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Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918
Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918

The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the women's suffrage movement, originally in the United Kingdom. The term comes from the word suffrage, which means the right to vote. The word was originally coined to describe a more radical faction of the suffrage movement in the UK, mainly members of the Women's Social and Political Union, headed by Emmeline Pankhurst. Suffragist is a more general term for members of the movement, whether radical or conservative, male or female. American women preferred this more inclusive title, but people in the United States who were hostile to suffrage for the American woman used the UK word as a pejorative, since the feminine-sounding version could be dismissed more easily. In the UK, the term "suffragist" is usually used solely to describe members of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (857x1205, 352 KB) Description: Suffragette banner carried in picket of the White House, 1918 Source: http://teachpol. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (857x1205, 352 KB) Description: Suffragette banner carried in picket of the White House, 1918 Source: http://teachpol. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Womens Social and Political Union (WSPU) was the leading militant organisation campaigning for Womens suffrage in the United Kingdom. ... Statue of Emmeline Pankhurst in Victoria Tower Gardens next to the Houses of Parliament, Westminster. ... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette was given to members of the womens suffrage movement in the United Kingdom and United States, particularly in the years prior to World War I. The name was the Womens Social and Political Union (founded in 1903). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... The National Union of Womens Suffrage Societies (NUWSS), also known as the Suffragists (not to be confused with the suffragettes) was an organisation of womens suffrage societies in the United Kingdom. ...

Contents

Origins of women's suffrage movements

The woman's suffrage movement was not one primarily run by middle class women. It was women who were frustrated by their social and economic situation who sought an outlet in which to start change. Their struggles for change within society, along with the work of such advocates for women’s rights as John Stuart Mill, were enough to spearhead a movement that would encompass mass groups of women fighting for suffrage. Mill had first brought the idea of women’s suffrage up in the platform he presented to British electors in 1865.[1] He would later be joined by numerous men and women fighting for the same cause. John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ...


New Zealand was the first self-governing country in the world to grant women the vote. In 1893, all women over the age of 21 were permitted to vote in parliamentary elections.[2]


Early 20th-century suffrage movements

Suffragettes carried out direct action such as chaining themselves to railings, setting fire to the contents of mailboxes, smashing windows and on occasions setting off bombs. One suffragette, Emily Davison, died after she stepped out in front of the King's horse, Anmer, at the Epsom Derby of 1913. Many of her fellow suffragettes were imprisoned and went on hunger strikes, during which they were restrained and forcibly fed (see Force-feeding) and had reached the height of their campaign by 1912. For the Canadian urban guerrilla group Direct Action, see Squamish Five. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... The term mailbox may refer to: The storage space used for Electronic Mail or Voicemail messages. ... For other uses, see Window (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... Emily Davison Emily Davison (1872 – June 8, 1913) was an activist for womens suffrage in the United Kingdom. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Epsom Derby, Théodore Géricault, 1821. ... A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt or to achieve a goal such as a policy change. ... Force-feeding is the practice of feeding someone against his or her will. ...


The so-called (john walton ) was passed by the British government to prevent suffragettes from obtaining public sympathy; it provided the release of those whose hunger strikes had brought them sickness, as well as their re-imprisonment once they had recovered. The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... ...


Nevertheless, protests continued on both sides of the Atlantic. Alice Paul and Lucy Burns led a series of protests against the Wilson Administration in Washington that referred to "Kaiser Wilson" and compared the plight of the German people with that of American women (see picture). Alice Stokes Paul (January 11, 1885 – July 9, 1977) was an American suffragist leader. ... Lucy Burns (July 28, 1879-December 22, 1966) was an American suffragist and womens rights advocate. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States (1913–1921). ...


During World War I, a serious shortage of able-bodied men ("manpower") occurred, and women were required to take on many of the traditional male roles. This led to a new view of what a woman was capable of doing. The war also caused a split in the British suffragette movement, with the mainstream, represented by Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst's Women's Social and Political Union, calling a 'ceasefire' in their campaign for the duration of the war, while more radical suffragettes, represented by Sylvia Pankhurst's Women's Suffrage Federation continued the struggle. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Statue of Emmeline Pankhurst in Victoria Tower Gardens next to the Houses of Parliament, Westminster. ... Christabel Pankhurst Dame Christabel Harriette Pankhurst DBE (September 22, 1880 – February 13, 1958) was a suffragette born in Manchester, England. ... The Womens Social and Political Union (WSPU) was the leading militant organisation campaigning for Womens suffrage in the United Kingdom. ... Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society; or otherwise claimed to violate common standards of ethics and reciprocity. ... Sylvia Pankhurst Estelle Sylvia Pankhurst (May 5, 1882 - September 27, 1960) was a campaigner in the suffragette movement in the United Kingdom, and a prominent left communist. ... The Workers Socialist Federation was a socialist political party in the United Kingdom, led by Sylvia Pankhurst. ...


Political movement towards women's suffrage began during the war and in 1918, the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed an act (the Representation of the People Act 1918) granting the vote to: women over the age of 30 who were householders, the wives of householders, occupiers of property with an annual rent of £5, and graduates of British universities. The right to vote of American women was codified in the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1920. Finally, women in the United Kingdom achieved suffrage on the same terms as men in 1928. Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... The Representation of the People Act 1918 widened suffrage by abolishing practically all property qualifications for men and by enfranchising women over 30 who met minimum property qualifications. ... This is a list of universities in the United Kingdom. ... Amendment XIX in the National Archives Amendment XIX (the Nineteenth Amendment) to the United States Constitution provides that neither the individual states of the United States nor its federal government may deny a citizen the right to vote because of the citizens sex. ...


