Shadhili Sufi order (Tariqa). ... The Tariqa ash Shadhiliya is a Sufi order founded by Abu-l-Hassan ash-Shadhili. ...

[Sufism is] a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God.

Shaykh Ahmad ibn Ajiba, a famous Moroccan Sufi in the Darqawi lineage, defined Sufism as: Ahmad ibn Ajiba (1747 - 1809) was an 18th-century Moroccan saint in the Darqawa Sufi Islamic lineage. ... The Darqawiyya or Darqawa Sufi order was a branch of the Shadhiliyah brotherhood. ...

a science through which one can know how to travel into the presence of the Divine, purify one’s inner self from filth, and beautify it with a variety of praiseworthy traits.

Sufi Orders or Sufi Brotherhoods are traditionally known as Tariqa. They may be associated with Sunni Islam or Shia Islam, though the major ones, such as the Qādirī and Naqšhbandī orders, are associated with traditional Sunni Islam and are accepted by the majority of 'folk Muslims'. [3] This article is in need of attention. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Qadiriyyah, one of the oldest Sufi tariqa, derives its name from Abd al-Qadir al-Djilani (1077-1166), a native of the Iranian province of Gilan. ... Naqshbandi (Naqshbandiyya) is one of the major Tasawwuf orders (tariqa) of Islam. ...

Contents

Etymology

The conventional view is that the word originates from Arabic: صوف (sūf), the Arabic word for wool, referring to the simple cloaks the early Muslim ascetics wore.[4] However, not all sufis wear cloaks or clothes of wool. Another etymological theory states that the root word of Sūfi is the Arabic word صفا (safā), meaning purity. This places the emphasis of Sufism on purity of heart and soul. Arabic redirects here. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ...


Others suggest the origin of sufism is from Ašhab as-Sufā ("Companions of the Porch") or Ahl as-Sufā ("People of the Porch"), who were a group of Muslims during the time of the Prophet Mohammad who spent much of their time on the veranda of the Prophet's mosque, devoted to prayer. Yet another etymology, advanced by the 10th century Persian historian Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī is that the word, as sūfīya, is linked with the word sophia, the Greek term for wisdom. Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Al-Biruni redirects here. ... Sophia (Σoφíα, Greek for wisdom) is a central term in Hellenistic philosophy and religion, Gnostic Christianity and Orthodox Christianity. ...


Basic beliefs

While all Muslims believe that they are on the pathway to God and will become close to God in Paradise — after death and after the "Final Judgment" — Sufis believe as well that it is possible to become close to God and to experience this closeness while one is alive. [5] The chief aim of all Sufis then is to let go of all notions of duality, including a conception of an individual self, and to realize the Divine unity. For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... In philosophy, the self is the idea of a unified being which is the source of an idiosyncratic conciousness. ... TawhÄ«d (also Tawhid or Tauhid or Tawheed; Arabic توحيد) is the Islamic concept of monotheism, derived from Ahad. ...


Sufis generally teach in personal groups, as the counsel of the master is considered necessary for the growth of the pupil. They make extensive use of parable, allegory, and metaphor, and it is held by Sufis that meaning can only be reached through a process of seeking the truth, and knowledge of oneself. Although philosophies vary among different Sufi orders, Sufism as a whole is primarily concerned with direct personal experience, and as such may be compared to various forms of mysticism such as Bhakti form of Hinduism, Hesychasm, Zen Buddhism, Kabbalah, Gnosticism and Christian mysticism. // For a comparison of parable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bhakti (DevanāgarÄ«: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Hesychasm (Greek hesychasmos, from hesychia, stillness, rest, quiet, silence) is an eremitic tradition of prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church, and some other Eastern Churches of the Byzantine Rite, practised (Gk: hesychazo: to keep stillness) by the Hesychast (Gr. ... A woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, (Japan, 1887) depicting Bodhidharma the founder of Chinese Zen. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect god, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian mysticism...


A significant part of oriental literature comes from the Sufis, who created books of poetry containing the teachings of the Sufis. Some of the more notable examples of this poetry are Attar's Conference of the Birds and Rumi's Masnavi. Conference of the Birds (Manteq at-Tair, 1177) is a mystic book of poems in Persian by Farid ud-Din Attar of approximately 4500 lines. ... The Masnavi or Masnavi-I Manavi (Persian: مثنوی معنوی), also written Mathnawi or Mesnevi, written in Persian by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, the celebrated Persian Sufi saint and poet, is one of the best known and most influential works of both Sufism and Persian literature. ...


History of Sufism

Main article: History of Sufism

Sufism began in the eighth century. ...

Origins

Sufism is generally believed to have originated among Muslims near Basra in modern Iraq, though there is a history of Sufism in Transoxania dating from shortly after the time of Muhammad.[6] From the traditional Sufi point of view, the esoteric teachings of Sufism were transmitted from the Prophet Muhammad, who was taught by God, to those who had the capacity to contain the direct experiential gnosis of God, which was passed on from teacher to student through the centuries. Almost all traditional Sufi schools (or "orders") trace their "chains of transmission" back to Prophet Muhammad via his cousin and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib. The Naqshbandi order is a notable exception to this rule, as it traces its origin to the first Islamic Caliph Abdullah (Abu Bakr). This article is about the city of Basra. ... Transoxiana (sometimes also spelled Transoxania) is the now-largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Naqshbandi (Naqshbandiyya) is one of the major Tasawwuf orders (tariqa) of Islam. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ...


Some orientalist scholars believe that Sufism was essentially the result of Islam evolving in a more mystic direction. For example, Annemarie Schimmel proposes that Sufism in its early stages of development meant nothing but the interiorization of Islam. According to Louis Massignon: "It is from the Qur’an, constantly recited, meditated, and experienced, that Sufism proceeded, in its origin and its development."[7] Orientalism is the study of Near and Far Eastern societies and cultures, by Westerners. ... Annemarie Schimmel (April 7, 1922 - January 26, 2003) was a well known and very influential German Iranologist and scholar who wrote extensively on Islam and Sufism. ... Louis Massignon (July 25, 1883–October 31, 1962) was a French scholar of Islam and its history. ...


The Great Masters of Sufism

The Sufis dispersed throughout the Middle East, particularly in areas previously under Byzantine influence and control. This period was characterized by the practice of an apprentice (murid) placing himself under the spiritual direction of a Master (shaykh, pir or murshid). Byzantine redirects here. ... Murid (Arabic: مريد ) is a Sufi term meaning committed one. It refers to a person who is committed to a teacher in the spiritual path of Sufism. ... Shaikh (شيخ, also rendered as Sheik, Shaykh or Sheikh) is a word in the Arabic language meaning an elder or a revered old man. ... A Pir (Persian: پیر) meaning Old Man. ... A Murshid is the teacher and guide to his disciples (Mureedh). ...


Schools were developed, concerning themselves with topics of mystical experience, education of the heart to purify it of baser instincts, the love of God, and approaching God through progressive stages (maqaam) and states (haal). The schools were championed by reformers who felt their core values and manners were threatened, as the material prosperity of society seemed to them to be eroding the spiritual life.Uwais al-Qarni, Harrm bin Hian, Hasan al-Basri and Sayid ibn al-Mussib are regarded as the first mystics among the "Taabi'een" in Islam. Rabia al-Basri was a female Sufi and known for her love and passion for God. Junayd al-Baghdadi was among the first theorists of Sufism; he concerned himself with fanā and baqā, the state of annihilating the self in the presence of the divine, accompanied by clarity concerning worldly phenomena derived from the altitude of that perspective. Maqaam ( the station ) is ones spiritual station or developmental level, as distinct from ones hal, or state of consciousness. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Uwais al-Qarni or Oways b. ... Hasan Ul-Basri [Abu Saud ul-Hasan ibn Abi-l-Hasan Vassar ul-Basri], (642 - 728 or 737), Arabian theologian, was born at Medina. ... Rabi’a al-‘Adawiyya (717-801 C.E.) was an 8th c. ... Junayd ibn Muhammad Abu al-Qasim al-Khazzaz al-Baghdadi (830-910) was one of the great early mystics, or Sufis, of Islam. ... It has been suggested that Fana be merged into this article or section. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... World is a key concept in theology. ...


Mevlânâ Celaleddin-i-Rumi (Jalāl-e-Dīn Rūmī, Balkh, 30 September 1207 - Waksh , 17 December 1273 - Konya) is known as Rumi in the West. He was a universal mystic and a devout Muslim. His way of sufism teaches unlimited tolerance, positive reasoning, goodness, charity and awareness through love. The Mevlevi order was formalized and propagated by his son Sultan Walad and the scribe of the Mathnawi, Husamaddin Chalabi.[8] Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... The Masnavi or Masnavi I Manavi (مثنوی معنوی in Persian), also written Mathnawi or Mesnevi, written in Persian by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, the well known Persian Sufi saint and poet, is one of the best known and most influential works of Muslim mysticism. ...

"So long as my life persists, I'm the servant of the Qur'an"
"A dust on the path of Muhammad, the Chosen,"
"If one conveys contrary to my words,"
"Disgusted I am from the conveyor and from the conveyed."[9]

It has been suggested that Sufism was later influenced by Hindu, Sikh, and Buddhist culture when Islam was introduced in South Asia.[10]


The Chishti order was founded by Abu Ishaq al-Shami ("the Syrian") who brought Sufism to the town of Chisht, now Afghanistan. The Chishti Order was first introduced in India by Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti (1143-1223 AD) and is the oldest known order.[11] The Chishti Order was founded by Khwaja Abu Ishaq Shami (the Syrian) (d. ... Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti (1141 - 1230 AD), also known as Gharib Nawaz, is the most famous Sufi saint of the Chishti Order of South Asia. ...


The dates of the founding of the orders are as follows:[citation needed]

The Chishti Order was founded by Khwaja Abu Ishaq Shami (the Syrian) (d. ... Suhrawardiyya is the name of a Sufi order founded by Shihabuddin Yahya as-Suhrawardi. ... Whirling Dervishes perform near the Mevlevi Museum in Konya, Turkey. ... Qadiriyyah, one of the oldest Sufi tariqa, derives its name from Abd al-Qadir al-Djilani (1077-1166), a native of the Iranian province of Gilan. ... Naqshbandi (Naqshbandiyya) is one of the major Tasawwuf orders (tariqa) of Islam. ... The Nimatullahi order (also spelled Nimatollahi or Nematollahi) is a Sufi Order or Tariqa originating in Persia. ... The Rifai (also Rufai) are a Sufi order most commonly found in the Arab Middle East but also in Turkey and the Balkans. ... The Tariqa ash Shadhiliya is a Sufi order founded by Abu-l-Hassan ash-Shadhili. ... The Bektashism (Turkish: BektaÅŸilik) is an Islamic Sufi order (tariqat). ... Balkan redirects here. ... Tijani order (sufi tarika) was founded in Fez in the 1780s by Ahmad al-Tidjani (d. ...

Formalization of Philosophies of Sufism

Al Ghazali's treatises, the "Reconstruction of Religious Sciences" and the "Alchemy of Happiness," argued that Sufism originated from the Qur'an and was thus compatible with mainstream Islamic thought and theology. It was around 1000 CE that early Sufi literature, in the form of manuals, treatises, discourses and poetry, became the source of Sufi thinking and meditations. Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-Ghazzālī (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... BCE redirects here. ...

File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Data Durbar is the tomb of Ali Hajweri, the famous Sufi of Pakistan, where hundreds of thousands of people come each year to pay their respects and to say their prayers. ... Data Durbar, Hujwiris shrine in Lahore, Pakistan Syed Abul Hassan Bin Usman Bin Ali Al-Hajweri (Arabic: سید علی بن عثمان الہجوہری ) (sometimes spelled Hujwiri), also known as Shaikh Ali Hajweri, Data Ganj Bakhsh (Urdu: داتا گنج بخش ), or Data Sahib, was a scholar of Islam and a Sufi saint, and writer of the 11th century. ...

Propagation of Sufism

Sufism, during 1200-1500 CE, experienced an era of increased activity in various parts of the Islamic world. This period is considered as the "Classical Period" or the "Golden Age" of Sufism. Lodges and hospices soon became not only places to house Sufi students, but also places for practicing Sufis and other mystics to stay and retreat. For the 2005 horror film,see Hostel (film). ...


Professor Victor Danner, in his book "The Islamic Tradition," writes that:[13]

Sufism has influenced the spiritual life of the religion to an extraordinary degree; there is no important domain in the civilization of Islam that has remained unaffected by it.

The propagation of Sufism started in Baghdad, and spread to Persia, India, North Africa, and Spain. There were tests of conciliation between Sufism and other Islamic sciences (Sharia, Fiqh, etc.), as well as the beginning of the Sufi Brotherhoods (Turuq). Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Persia redirects here. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


One of the first orders to originate was the Yasawi order, named after Khwajah Ahmed Yesevi in modern Kazakhstan. The Kubrawiya order, originating in Central Asia, was named after Najmeddin Kubra, known as the "Saint-producing Shaykh," because a number of his disciples became Shaykhs.[14] The most prominent Sufi master of this era is Abdul Qadir Jilani, the founder of the Qadiriyyah order in Iraq. Others included Rumi, founder of the Mevlevi order in Konya, modern day Turkey, Sahabuddin Suharwardi in Iran, Moinuddin Chishti and Makhdoom Ashraf in India. Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasavi. ... The Kubrawiya order is a Sufi order (tariqa) named after its 13th century founder Najmeddin Kubra. ... Sheikh Najmeddin Kubra was a 13th century famous Persian Sufi from Khwarezmia and was the founder of the Kubrawiya Sufi order. ... Sheikh Muhyiddeen Abdul Qadir Gilani , Abdul Qadir al-Gilani , Abdul Qadir el-Gilani or Moulay Abdelkader Jilali (in Maghreb countries (Arabic: عبد القادر الجيلانى ); (1077 – 1166 CE) was a mystic scholar and saint of Islam. ... Qadiriyyah (Arabic: القادريه) (also transliterated Qadiri), is one of the oldest Sufi tariqas, derives its name from Abdul Qadir Jilani (also transliterated as Gilani) (1077-1166), a native of the Iranian province of Gilan. ... Mawlana Rumi Mawlānā Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī[1] (Arabic:مولانا جلال الدين محمد رومي) ‎ (1207 – 1273 CE), also known as Muhammad Balkhī (Persian: محمد بلخى) or Celâladin Mehmet Rumi (Turkish), was a Persian poet, jurist, theologian and teacher of Sufism. ... Whirling Dervishes perform near the Mevlevi Museum in Konya, Turkey. ... Konya (Ottoman Turkish: ; also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically also known as Iconium (Latin), Greek: Ikónion) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... Shihabuddin Yahya as-Suhrawardi (1153-1191), was a prominent mystic-philosopher. ... Moinuddin Chishti dargah, Ajmer, India Khawaja Moinuddin Chishty (Persian: خواجہ معین الدین چشتی ) was born in 1141 and died in 1230 CE, also known as Gharib Nawaz (Persian: غریب نواز ), was a Sunni Muslim and is the most famous Sufi saint of the Chishti Order of South Asia. ...


Mujaddid Alf Sani, a 17th century reformer of the Naqshbandi order, is also a seminal personality in the propagation of Sufism, as he began a movement that aimed to purify Islam of pantheist influence by returning to its basic sources (Quran and Sunna), while maintaining the integrity of its spiritual dimension. Ahmad Sirhindi was an Islamic scholar and prominent member of the Naqshbandi Sufi order. ... Naqshbandi (Naqshbandiyya) is one of the major Tasawwuf orders (tariqa) of Islam. ... Pantheism literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ...

Mausoleum of Shah Rukn-e-Alam (A Sufi Saint) in Multan, Pakistan
Mausoleum of Shah Rukn-e-Alam (A Sufi Saint) in Multan, Pakistan
Sufi Temple in Katwijk, The Netherlands
Sufi Temple in Katwijk, The Netherlands

Image File history File linksMetadata ShahRukne_Alam_2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata ShahRukne_Alam_2. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1119x693, 93 KB) Soufi temple in the Southdunes in Katwijk, The Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1119x693, 93 KB) Soufi temple in the Southdunes in Katwijk, The Netherlands. ... Katwijk Location Flag Country Netherlands Province South Holland Population 61. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...

Sufism's Role in the Expansion of Islam

Sufism is flexible in terms of religious materiality. This characteristic of Sufism attracted the nomadic people of mid-western Asia (mainly the current Iranic and Turkic republics of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan). Sufism also spread quickly among the Anatolian and Azerbaijani Turkmen and among the Balkan peoples of modern Albania, Bosnia, Macedonia, and Bulgaria. This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ...


The mystics of Khorasan, like Ahmad Yasavi and Hajji Bektash Wali, were influential in the spread of Sufi Islam first in Asia Minor and then in Eastern Europe as the Seljuk and Ottoman Turks extended their empires. Hajji Bektash Wali (Arabic/Persian: ‎ ḤājÄ« Baktāš WālÄ«; Turkish: Hacı BektaÅŸ Veli) was a Muslim mystic, humanist and philosopher from Khorasan, who lived approximately from 1209-1271 in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey). ... Seljuk Prince with Mongoloid features. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


Modern Sufism

One of the first Western Sufis to return to Europe as an official representative of a Sufi path, and with the specific purpose to spread Sufism in Western Europe, was the Swedish-born wandering Sufi Abd al-Hadi Aqhili (1869-1917). Ivan Abd Al-Hadi Aguéli (Johan Gustaf Agelii or Sheikh Abd Al-Hadi Aqhili), (Sala, Kingdom of Sweden May 24, 1869 - Barcelona, Spain October 1, 1917) was a Swedish-born Impressionist painter and Sufi scholar. ...