See also

This article is about the political process. ... Vote redirects here. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Canadian Womens Suffrage Association was originally called the Toronto Womens Literary Guild. ... Sister Suffragette is the fictional pro-suffrage protest song sung by Mrs. ... Statue of Esther Hobart Morris in front of the Wyoming State Capitol. ... The Womens Social and Political Union (WSPU) was the leading militant organisation campaigning for Womens suffrage in the United Kingdom. ...

American suffragists

For other uses, see Susan B. Anthony (disambiguation). ... Lucy Burns (July 28, 1879-December 22, 1966) was an American suffragist and womens rights advocate. ... Alice Stokes Paul (January 11, 1885 – July 9, 1977) was an American suffragist leader. ... Elizabeth Cady Stanton, (November 12, 1815 – October 26, 1902), was an American social activist and leading figure of the early womans movement . ... Jeannette Rankin (June 11, 1880 – May 18, 1973) was the first woman elected to the United States House of Representatives and the first female member of Congress. ... Lucretia Coffin Mott (January 3, 1793 – November 11, 1880) was an American Quaker minister, abolitionist, social reformer and proponent of womens rights. ... Matilda Electa Joslyn Gage (1826-1898) was a suffragist, a Native American activist, an abolitionist, a freethinker, and a prolific author, who was born with a hatred of oppression. Though born in Cicero, New York, Gage maintained residence in Fayetteville, New York for the majority of her life. ...

British suffragettes

Rosa May Billinghurst, a suffragette, was born in Lewisham in 1875. ... Jane Ellen Harrison (September 9, 1850–April 5, 1928) was a ground-breaking English classical scholar and feminist. ... Annie Kenney (1879-1953) was a working-class suffragette who is credited with sparking off suffragette militancy when she heckled Winston Churchill. ... Dame Grace Kimmins was described in Punch (volume 156, April 9, 1919) as ... in her quiet practical way is probably as good a friend as London ever had, a remarkable description for the driving force behind the Guild of Play and the Guild of the Poor Brave Things. ... Christabel Pankhurst Dame Christabel Harriette Pankhurst DBE (September 22, 1880 – February 13, 1958) was a suffragette born in Manchester, England. ... Statue of Emmeline Pankhurst in Victoria Tower Gardens next to the Houses of Parliament, Westminster. ... Sylvia Pankhurst Estelle Sylvia Pankhurst (May 5, 1882 - September 27, 1960) was a campaigner in the suffragette movement in the United Kingdom, and a prominent left communist. ... Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence (1867-1954) was born Emmeline Pethick in Bristol. ... Emily Davison Emily Wilding Davison (October 11, 1872 Blackheath – June 8, 1913 Epsom) is remembered as the woman who died by throwing herself under the hoofs of Anmer, King George Vs horse on June 4, 1913 at the Epsom Derby in support of the British suffragette movement. ... Frances Mary Fanny Parker (born 24 December 1875, died 19 January 1924) was a British suffragette who became prominent in the militant wing of the Scottish womens suffrage movement and was repeatedly imprisoned for her actions. ...

New Zealand suffragettes

Katherine Wilson Sheppard (10 March 1848 – 13 July 1934) was the most prominent member of New Zealands womens suffrage movement, and is the countrys most famous suffragette. ... Kathryn Elizabeth Smith (May 1, 1907 – June 17, 1986) was an American singer (born in Washington, D.C.), best known for her rendition of Irving Berlins God Bless America. She was one of Americas most beloved entertainers, with a radio, TV and recording career that spanned five decades...

Notes

  1. ^ Rover, C. Women’s Suffrage and Party Politics in Britain, University of Toronto Press, 1967, page 5.
  2. ^ New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. New Zealand women and the vote. New Zealand History online. Retrieved on: January 6, 2008.

is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (New York: Merriam Webster, 1983) ISBN 0-87779-511-8
  • Suffragettes versus Suffragists - website comparing aims and methods of Women’s Social and Political Union (Suffragettes) to National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (Suffragists)
  • Suffragists vs. Suffragettes - brief article outlining origins of term "suffragette", usage of term and links to other sources.
  • Melanie Phillips. The Ascent of Woman: A History of the Suffragette Movement.

Melanie Phillips (born June 4, 1951) is a British journalist and author, best known for her column about political and social issues which currently appears in the Daily Mail. ...

External links

  • The struggle for democracy Visit the British Library learning resource pages to discover more about the suffragette movement
  • Exploring 20th century London - Women's Social and Political Union (W.S.P.U.) Objects and photographs including hunger strike medal's given to activists.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Suffragettes
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  Results from FactBites:
 
The Suffragette Emily Davison (995 words)
Janet: "Very often the suffragette movement is associated only with London but there were many brave women in the North who got involved in the fight for the vote and this novel is a tribute to them.
"This is no romanticised picture of the suffragettes, but a harshly realistic view of their lives and treatment and also of the ambivalence of some of their members.
My granddaughter said she never knew anything about that part of history, she was never taught anything about the bravery of those women who we have to thank for all the freedom we have now.
::The Suffragettes:: (892 words)
Prison governors were ordered to force feed Suffragettes but this caused a public outcry as forced feeding was traditionally used to feed lunatics as opposed to what were mostly educated women.
When a Suffragette was sent to prison, it was assumed that she would go on hunger strike as this caused the authorities maximum discomfort.
The most famous act associated with the Suffragettes was at the June 1913 Derby when Emily Wilding Davison threw herself under the King's horse, Anmer, as it rounded Tattenham Corner.
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