During the 20th Century, as the ottoman caliphate was abolished, the Muslim world fragmented and experienced major upheavals Sufis gave birth to political movements[citation needed]; Hassan al-Banna, founder of the Muslim Brotherhood was from a Sufi background[citation needed], as was Taqiuddin Nabhani[citation needed] founder of Hizb ut-Tahrir; taught by his great Sufi grandfather Yusuf Nabhani[citation needed]. Important Sufis alive today include Nader Angha, Nazim al-Qubrusi, Nuh Ha Mim Keller, Hamza Yusuf, Gohar Shahi, Tahir-ul-Qadri and Muzaffer Ozak. These individuals have in some measure been responsible for the continued introduction and spread of the Sufi path in the modern West.[citation needed] Look up Ottoman, ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Hassan al Banna, the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood. ... The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimÅ«n, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement and the worlds largest, most influential Islamist group[1]. The MB is the largest political... Nabhani can refer to: The Nabhani dynasty that ruled Oman between the 12th and 17th century. ... Hizb ut-Tahrir (Arabic: ‎; English: ) is a internationalist Sunni, anti-nationalist, pan-Islamist vanguard[2] political party whose goal is to unite all Muslim countries in a unitary Islamic state or caliphate, ruled by Islamic law and headed by an elected head of state (caliph). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Shaykh Nazim in Cyprus after a prayer Mehmet Nâzım Adil (Arabic : الشيخ ناظم القبرصي; also known as Sultan-al Awliya Shaykh Mawlana as-Sayyid Khwaja Muhammad Nazim Adil al-Haqqani al-Rabbani al-Qubrusi al-Firdausi an-Naqshbandi (April 23, 1922 - IC: Shaban 26, 1340) is the leader of the... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hamza Yusuf Hanson is an Islamic scholar who teaches at the Zaytuna Institute in California, U.S.. He is one of the signatories of A Common Word Between Us and You, an open letter by Islamic scholars to Christian leaders, calling for peace and understanding. ... Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi (Urdu:ریاض احمدگوھرشاہی) (‎25 November 1941 – 25 November 2001) also known as Sayyedna Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi (Urdu:سیدناریاض احمدگوھرشاہی) or Hazrat Sayyedna Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi Muddazullahul Aali (Urdu:حضرت سیدناریاض احمدگوھرشاہی مدظلہ العالی) was a Muslim Sufi, author, spiritual leader and founder of the spiritual movement Anjuman Serfaroshan-e-Islam. ... Shaykh-ul-Islam Dr. Muhammad Tahir ul-Qadri (Urdu: محمد طاہر القادری) (born February 19, 1951) is a Muslim writer, poet, professor, religious scholar, and a politician from Pakistan. ... Muzaffer Ozak (1916 - 1985) was the head sheikh of the Halveti-Jerrahi order of Dervishes, a traditional muslim Sufi order (tarika) from Istanbul (Turkey). ...


Sufism also is popular in such African countries as Senegal, where it is seen as a mystical expression of Islam in Senegal.[15] Mbacke suggests that one reason Sufism has taken hold in Senegal is because it can accommodate local beliefs and customs, which tend toward the mystical.[16] Mysticism (ancient Greek mysticon = secret) is meditation, prayer, or theology focused on the direct experience of union with divinity, God, or Ultimate Reality, or the belief that such experience is a genuine and important source of knowledge. ...


Influences

Some researchers find influences in Sufism from pre-Islamic and non-Islamic schools of mysticism and philosophy such as Neoplatonism.[17] Some of these perspectives originate from the synthesis of Persian civilization with Islam, an emphasis on spiritual aspects of Islam, and the incorporation of ideas and practices from other mysticisms into Islam.[citation needed]The same has been said of Buddhism and ancient Egyptian spiritual practices.[citation needed] However, most Muslim theologians disagree with this. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... Buddhism, a Dharmic faith, is usually considered one of the worlds major religions, with between 230 to 500 million followers. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ...


Sufi Concepts

Main article: Sufi philosophy

// Cosmology Subtle bodies Rooh ( Soul ) Nasma ( Astral Body ) Physical body Concepts in Gnosis Fana Baqa Haal Maqaam Other concepts Haqiqa Marifa Ihsan Categories: Sufi philosophy | Mystic philosophy ...

The Six Subtleties

Realities of The Heart:[18] Drawing from Qur'anic verses, virtually all Sufis distinguish Lataif-e-Sitta (The Six Subtleties), Nafs, Qalb, Ruh, Sirr, Khafi & Akhfa. These lataif (singular : latifa) designate various psychospiritual "organs", or faculties of sensory perception. Drawing from Quranic verses, virtually all Sufis distinguish Lataif-as-Sitta (the six subtleties): Nafs, Qalb, Sirr, Ruh, Khafi, and Akhfa. ...


Sufic development involves the awakening of these spiritual centers of perception that lie dormant in an individual. Each center is associated with a particular color and general area of the body, often with a particular prophet, and varies from order to order. The help of a guide is considered necessary to help activate these centers. After undergoing this process, the dervish is said to reach a certain type of "completion."


The person gets acquainted with the lataif one by one by Muraqaba (Sufi meditation), Dhikr (Remembrance of God) and purification of one's psyche of negative thoughts, emotions, and actions. Loving God and one's fellow, irrespective of his or her race, religion or nationality, and without consideration for any possible reward, is the key to ascension according to Sufis. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Dhikr , ذکر (Zikr in Urdu and Zekr in Persian) (Arabic pronouncement, invocation or remembrance) is an Islamic practice that focuses on the remembrance of God. ...


These six "organs" or faculties: Nafs, Qalb, Ruh, Sirr, Khafi and Akhfa, and the purificative activities applied to them, contain the basic orthodox Sufi philosophy. The purification of the elementary passionate nature (Tazkiya-I-Nafs), followed by cleansing of the spiritual heart so that it may acquire a mirror-like purity of reflection (Tazkiya-I-Qalb) and become the receptacle of God's love (Ishq) and illumination of the spirit (Tajjali-I-Ruh). This process is fortified by emptying of egoic drives (Taqliyya-I-Sirr) and remembrance of God's attributes (Dhikr), and completion of journey by purification of the last two faculties, Khafi and Akhfa.


Sufi Cosmology

Main article: Sufi cosmology

Although there is no consensus with regard to Sufi cosmology, one can disentangle at least three different cosmographies: Ishraqi visionary universe as expounded by Suhrawardi Maqtul, Neoplatonic view of cosmos cherished by Islamic philosophers like Ibn Sina and Sufis like Ibn Arabi, and Hermetic-Ptolemaic spherical geocentric world. All these doctrines (each one of them claiming to be impeccably orthodox) were freely mixed and juxtaposed, frequently with confusing results – a situation one also encounters in other esoteric doctrines. Although there is no consensus with regard to Sufi cosmology, one can disentangle various threads that led to the crystallization of more or less coherent cosmological doctrines. ... Although there is no consensus with regard to Sufi cosmology, one can disentangle various threads that led to the crystallization of more or less coherent cosmological doctrines. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sohrevardi. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... This article needs cleanup. ... For the Maliki scholar, see Ibn al-Arabi. ...


One of the most thorough declarations of Sufi cosmology is found in the book God Speaks by Meher Baba. God Speaks by Meher Baba God Speaks is a book by Meher Baba and is Meher Babas most complete statement of the process of Creation and its purpose. ... Meher Baba (Persian: مهر بابا Devanāgarī: महर बाबा ), (February 25, 1894, Merwan Sheriar Irani – January 31, 1969), was an Indian spiritual teacher who said he was the Avatar. ...


See also: Plane cosmology and Esoteric cosmology. In metaphysics and esoteric cosmology, a plane of existence (sometimes called simply a plane, dimension, vibrating plane, or an inner, invisible, spiritual, supraphysical world, or egg) is conceived as a subtle region of space (and/or consciousness) beyond, but permeating, the known physical universe (or a portion of the physical... Esoteric cosmology is cosmology that is an intrinsic part of an esoteric or occult system of thought. ...


Sufi Practices

A Sufi man goes into a trance in Khartoum, Sudan
A Sufi man goes into a trance in Khartoum, Sudan

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (969x720, 73 KB) Description: Sufis, ritual in Khartoum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (969x720, 73 KB) Description: Sufis, ritual in Khartoum. ... Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban 2. ...

Dhikr

Main article: Dhikr

Dhikr is the remembrance of God commanded in the Qur'an for all Muslims. To engage in dhikr is to have awareness of God according to Islam. Dhikr as a devotional act includes the repetition of divine names, supplications and aphorisms from hadith literature, and sections of the Qur'an. More generally, any activity in which the Muslim maintains awareness of God is considered dhikr. Dhikr , ذکر (Zikr in Urdu and Zekr in Persian) (Arabic pronouncement, invocation or remembrance) is an Islamic practice that focuses on the remembrance of God. ... Dhikr , ذکر (Zikr in Urdu and Zekr in Persian) (Arabic pronouncement, invocation or remembrance) is an Islamic practice that focuses on the remembrance of God. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ...


The practice of Muraqaba and Dhikr have very close resemblance with the practices of the Jewish mystics. Muraqaba is very similar to the Merkavah practice, which is one of the meditations used by Kabbalists to attain higher states of consciousness. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... For a series of Israeli main battle tanks, see Merkava. ...


Some Sufi orders engage in ritualized dhikr ceremonies, the liturgy of which may include recitation, singing, instrumental music, dance, costumes, incense, meditation, ecstasy, and trance. (Touma 1996, p.162). Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... Recitation means a repetition of what has been said before. ... Harry Belafonte singing, photograph by C. van Vechten Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, which is often contrasted with speech. ... Instrumental An instrumental is, in contrast to a song, a musical composition or piece without lyrics or any other sort of vocal music; all of the music is produced by musical instruments. ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... Yarkand ladies summer fashions. ... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An altered state of consciousness is any state which is significantly different from a normative waking beta wave state. ...


Hadhra

Main article: Hadhra

Hadhra is a form of dhikr practiced primarily in the Arab world. The word Hadhra means Presence in Arabic. Hadhra (Arabic:حضرة) is the term given to a sacred dance performed by Sufi Muslims accompanied by dhikr recitations invoking the name of Allah. ... Hadhra (Arabic:حضرة) is the term given to a sacred dance performed by Sufi Muslims accompanied by dhikr recitations invoking the name of Allah. ... Dhikr , ذکر (Zikr in Urdu and Zekr in Persian) (Arabic pronouncement, invocation or remembrance) is an Islamic practice that focuses on the remembrance of God. ... Arab States redirects here. ...


Qawwali

Main article: Qawwali

Qawwali is a form of devotional Sufi music common in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Afganistan, Iran and Turkey. It is known for its secular strains. Some of its modern-day masters have included Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and the Sabri Brothers. Amir Khusro, a disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya, of the Chishti Order, is credited with inventing Qawwali in the 14th century. Qawwali (Urdu: قوٌالی, Hindi: क़वाली) is the devotional music of the Chishti Sufis of the Indian Subcontinent. ... Qawwali (Urdu: قوٌالی, Hindi: क़वाली) is the devotional music of the Chishti Sufis of the Indian Subcontinent. ... Afghanistan (Pashtu/Iran in the west, Pakistan in the south and east, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north, and China in the easternmost part of the country. ... This article is about the Pakistani musician. ... The Sabri Brothers (Urdu: صابری برادران) are a Qawwali party from Pakistan. ... Abul Hasan Yamīn al-Dīn Khusrow (Persian: , Devanagari: अबुल हसन यमीनुददीन ख़ुसरो) (1253-1325 CE), better known as Amīr Khusrow Dehlawī, was the greatest Persian-writing poet of medieval India one of the iconic figures in the cultural history of the Indian subcontinent. ... For the Bangledeshi cricketer of the same name, see Nizamuddin (cricketer). ... The Chishti Order (Persian: - Češtī) is a Sufi order within the mystic branches of Islam which was founded in Chisht, a small town near Herat, about 930 C.E. and continues to this day (2008). ...


Sama

Main article: Sama

Sama or Sema' (Arabic "listening") refers to Sufi practices which can involve music and dance (see Sufi whirling). In Uyghur culture, this includes a dance form also originally associated with Sufi ritual. See Qawwali origins and Origin and History of the Qawwali, Adam Nayyar, Lok Virsa Research Centre, Islamabad, 1988. Look up sama in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... -1... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... -1... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... Qawwali (Urdu: قوٌالی, Hindi: क़वाली) is the devotional music of the Chishti Sufis of the Indian Subcontinent. ... Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ...


Khalwa

Main article: Khalwa

Khalwa refers to a form of retreat, once widespread but now less common. A khalwa may be prescribed by the shaykh (spiritual advisor) of the murid or talib (student). Muslims believe that most of the prophets, and also Maryam (Mary) the mother of Issa (Jesus), lived in some form of seclusion at some point in their life. Prophet Muhammad, for example, used to retreat to the cave on Mount Hira where he received his first revelation – but had been going there for many years prior to his meeting with the angel Gabriel. Similar examples include Moses' going into seclusion for 40 days in a cave in Mt. Sinai. Mary was in seclusion in the Jewish temple for a year, where only Zakariya was permitted to see her. Khalwa is a Sufi practice similar to the Christian practice of retreat. ... Khalwa is a Sufi practice similar to the Christian practice of retreat. ... The term retreat has several related meanings, all of which have in common the notion of safety or temporarily removing oneself from ones usual environment. ... Murid (Arabic: مريد ) is a Sufi term meaning committed one. It refers to a person who is committed to a teacher in the spiritual path of Sufism. ... Maryam or Mariam in Arabic and Persian is the Islamic name for Mary the mother of Jesus (Arabic Isa) in the Quran. ... Islam holds Jesus (Arabic: `Īsā) to have been a messenger and a prophet of God. ... Hira or the Cave of Hira is the location where Muhammad, according to Islam, received his first revelations from Allah (God) through the angel Gabriel(جبريل ). The cave is located at the peak of Jabal al-Nour in the Hejaz region of present day Saudi Arabia. ... Zechariah or Zecharya (זְכַרְיָה Renowned/Remembered of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew Zəḫarya, Tiberian Hebrew Zəḵaryāh) was a person in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ...


Sufi Poetry

Sufism has produced a large body of poetry in Arabic, Persian, Punjabi, Sindhi, Turkish, Pashto and Urdu which notably includes the works of Sultan Bahu, Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, al-Hallaj, Ibn al-Farid, Hafiz, Jami, Ibn Arabi, Farid Ud-Din Attar, Abdul Qader Bedil, Bulleh Shah, Amir Khusro, Gohar Shahi,Yunus Emre, Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, Sachal Sarmast, Muhammad Iqbal as well as numerous traditions of devotional dance, such as Sufi whirling, and music, such as Qawwali. Arabic redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... SindhÄ« (سنڌي, सिन्धी) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... Sultan Bahu (ca 1628 - 1691) was a Muslim Sufi and saint, who founded the Sarwari Qadiri sufi order. ... Mawlana Rumi Mawlānā Jalāl ad-DÄ«n Muhammad RÅ«mÄ«[1] (Arabic:مولانا جلال الدين محمد رومي) ‎ (1207 – 1273 CE), also known as Muhammad BalkhÄ« (Persian: محمد بلخى) or Celâladin Mehmet Rumi (Turkish), was a Persian poet, jurist, theologian and teacher of Sufism. ... Al-Hallaj (c. ... Ibn al-Farid or Ibn Farid (`Umar ibn `AlÄ« ibn al-Fārid) (1181-1235) was an Arab poet. ... Hafiz or Hafez (Arabic: حافظ), literally meaning guardian, is a term used by Muslims for people who have completely memorized the Quran. ... Illustration from Jamis Rose Garden of the Pious, dated 1553. ... For the Maliki scholar, see Ibn al-Arabi. ... The Conference of the Birds painted by Habib Allah. ... Abul Maāni Mirzā Abdul-Qāder Bedil or Mawlānā Abul Maāni Abdul Qader Bedil (1642–1720) (Persian: مولانا ابوالمعانی عبدالقادر بیدل) was a famous poet and Sufi born in Azimabad (present day Patna, India); his family was of the Barlas tribe from Balkh (present day Afghanistan). ... Bulleh Shah Bulleh Shah (1680 – 1757)(Punjabi: ), whose real name was Abdullah Shah, was a Punjabi Sufi poet and humanist. ... Abul Hasan YamÄ«n al-DÄ«n Khusrow (Persian: , Devanagari: अबुल हसन यमीनुददीन ख़ुसरो) (1253-1325 CE), better known as AmÄ«r Khusrow DehlawÄ«, was the greatest Persian-writing poet of medieval India one of the iconic figures in the cultural history of the Indian subcontinent. ... Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi (Urdu:ریاض احمدگوھرشاہی) (‎25 November 1941 – 25 November 2001) also known as Sayyedna Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi (Urdu:سیدناریاض احمدگوھرشاہی) or Hazrat Sayyedna Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi Muddazullahul Aali (Urdu:حضرت سیدناریاض احمدگوھرشاہی مدظلہ العالی) was a Muslim Sufi, author, spiritual leader and founder of the spiritual movement Anjuman Serfaroshan-e-Islam. ... Yunus Emre (1238?–1320?) was a Turkish poet and Sufi mystic. ... Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai (1689-1752)(Sindhi:شاھ عبدالطيف ڀٽائيِ), was a Sufi scholar and saint, and is considered as the greatest poet of the Sindhi language. ... Sachal Sarmast (1739-1829) (Sindhi: سچلُ سرمستُ ) was a renowned Sindhi Sufi poet during the Kalhora era. ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... -1... Qawwali (Urdu: قوٌالی, Hindi: क़वाली) is the devotional music of the Chishti Sufis of the Indian Subcontinent. ...


Orders of Sufism

Main article: Tariqa

This article is in need of attention. ...

Traditional Orders

Keşküls (grant bowls) Bektashi dervishes. Dervishes used these bowls to accept charity, which was a process of overcoming personal vanity and arrogance for dervishes in Sufi culture of the time.
Keşküls (grant bowls) Bektashi dervishes. Dervishes used these bowls to accept charity, which was a process of overcoming personal vanity and arrogance for dervishes in Sufi culture of the time.

The traditional Sufi orders emphasise the role of Sufism within Islam. Therefore, the Sharia (traditional Islamic law) and the Sunnah (customs of the Prophet) are seen as crucial for any Sufi aspirant. Among the oldest and most well known of the Sufi orders are the Naqshbandi, Qadiri,Sarwariyya, Qadri Al-Muntahi, Chisti, Oveyssi, Shadhili,Jerrahi, Ashrafi, Bektashi, and Nimatullahi. One proof traditional orders assert is that almost all the famous Sufi masters of the past Caliphates were also experts in Sharia and were renowned as people with great Iman (faith) and excellent practice. Many were also Qadis (Sharia law judges) in courts. They held that Sufism was never distinct from Islam and to fully comprehend and practice Sufism one must be a practicing Muslim obeying the Sharia. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 506 pixelsFull resolution (2817 × 1780 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 506 pixelsFull resolution (2817 × 1780 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Bektashism (Turkish: BektaÅŸilik) is an Islamic Sufi order (tariqat). ... For other uses, see Dervish (disambiguation). ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Naqshbandi (Naqshbandiyya) is one of the major Tasawwuf orders (tariqa) of Islam. ... Qadiriyyah, one of the oldest Sufi tariqa, derives its name from Abd al-Qadir al-Djilani (1077-1166), a native of the Iranian province of Gilan. ... The Sarwari Qadiri Sufi tariqa was originated by Sultan Bahu in the seventeenth century. ... The Chishti Order was founded by Khwaja Abu Ishaq Shami (the Syrian) (d. ... The Holy Quran, 2:148 Whoever knows the true self, knows God. ... The Tariqa ash Shadhiliya is a Sufi order founded by Abu-l-Hassan ash-Shadhili. ... The Jerrahi (Turkish: Cerrahiyye, Cerrahilik) are a Sufi order (Tarika) derived from the Halveti (Khalwati) order. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Bektashism (Turkish: BektaÅŸilik) is an Islamic Sufi order (tariqat). ... The Nimatullahi order (also spelled Nimatollahi or Nematollahi) is a Sufi Order or Tariqa originating in Persia. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ...


For a longer list of Sufi orders see: Sufi orders.


Non-Traditional Sufi Groups

In recent decades there has been a growth of non-traditional Sufi movements in the West. Some examples are Universal Sufism movement, the Golden Sufi Center, the Sufi Foundation of America, the Blaketashi Darwishes, Universalist Sufis and Sufism Reoriented. Universal Sufism ( Arabic: الطريقة للصوفية عالمية At-Tarǐqat As-Sǔfǐyyat Alamǐyya ) is a spiritual and universalist movement founded by Hazrat Inayat Khan in the early 20th century. ... Sufism Reoriented is a Sufi organization founded in the 1950s in the United States, based on the teachings of Hazrat Inayat Khan, and once lead by Meher Baba, most commonly known as a guru followed by Pete Townshend. ...


Universal Sufism

Main article: Universal Sufism

Mainstream Sufism is seen by its scholars and supporters as a part of traditional Islam. However, there is a major line of non-Islamic or offshoot-Islamic Sufi thought that sees Sufism as predating Islam and being a universal philosophy, that is independent of the Qur'an and the teachings of Prophet Muhammad. This view of Sufism has been popular in the Western world.[19] Universal Sufism tends to be opposed by traditional Sufis, who argue that Sufism has always been practiced from within an Islamic framework and can never be separated from it. Inayat Khan founded Universal Sufism whilst also maintaining his lineage in Chisti Sufism. It is fascinating to note that Khan's western lineage passed through his carefully chosen, Murshida Rabia Martin, and his western Order (America, Europe, and Australia) was respectfully given to Meher Baba which community ultimately became known as Sufism Reoriented. Idries Shah advocated similar concepts to those of Inayat Khan. Irina Tweedie and Abdullah Dougan also taught outside the Islamic context while maintaining the connection to their Naqshbandi heritage. Universal Sufism ( Arabic: الطريقة للصوفية عالمية At-Tarǐqat As-Sǔfǐyyat Alamǐyya ) is a spiritual and universalist movement founded by Hazrat Inayat Khan in the early 20th century. ... This article is about Universalism in religion and theology. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Occident redirects here. ... Hazrat Inayat Khan (July 5, 1882 – February 5, 1927) was the founder of Universal Sufism and the Sufi Order International. ... Universal Sufism ( Arabic: الطريقة للصوفية عالمية At-Tarǐqat As-Sǔfǐyyat Alamǐyya ) is a spiritual and universalist movement founded by Hazrat Inayat Khan in the early 20th century. ... The Chishti Order was founded by Khwaja Abu Ishaq Shami (the Syrian) (d. ... Meher Baba (Persian: مهر بابا Devanāgarī: महर बाबा ), (February 25, 1894, Merwan Sheriar Irani – January 31, 1969), was an Indian spiritual teacher who said he was the Avatar. ... Sufism Reoriented is a Sufi organization founded in the 1950s in the United States, based on the teachings of Hazrat Inayat Khan, and once lead by Meher Baba, most commonly known as a guru followed by Pete Townshend. ... Idries Shah (16 June 1924–23 November 1996) (Persian: ادریس شاه), also known as Idris Shah, né Sayyid Idris al-Hashimi (Arabic: سيد إدريس الهاشمي), was an author in the Naqshbandi sufist tradition on works ranging from psychology and spirituality to travelogues and culture studies, and was descended from the revered family, the Sadaat of... Irina Tweedie (* 1907 in Russia; † August 1999) was a british Sufi teacher. ... Sheikh Abdullah Isa Neil Dougan (1918 - 1987) was a Sufi Sheikh of the Naqshbandi order. ... Naqshbandi (Naqshbandiyya) is one of the major Tasawwuf orders (tariqa) of Islam. ...


Traditional Islamic Schools of Thought and Sufism

Islam traditionally consists of a number of groups. The two main divisions are the Sunnis and the Shia. Shia and Sunni Islam consist of a number of schools of legal jurisprudence (called Madhabs). Majority of Sunni muslim scholars today follow one or more of the four major madhabs viz Hanafi, Shafi, Maliki and Hanbali. Sufis do not define Sufism as a madhhab — what distinguishes a person as a Sufi is practicing Sufism, usually through association with a Sufi order. In this sense, traditional practitioners of Sufism don't see it as an exclusive group but just as a form of training necessary to cultivate spirituality and Ihsan in their lives. Thus, sufis can be from shias or sunnis following any of the schools of jurisprudence. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia may refer to a denomination of Islam, or related items, such as: Shia Islam, the second largest denomination of Islam, after Sunni Islam. ... Madhhab(مذهب) (Madhahib, pl) is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence (fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Madhhab(مذهب) (Madhahib, pl) is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence (fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Shafii is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Ihsan (or Ehsan or Ahsan or احسان) is an Arabic term meaning perfection or excellence. ...


W. Chittick explains the position of Sufism and Sufis this way: William C. Chittick is a renowned Islamologist. ...

In short, Muslim scholars who focused their energies on understanding the normative guidelines for the body came to be known as jurists, and those who held that the most important task was to train the mind in achieving correct understanding came to be divided into three main schools of thought: theology, philosophy, and Sufism. This leaves us with the third domain of human existence, the spirit. Most Muslims who devoted their major efforts to developing the spiritual dimensions of the human person came to be known as Sufis.

The relationship between traditional Islamic scholars and Sufism is complicated due to the variety of views held among them. Many traditional scholars, such as Al-Ghazali, helped its propagation while certain medieval scholars, such as Ibn Taymiyyah, opposed it as an innovation. Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-Ghazzālī (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Taqi al-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: )(January 22, 1263 - 1328), was a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ...


Controversy and Criticism of Sufism

Classic Position on Sufism

Sufism emphasises non quantifiable matters (like states of the heart). The authors of various Sufi treatises often used allegorical language which couldn't be read by an unknowledgeable person to describe these states (eg. likened some states to intoxication, which is forbidden in Islam). This usage of indirect language and the existence of interpretations by people who had no training in Islam or Sufism led to doubts being cast over the validity of Sufism as a part of Islam. Also, some groups emerged that considered themselves above the Sharia and discussed Sufism as a method of bypassing the rules of Islam in order to attain salvation directly. This was disapproved of by traditional scholars. An example of such a deviant sufi was Abu Hilman.[20] One of the most vocal critics of such deviations from the Islamic creed was Ibn Taymiya. Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Taqi Ad-din Abu Al-abbas Ahmad Ibn abd As-salam Ibn abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Taymiya (Arabic: أبو عباس تقي الدين أحمد بن عبد السلام بن عبد الله ابن تيمية الحراني) (January 22, 1263 - 1328), was an Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ...


Criticism of Sufism

  1. Sufi masters have introduced many special prayers and devotional acts into their schools.
  2. The allegorical and often abstruse language used by Sufis in their texts when interpreted by unqualified people opens avenues for many misunderstandings. As an example, some critics consider the concept of divine unity Wahdat-ul-wujood equivalent to pantheism and therefore incompatible with Islam.[21] Sufi masters in many of their introductory texts caution aspirants from reading and interpreting texts by themselves. They hold that the subject can only be taught by a master to a student under strict guidance and supervision owing to its delicate nature.[22] This discussion only scratches the surface of a very involved and subtle issue.

Following are some of the concepts in Sufi metaphysics // Wahdat-ul-Wujood or Wahdat al-Wujud (Arabic: وحدة الوجود) the Unity of Being is a Sufi philosophy emphasizing that there is no true existence except the Ultimate Truth (God). All of his creations emerge from `adim (عدم non-existence) to wujood (existence) out... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ...

Iran

In the Islamic Republic of Iran, Sufism has been growing in popularity and has an estimated two to five million practitioners,[23] but has sometimes found itself criticized by and generally at odds with the political and religious authorities there.


A 14 February issue of Kayhan newspaper quoted senior clerics in Qom as saying that Sufism should be eradicated in that holy city, while the Reuters news agency reported that in September one of Iran's hard-line clerics, Grand Ayatollah Hossein Noori Hamedani, called for a clampdown on Sufis in the city. The governor of Qom, Abbas Mohtaj, has reportedly accused the dervishes of having links to foreign countries.[24] Others officials maintain that "contrary to the propaganda that the world spreads against" the Islamic Republic, "there is no kind of problem for" Sufis in Iran.[23] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Grand Ayatollah Hossein Noori Hamedani is an Iranian Shia Marja. ...


Islamic Positions on Non-Islamic Sufi Groups

The use of the title Sufi by many groups to refer to themselves and their use of traditional Sufi masters (notably Jalaluddin Rumi) as sources of inspiration as well as the existence of interpretations of classical Sufis texts by people who have no grounding in traditional Islamic sciences has created a group of non-Islamic Sufis. These are considered by certain conventional Islamic scholars as beyond the pale of the religion[25], however, Sufis often allow a higher degree of forbearance.[improper synthesis?] ...


Other Resources

  • 'Mediation of the Shaikh' by Abu Anees Muhammad Barkat Ali
  • Sufism in a Nutshell
  • Dar-Sirr.com: Portal to Moroccan Sufism
  • Adab (the Conditions and Etiquette) for Initiation into the Nimatullahi Sufi Path

See also

Sufism Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... List of Tariqas or Sufi brotherhoods Aâbid Adhamiyya Adrawiyya Agamiyya Ahiyya Ahl-el Haqq Ahmadiyya (soefis) Ahmadiyya-Idrissiyya Aissawiyya Akbariyya Akmaliyya (Haqmaliyya) Ak Tagh > Naqshbandiyya Alamiyya Alawiyya (Hadramiyya) Aliyallahiyya Alwaniyya Amariyya Amgariyya Ansariyya Arusiyya Ashrafiyya Ashuriyya Awhadiyya Aydarusiyya Azeema BaAlawi BaAlawi-Atissiyya Badawiyya Bakkaiyya Banawa... The term Sulook or Suluk when related to the Islam and sufism means to walk a (spiritual) path (to God). ... A salik is a person who enganged in Islamic spiritual path or sufism. ... One example of a medieval khanqah, this one in Isfahan. ... A list of topics related to the topic of Sufism. ... In Islamic philosophy, irfan, and mysticism, keramat (کرامت also کرامات) is a thaumaturgic gift akin to the miracle of prophets. ... The term Sufi rock describes the sound of famous Pakistani rock band Junoon. ... Following are some of the concepts in Sufi metaphysics // Wahdat-ul-Wujood or Wahdat al-Wujud (Arabic: وحدة الوجود) the Unity of Being is a Sufi philosophy emphasizing that there is no true existence except the Ultimate Truth (God). All of his creations emerge from `adim (عدم non-existence) to wujood (existence) out...

References

  1. ^ Dr. Alan Godlas, University of Georgia, Sufism's Many Paths, 2000, University of Georgia: http://www.uga.edu/islam/Sufism.html
  2. ^ Ahmed Zarruq, Zaineb Istrabadi, Hamza Yusuf Hanson - "The Principles of Sufism." Amal Press. 2008.
  3. ^ How would you respond to the claim the Sufism is bida?
  4. ^ Haddad, Gibril Fouad: Sufism in Islam LivingIslam.org: http://www.livingislam.org/k/si_e.html
  5. ^ Sufism, Sufis, and Sufi Orders: Sufism's Many Paths
  6. ^ Shushud, Hasan. Masters of Wisdom of Central Asia, Coombe Springs Press
  7. ^ Massignon, Louis. Essai sur les origines du lexique technique de la mystique musulmane. Paris: Vrin, 1954. p. 104.
  8. ^ Simsekler, Nuri; History of Mevlevi Sufism; in Çitlak, M. Fatih and Bingül, Hüseyin; Rumi and his Sufi Path of Love(2007); New Jersey; The Light, Inc. ISBN-13:978-1-59784-078-1
  9. ^ Rumi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi, Rubaiyyat No. 133
  10. ^ Esposito, John L. "Islam - The Straight Path" , Pg 102. Oxford University Press, Inc. 1998. ISBN 0-19-511233-4
  11. ^ Sufism,Sufism in Islam,Origin of Sufism in Islam Religion,Sufi Orders In Islam
  12. ^ a b c d Hourani, Albert. "A History of the Arab Peoples, Harvard University Press, 1991. ISBN 0-674-39565-4
  13. ^ Victor Danner - "The Islamic Tradition: An introduction." Amity House. February 1988.
  14. ^ Shushud, Hasan. Masters of Wisdom of Central Asia, Coombe Springs Press
  15. ^ "Sufism and Religious Brotherhoods in Senegal," Babou, Cheikh Anta, The International Journal of African Historical Studies, v. 40 no1 (2007) p. 184-6
  16. ^ Sufism and Religious Brotherhoods in Senegal, Khadim Mbacke, translated from the French by Eric Ross and edited by John Hunwick. Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 2005.
  17. ^ 20th WCP: The Neoplatonist Roots of Sufi Philosophy
  18. ^ Realities of THe HEart Lataif
  19. ^ "Hybrid identity formations in Muslim America: the case of American Sufi movements," Marcia Hermansen, Muslim World, Hartford, Connecticut, v. 90 no.1/2, Spring 2000, p. 158-97.
  20. ^ Abd al-Qahir al-Baghadadi
  21. ^ Did ibn Arabi believe in pantheism? is pantheism outside of the shariah?
  22. ^ the other side of salafism
  23. ^ a b Growing popularity of Sufism in IranTuesday, 25 April 2006, 17:12 GMT 18:12 UK
  24. ^ Iran: Qom Authorities Crack Down On Sufis Golnaz Esfandiari Thursday, February 16, 2006
  25. ^ Sufism is not Islam: A Comparative Study ISBN 8186030352 http://www.exoticindiaart.com/book/details/IDE944/

A page of a copy circa 1503 of the Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi Divan-i Kabir, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi or Diwan-i Shams is Mawlānā Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmīs masterpiece in the Persian language, a collection of poems that contains more...

Additional Reading

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Sufism
Wikibooks
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  • Al-Badawi, Mostafa. Sufi Sage of Arabia. Louisville: Fons Vitae, 2005.
  • Ali-Shah, Omar, The Rules or Secrets of the Naqshbandi Order, Tractus Publishers, 1992, ISBN 978-2-909347-09-7.
  • Arberry, A.J.. Mystical Poems of Rumi, Vols. 1&2. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1991.
  • Austin, R.W.J.. Sufis of Andalusia, Gloustershire: Beshara Publications, 1988.
  • Awakening of the Human Spirit, by Hazrat Inayat Khan
  • Bewley, Aisha. The Darqawi Way. London: Diwan Press, 1981.
  • Colby, Frederick. The Subtleties of the Ascension: Lata'if Al-Miraj: Early Mystical Sayings on Muhammad's Heavenly Journey. City: Fons Vitae, 2006.
  • Ernst, Carl. The Shambhala Guide to Sufism. Boulder: Shambhala, 1997.
  • Jean-Louis Michon. The Autobiography (Fahrasa) of a Moroccan Soufi: Ahmad Ibn `Ajiba (1747-1809). Louisville: Fons Vitae, 1999.
  • Lewinsohn (ed.), The Heritage of Sufism, Volume I: Classical Persian Sufism from its Origins to Rumi (700-1300).
  • Nurbakhsh, Javad, What is Sufism? electronic text derived from The Path, Khaniqahi Nimatullahi Publications, London, 2003 ISBN 0-933546-70-X.
  • Shah, Idries, The Sufis, (1971) ISBN 0-385-07966-4.
  • Shah, Idries, The Way of the Sufi, (1991) ISBN 0-14-019252.

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

External links

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Ihsan (or Ehsan or Ahsan or احسان) is an Arabic term meaning perfection or excellence. ... Noor is the link which binds being to knowledge in Sufism. ... Maqaam ( the station ) is ones spiritual station or developmental level, as distinct from ones hal, or state of consciousness. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A manzil (منزل, plural manazil, منازل) is one of seven parts of roughly equal length into which the Quran is divided for the purpose of reciting the entire text in one week. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Fanaa (فناء) is the Sufi term for extinction. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... ḤaqÄ«qah (Arabic: حقيقة) is literally translated as essence, or truth (derived from one of the 99 names of Allah, Al-Haqq [الحق], means The Truth). ... Marifa (or alternatively marifah) literally means knowledge. ... Drawing from Quranic verses, virtually all Sufis distinguish Lataif-e-Sitta (The six subtleties), Nafs, Qalb, Sirr, Ruh, Khafi & Akhfa. ... The term Sulook or Suluk when related to the Islam and sufism means to walk a (spiritual) path (to God). ... Although there is no consensus with regard to Sufi cosmology, one can disentangle various threads that led to the crystallization of more or less coherent cosmological doctrines. ... The literal meaning of the word kashf is unveling, but in Sufi terminology it means to expose the heart to metaphysical illumination or revelation unattainable by reason. ... Following are some of the concepts in Sufi metaphysics // Wahdat-ul-Wujood or Wahdat al-Wujud (Arabic: وحدة الوجود) the Unity of Being is a Sufi philosophy emphasizing that there is no true existence except the Ultimate Truth (God). All of his creations emerge from `adim (عدم non-existence) to wujood (existence) out... There are three central concepts in Sufi Psychology, which are the ego, the heart and the soul. ... Tajalliat (plural of tajalli) or theophanies in the realm of being are manifestations of the divine Truth with regard to infinite perfection and eternal glory. ... Dhikr , ذکر (Zikr in Urdu and Zekr in Persian) (Arabic pronouncement, invocation or remembrance) is an Islamic practice that focuses on the remembrance of God. ... Hadhra (Arabic:حضرة) is the term given to a sacred dance performed by Sufi Muslims accompanied by dhikr recitations invoking the name of Allah. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Qawwali (Urdu: قوٌالی, Hindi: क़वाली) is the devotional music of the Chishti Sufis of the Indian Subcontinent. ... Specialty Equipment Market Association (SEMA) of the automobile aftermarket was formed in 1963 by Roy Richter, Ed Iskenderian, Willie Garner, Bob Hedman, John Bartlett, Phil Weiand, Jr. ... -1... Tariqah ( transliteration: ; pl. ... The Chishti Order was founded by Khwaja Abu Ishaq Shami (the Syrian) (d. ... Whirling Dervishes perform near the Mevlevi Museum in Konya, Turkey. ... The Mouride brotherhood (Muride brotherhood in Wolof, الطريقة المريدية, Aá¹­-ṬarÄ«qat al-MurÄ«diyya or simply مريدية, MurÄ«diyya in Arabic) is a large Islamic Sufi order (á¹­arÄ«qa) most prominent in Senegal and The Gambia, with headquarters in the holy city of Touba, Senegal (Tuubaa in Wolof, طوبى, Ṭūbā in Arabic). ... Naqshbandi (Naqshbandiyya) is one of the major Tasawwuf orders (tariqa) of Islam. ... Qadiriyyah (Arabic: القادريه ) (also transliterated Qadiri), is one of the oldest Sufi tariqas, derives its name from Abdul Qadir Jilani (also transliterated other ways) (1077-1166), a native of the Iranian province of Gilan. ... The Rifai (also Rufai) are a Sufi order most commonly found in the Arab Middle East but also in Turkey and the Balkans. ... The Tariqa ash Shadhiliya is a Sufi order founded by Abu-l-Hassan ash-Shadhili. ... Suhrawardiyya is the name of a Sufi order founded by Shihabuddin Yahya as-Suhrawardi. ... The Tijāniyyah (Arabic: الطريقة التجانية, transliterated: Al-ṬarÄ«qah al-Tijāniyyah, or The TijānÄ« Path) is a sufi á¹­arÄ«qah (order, path) originating in North Africa but now more widespread in West Africa, particularly in Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, and Northern Nigeria and Sudan. ... List of Tariqas or Sufi brotherhoods Aâbid Adhamiyya Adrawiyya Agamiyya Ahiyya Ahl-el Haqq Ahmadiyya (soefis) Ahmadiyya-Idrissiyya Aissawiyya Akbariyya Akmaliyya (Haqmaliyya) Ak Tagh > Naqshbandiyya Alamiyya Alawiyya (Hadramiyya) Aliyallahiyya Alwaniyya Amariyya Amgariyya Ansariyya Arusiyya Ashrafiyya Ashuriyya Awhadiyya Aydarusiyya Azeema BaAlawi BaAlawi-Atissiyya Badawiyya Bakkaiyya Banawa... Hasan al-Basri (حسن البسری) [Abu Said al-Hasan ibn Abi-l-Hasan Yasar al-Basri], (642 - 728 or 737), Arab theologian, was born at Medina. ... Uwais al-Qarni or Oways b. ... RābiÊ»a al-Ê»Adawiyya al-Quaysiyya (Arabic: رابعة العدوية القيسية) or simply Rabia Al-Basri (717–801 C.E.) was a female Sufi saint. ... Image:Bastam ghabr. ... Junayd ibn Muhammad Abu al-Qasim al-Khazzaz al-Baghdadi[The water walker,(830-910) (d. ... Dhul-Nun al-Misri (Arabic:ذو النون المصري) (d. ... ... Abusaeid Abolkheyr(966-1046) (In Persian ابوسعید ابوالخیر هجری قمری 440-357) also known as Sheikh Abusaeid , was a famous Persian Sufi who contributed extensively to the evolution of Sufi thought. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Abul-Hassan Ali ibn Ahmad (or ibn Ja’far) ibn Salmān al-Kharaqāni or Shaikh Abul-Hassan Kharaqāni [also written Kherqāni] (Persian شیخ ابوالحسن خرقانی ) is one of the great Sufi Masters of Islam. ... Sheikh Muhyiddeen Abdul Qadir Gilani (1077 – 1166 CE) was a mystic scholar and saint of Islam. ... Moinuddin Chishti dargah, Ajmer, India Khawaja Moinuddin Chishty (Persian: خواجہ معین الدین چشتی ) was born in 1141 and died in 1230 CE, also known as Gharib Nawaz (Persian: غریب نواز ), was a Sunni Muslim and is the most famous Sufi saint of the Chishti Order of South Asia. ... Shahab al-Din Yahya as-Suhrawardi (from the Arabicشهاب الدين يحيى سهروردى, also known as Sohrevardi) (born 1153 in North-West-Iran; died 1191 in Aleppo) was a persian philosopher and Sufi, founder of School of Illumination, one of the most important islamic doctrine in Philosophy. ... Ahmed ar-Rifai was a founder of the Rifai Sufi order. ... Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki was a renowned Muslim Sufi saint and scholar in the Chishti Order from Delhi, India. ... Hazrat Baba Fariduddin Masood Ganjshakar (Punjabi: ) commonly known as Baba Farid(بابا فرید) (ਬਾਬਾ ਫ਼ਰੀਦ) was a 12-th century Sufi preacher and saint of Punjab. ... For the Maliki scholar, see Ibn al-Arabi. ... For the missionary, see Shams Tabraiz (missionary). ... Rumi redirects here. ... Sheikh Sa‘di (in Persian: , full name in English: Muslih-ud-Din Mushrif-ibn-Abdullah) (1184 - 1283/1291?) is one of the major Persian poets of the medieval period. ... Farid al-Din Attar (b. ... Mahmud Shabistari is one of the most celebrated Persian Sufi poets. ... For the Bangledeshi cricketer of the same name, see Nizamuddin (cricketer). ... Data Durbar, Hujwiris shrine in Lahore, Pakistan Syed Abul Hassan Bin Usman Bin Ali Al-Hajweri (Arabic: سید علی بن عثمان الہجوہری ) (sometimes spelled Hujwiri), also known as Shaikh Ali Hajweri, Data Ganj Bakhsh (Urdu: داتا گنج بخش ), or Data Sahib, was a scholar of Islam and a Sufi saint, and writer of the 11th century. ... Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari (1318 – 1389) was the founder of what would become one of the largest and most influential Sufi Muslim orders, the Naqshbandi. ... Abul Hasan YamÄ«n al-DÄ«n Khusrow (Persian: , Devanagari: अबुल हसन यमीनुददीन ख़ुसरो) (1253-1325 CE), better known as AmÄ«r Khusrow DehlawÄ«, was the greatest Persian-writing poet of medieval India one of the iconic figures in the cultural history of the Indian subcontinent. ... Sheikh Safi al-Dins tomb Sheikh Safi-ad-din Ishaq Ardabili (of Ardabil) (1252-1334) (Persian: ), eponym of the Safavid dynasty, was the spiritual heir and son in law of the great Sufi Murshid (Grand Master) Sheikh Zahed Gilani, of Lahijan in Gilan Province in northern Iran. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shah Nur ad-Din Nimatullah Vali. ... Sheikh Najmeddin Kubra was a 13th century famous Persian Sufi from Khwarezmia and was the founder of the Kubrawiya Sufi order. ... Illustration from Jamis Rose Garden of the Pious, dated 1553. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Muhammad al-Jazuli. ... It has been suggested that Wali Allah Dahlawi be merged into this article or section. ... Ahmad ibn Muhammad Ibn Ata Allah (d. ... Alauddin Ali Ahmed Kaliyari a. ... Sheikh Ahmed Zarruq (1442-1493) was a Shadhili Sufi Sheikh and founder of the Zarruqiyye branch of the Shadhili Sufi order (Tariqa). ... Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasavi. ... Hadrat Khawaja Sayyad Makhdoom Ashraf Jahangir Semnani was a Sufi Saint of the Chishti Order of Sufi. ... Ahmad Sirhindi was an Islamic scholar and prominent member of the Naqshbandi Sufi order. ... Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai (1689 - 1752), was a great Sufi scholar and saint, and is considered as the greatest ever poet in the Sindhi language. ... Imam Abd Allah ibn Alawi al-Haddad born in 1634 CE (1044 Hijri). ... Sultan Bahu (ca 1628 - 1691) was a Muslim Sufi and saint, who founded the Sarwari Qadiri sufi order. ... Shaykh-ul-Islam Dr. Muhammad Tahir ul-Qadri (Urdu: محمد طاہر القادری) (born February 19, 1951) is a Muslim writer, poet, professor, religious scholar, and a politician from Pakistan. ... Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad at Al-Hidayah (26 August 2007) Timothy J. Winter (born 1960), aka Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad, is a British Muslim thinker, translator, and teacher. ... Shaykh Nazim in Cyprus after a prayer Mehmet Nâzım Adil (Arabic : الشيخ ناظم القبرصي; also known as Sultan-al Awliya Shaykh Mawlana as-Sayyid Khwaja Muhammad Nazim Adil al-Haqqani al-Rabbani al-Qubrusi al-Firdausi an-Naqshbandi (April 23, 1922 - IC: Shaban 26, 1340) is the leader of the... Muhammad Hisham Kabbani (born in Lebanon) is a prominent and controversial American Sufi Muslim. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Al-Sayyid Muhammad ibn Alawi ibn Abbas al-Maliki (1947 - 2004) was a prominent Islamic scholar from Saudi Arabia. ... Shaykh Dr. Abdalqadir as-Sufi, (b 1930, Ayr, Scotland) family name Ian Dallas, is a Shaykh of Tarbiyah (Instruction), leader of the Darqawi-Shadhili-Qadiri Tariqa, founder of the Murabitun World Movement and author of numerous books on Islam, Sufism (Tasawwuf) and political theory. ... Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi (Urdu:ریاض احمدگوھرشاہی) (‎25 November 1941 – 25 November 2001) also known as Sayyedna Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi (Urdu:سیدناریاض احمدگوھرشاہی) or Hazrat Sayyedna Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi Muddazullahul Aali (Urdu:حضرت سیدناریاض احمدگوھرشاہی مدظلہ العالی) was a Muslim Sufi, author, spiritual leader and founder of the spiritual movement Anjuman Serfaroshan-e-Islam. ... Hazrat Inayat Khan (July 5, 1882 – February 5, 1927) was the founder of Universal Sufism and the Sufi Order International. ... Sufi studies: a particular branch of comparative studies that uses a. ... Ivan Abd Al-Hadi Aguéli (Johan Gustaf Agelii or Sheikh Abd Al-Hadi Aqhili), (Sala, Kingdom of Sweden May 24, 1869 - Barcelona, Spain October 1, 1917) was a Swedish-born Impressionist painter and Sufi scholar. ... Tage Lindbom and Kurt Almqvist. ... Titus Burckhardt, a German Swiss, was born in Florence in 1908 and died in Lausanne in 1984. ... William C. Chittick is a renowned Islamologist. ... Henry Corbin (14 April 1903 - October 7, 1978) was a philosopher, theologian and professor of Islamic Studies at the Sorbonne in Paris, France. ... Carl W. Ernst is a scholar of Islamic studies. ... Robert Frager, Ph. ... René Jean Marie Joseph Guénon (November 15, 1886 – January 7, 1951) also named Sheikh Abd al-Wahid Yahya upon his acceptance of Islam, was a French-born author. ... // Lex Hixon Alexander Paul Hixon, PhD, 1941-1995, spiritual teacher and author In his 53 years of life, Lex Hixon, an accomplished poet, philosopher and spiritual practitioner, explored extensively the truth of the great religious traditions. ... Tage Lindbom Tage Leonard Lindbom (24 October 1909 - 2001), PhD in Political science, party theoretician and director of the archives of the Swedish Social Democratic Party 1938-1965, Muslim convert, representative of the Traditional School and the Perennial philosophy. ... Martin Lings Martin Lings (Abu Bakr Siraj Ad-Din) (January 24, 1909 – May 12, 2005) was a lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon and a British scholar of Sufism. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (Persian: سيد حسين نصر), (1933-), a University Professor of the department of Islamic studies at George Washington University, is a leading Iranian Muslim philosopher. ... Annemarie Schimmel (April 7, 1922 - January 26, 2003) was a well known and very influential German Iranologist and scholar who wrote extensively on Islam and Sufism. ... Michael A. Sells is currently the John Henry Barrows Professor of Islamic History and Literature at the Divinity School of the University of Chicago. ... Idries Shah (16 June 1924–23 November 1996) (Persian: ادریس شاه), also known as Idris Shah, né Sayyid Idris al-Hashimi (Arabic: سيد إدريس الهاشمي), was an author in the Naqshbandi sufist tradition on works ranging from psychology and spirituality to travelogues and culture studies, and was descended from the revered family, the Sadaat of... Frithjof Schuon (June 18, 1907 – May 5, 1998) is a metaphysician, poet, painter, and a leading figure of traditional metaphysics. ... Sufism began in the eighth century. ... Sufi poetry, for private devotional reading and as lyrics for music played during worship, or dhikr, has been written in many languages. ... Al-Fuyoozaat-ul-Muhammadiyyah by Muhammad Tahir ul-Qadri // Sirr al-asrar (The secret of secrets) Futuh al-ghayb (Revelations of the Unseen) Ghunyat al-talibeen (Wealth for Seekers) Al-Fathu Rabbani (The Endowment of Divine Grace) Futuhat al-Makkiyya (The Meccan Revelations) Translation of two chapters from Futuhat... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ... Islam reveres the one God, who is considered the only Creator and Lord of the Universe. The main fundamental creed (shahadah) of Islam is There is but (one) God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The Arabic word for The God is Allah (الله); Muslims consider him the same deity... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ... There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... Flag Umayyad Empire at its greatest extent Capital Damascus Capital-in-exile Córdoba Language(s) Arabic Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - Established 660  - Disestablished 750 Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic,بنو أمية ) (Banu Umayyah), whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Islamic Empire (بلاد الإسلامية ) or Rashidun Empire or Rashidun Caliphate ( خلافت راشدہ) is the term conventionally used to describe the Empire controlled by the first four successors of Muhammad (the Rightly Guided caliphs). ... Flag Umayyad Empire at its greatest extent Capital Damascus Capital-in-exile Córdoba Language(s) Arabic Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - Established 660  - Disestablished 750 Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic,بنو أمية ) (Banu Umayyah), whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The interior of the Great Mosque in Cordoba, now a Christian cathedral. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islam - percentage by country Map showing distribution of Shia and Sunni Muslims in Africa, Asia and Europe. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In Islamic legal terminology, Baligh or Bulugh refers to a person who has reached maturity or puberty and has full responsibility under Islamic law. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic hygienical jurisprudence and cleanliness. ... Islamic criminal jurisprudence is the Islamic criminal law. ... DhabiÄ¥a (ذَبِيْحَة, dhabiha, zabiha) is the prescribed method of slaughtering all animals excluding fish and most sea-life as per Islam. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. ... This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activity that is consistent with Islamic law (Sharia) principles and guided by Islamic economics. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... Murabaha is defined as a particular kind of sale, compliant with shariah, where the seller expressly mentions the cost he has incurred on the commodities to be sold and sells it to another person by adding some profit or mark-up thereon which is known to the buyer. ... Riba is the (Arabic: ربا ) term for intrest, the charging of which is forbidden by the Quran here, among other places: And that which you give in gift (loan) (to others), in order that it may increase (your wealth by expecting to get a better one in return) from other... Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and etiquette. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Sex segregation Islam discourages social interaction between men and women when they are alone but not all interaction between men and women. ... Ghusl (غسل) is an Arabic term referring to the full Ablution in Islam. ... Many muslims when praying their daily prayers have to say the The Salat Ibrahimiya goes like this This translates to Oh God exalt Mohammad and his progeny as you have exalted Ibrahim and his progeny in these worlds as You are All Praiseworthy All Glorious. ... Hudud ( Arabic , also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural for hadd, , limit, or restriction) is the word often used in Islamic social and legal literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and the punishments for serious crimes. ... This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ... The miswak (miswaak, siwak) is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica tree. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Haraam. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic economical jurisprudence and inheritance. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Islamic leadership is what a Muslim leader is supposed to show, in order to lead in accordance to Islamic principles. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Marriage. ... When a couple decides to marry, they draw up a Marriage contract. ... Nikah or nikkah (Arabic: النكاح ), is the contract between a bride and bridegroom and part of an Islamic marriage, a strong covenant (mithaqun Ghalithun) as expressed in Quran 4:21). ... NikāhÌ£u’l-Mut‘ah, Nikah el Muta (Arabic: , also Nikah Mut‘ah literally, marriage[1] for pleasure[2]), or sigheh, is a fixed-time marriage which, according to the Usuli Shia schools of Shari‘a (Islamic law), is a marriage with a preset duration, after which the... A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ... In Islamic sharia legal terminology, a mahram (Arabic محرم, also transcribed mahrim or maharem) is an unmarriageable kin with whom sexual intercourse would be considered incestuous, a punishable taboo. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The rules and regulations concerning prisoners of war in Islam are covered in manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, based upon Islamic teachings, in both the Quran and hadith. ... 13th century slave market in Yemen The major juristic schools of Islam traditionally accepted the institution of slavery. ... Islamic politics is the profession of Muslim politicians. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic marital jurisprudence and human sexuality. ... Istimna (استمناء) is the Arabic term for masturbation. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Sukuk is the Arabic name for a financial certificate but can be seen as an Islamic equivalent of bond. ... // Takaful is an Islamic insurance concept which is grounded in Islamic muamalat (banking transactions), observing the rules and regulations of Islamic law. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... Islamic theological jurisprudence is the filed of Islamic jurisprudence specialized in theological issues. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Zina (Arabic: الزناء) is extramarital sex in Islam. ... Sharia is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islamic tilework of the Shrine of Hadhrat Masoumah, first built in the late 8th century. ... Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... Islamic pottery era started around 622. ... Islamic creationism is the belief that the universe (including humanity) was directly created by God as explained in the Quran or Genesis. ... A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism that aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of sex or gender, in public and private life. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgement) and the final judgement of humanity. ... Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Main articles: Islamic science and astrology Islamic astrology, in Arabic ilm al-nujum or ilm al-falak is the study of the heavens by early Muslims. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and science. ... In the history of mathematics, Islamic mathematics or Arabic mathematics refers to the mathematics developed by the Islamic civilization between 622 and 1600. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... Early Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt. ... It has been suggested that Shuubiya be merged into this article or section. ... Hagia Sophia, an Eastern Orthodox church converted into a mosque on the day of the Fall of Constantinople Conversion of non-Muslim houses of worship into mosques began during the life of Muhammad and continued during subsequent Islamic conquests and under the Muslim rule. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ... This article lists various controversies related to Islam and Muslims. ... (Arguments critical to religion in general, or specific to Monotheism, such as the Existence of God, not dealt with here. ... This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam. ... Muslims believe that the Quran is the literal word of God (Allah) as recited to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... The extent to which domestic violence is sanctioned or opposed by Islam is a matter of debate. ... Persecution of Muslims refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Muslims. ... This is a sub-article to Quran and Islamic view of miracles. ... Qutbism (also Kotebism, Qutbiyya, or Qutbiyyah) is the radical strain of Islamic ideology and activism, based on the thought and writings of Sayyid Qutb, a celebrated Islamist and former leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood who was executed in 1966. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Threshold Society & The Mevlevi Order (732 words)
, rooted within the traditions of Sufism and inspired by the life and work of Mevlâna Jalâluddîn Rumi, is a non-profit educational foundation with the purpose of facilitating the experience of Divine Unity, Love, and Truth in the world.
In Sufism we inevitably move to transcend much of the conditioning of our culture and religion, but we use certain traditional forms as a way of practice.
These are intended to provide a structure for practice and study within Sufism and spiritual psychology.
Sufism, Sufis, and Sufi Orders: Sufism's Many Paths (234 words)
Sufism or tasawwuf, as it is called in Arabic, is generally understood by scholars and Sufis to be the inner, mystical, or psycho-spiritual dimension of Islam.
Nevertheless, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, one of the foremost scholars of Islam, in his article The Interior Life in Islam contends that Sufism is simply the name for the inner or esoteric dimension of Islam.
After nearly 30 years of the study of Sufism, I would say that in spite of its many variations and voluminous expressions, the essence of Sufi practice is quite simple.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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