FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Suffrage" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Suffrage

Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning "voting tablet", and figuratively "right to vote"; probably from suffrago "hough", and originally a term for the pastern bone used to cast votes) is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. In that context, it is also called political franchise or simply the franchise. In most democracies citizens or subjects above the voting age can normally vote in its elections. Resident aliens can vote in some countries and in others exceptions are made for citizens of countries with which they have close links (e.g. some members of the Commonwealth of Nations, and the members of the European Union). The pastern is a part of the horse between the fetlock joint and the hoof, or between the wrist and forepaw of a dog. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...

Contents

Types of suffrage

Universal suffrage

Main article: Universal suffrage

Universal suffrage is the term used to describe a situation in which the right to vote is not restricted by race, gender, belief or social status. It typically does not extend a right to vote to all residents of a region; distinctions are frequently made in regard to citizenship, age, and occasionally mental capacity or criminal convictions. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Residency is the act of establishing or maintaining a residence in a given place. ... Citizen redirects here. ...


The short-lived Corsican Republic (1755-1769) was the first country to grant limited universal suffrage for all inhabitants over the age of 25. This was followed by other experiments in the Paris Commune of 1871 and the island republics of Tavolara (1886-1899) and Franceville (1889), and then by New Zealand in 1893. Finland was the first European country to grant universal suffrage to its citizens in its 1906 elections, and the first country in the world to make every citizen eligible to run for parliament. Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of... Tavolara Island. ...


Women's suffrage

Main article: Women's suffrage

Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote on the same terms as men. This was the goal of the suffragists and the "Suffragettes". The first major country to give women the vote in national elections was New Zealand in 1893, although various states and territories in Australia and the United States had given women the vote prior to this. The first major country to give women the right to stand for election as well as to vote was Australia in 1902 and the first major European country was Finland in 1906. The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the womens suffrage movement, originally in the United Kingdom. ...


Manhood suffrage

Manhood suffrage is the right of adult men of all classes, ethnicities, races, and religions to vote unless disqualified by mental illness or criminal conviction.


Equal suffrage

Equal suffrage is a term sometimes confused with Universal suffrage, although its meaning is the removal of graded votes, where a voter could possess a number of votes in accordance with income, wealth or social status.


Census suffrage

Census suffrage is the opposite of Equal suffrage, meaning that the votes cast by those eligible to vote are not equal, but are weighed differently according to the person's rank in the census (e.g., people with high income have more votes than those with a small income). The suffrage may therefore be limited, usually to the propertied classes, but can still be universal, including, for instance, women or ethnic minorities, if they meet the census. Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ...


Compulsory suffrage

Main article: Compulsory suffrage

Compulsory suffrage is a system where those who are eligible to vote are required by law to do so. Australia practises this form of suffrage. Compulsory voting is a practice that requires citizens to vote in elections or to attend a polling place and get their name crossed off the electoral roll. ... Compulsory voting is a practice that requires citizens to vote in elections or to attend a polling place and get their name crossed off the electoral roll. ...


Forms of exclusion from suffrage

Religion

In the aftermath of the Reformation it was common in European countries for people of disfavored religious denominations to be denied civil and political rights, often including the right to vote, stand for election or sit in parliament. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, Roman Catholics were denied the right to vote until 1788, and the right to sit in parliament until 1829. The anti-Catholic policy was justified on the grounds that the loyalty of Catholics supposedly lay with the Pope rather than the national monarch. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Note that this kind of denomination is not that of a coin or banknote. ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ...


In England and Ireland, several Acts practically disenfranchised non-Anglicans or non-Protestants by imposing an oath before being admitted to vote or to run for an election. The 1673 and 1678 Test Acts forbade non-Anglicans from holding public offices, the 1727 Disenfranchising Act took away Catholics' (Papists') voting rights in Ireland, only restored in 1788. Jews could not even be naturalized, an attempt to change this situation, the Jewish Naturalization Act 1753 provoked such reactions that it was repealed next year. Nonconformists (Methodists and Presbyterians) were only allowed to run for elections to the British House of Commons in 1828, Catholics in 1829 (Catholic Relief Act 1829), Jews in 1858 (Emancipation of the Jews in England). Benjamin Disraeli, often labelled as "Jewish", could only begin his political career in 1837 because he had been converted to Anglicanism at the age of 12. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The several Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and Nonconformists. ... The Disenfranchising Act was a British Penal law, passed in 1728, prohibiting all Roman Catholics from voting. ... A nonconformist is an English or Welsh Protestant of any non-Anglican denomination, chiefly advocating religious liberty. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. ... The Catholic Relief Act 1829 (10 Geo IV c. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Emancipation of the Jews in England (This page is part of the History of the Jews in England) // Freedom for Catholics bodes well for Jews When in 1829 the Roman Catholics of England were freed from all their civil disabilities, the hopes of the Jews rose high; and the first... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ...


In several British North American colonies, including after the 1776 Declaration of Independence, Jews, Quakers or Catholics were excluded from the voting rights and/or from running for elections.[1] The Delaware Constitution of 1776 stated that "Every person who shall be chosen a member of either house, or appointed to any office or place of trust, before taking his seat, or entering upon the execution of his office, shall (...) also make and subscribe the following declaration, to wit: I, A B. do profess faith in God the Father, and in Jesus Christ His only Son, and in the Holy Ghost, one God, blessed for evermore; and I do acknowledge the holy scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be given by divine inspiration.".[2] This was repealed by article I, section2. of the 1792 Constitution: "No religious test shall be required as a qualification to any office, or public trust, under this State.".[3] The 1778 Constitution of the State of South Carolina stated that "No person shall be eligible to sit in the house of representatives unless he be of the Protestant religion",[4] the 1777 Constitution of the State of Georgia (art. VI) that "The representatives shall be chosen out of the residents in each county (...) and they shall be of the Protestent (sic) religion".[5] In Maryland, voting rights and eligibility were extended to Jews in 1828.[6] In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... The Delaware Constitution of 1776 was the first governing document for Delaware state government and was in effect from its adoption in September 1776 until replaced in 1792 by a new Constitution. ... The South Carolina Constitution is the governing document of South Carolina. ... The Georgia Constitution, which was ratified in 1983, is the governing document of the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N...


In Canada, several religious groups (Mennonites, Hutterites, Doukhobors) were disenfranchised by the war-time Elections Act of 1917, mainly because they opposed military service. This disenfranchisement ended with the end of the First World War, but was renewed for Doukhobors from 1934 (Dominion Elections Act) to 1955.[7] The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... Like the two best-known Anabaptist denominations, the Amish and the Mennonites, the Hutterites had their beginnings in the Radical Reformation of the 16th Century. ... The Doukhobors (Russian Духоборы) are a Christian dissenting sect of Russian origin. ...


The first Constitution of modern Romania in 1866 provided in article 7 that only Christians could become Romanian citi­zens. Jews native of Romania were declared stateless per­sons. In 1879, under pressure of the Berlin Peace Conference, this article was amended granting non-Christians the right to become Romanian citizens, but naturalization is granted on a case-by-case basis and was subject to Parliament approval. An application took over ten years to process. Only in 1923 a new constitution was adopted, whose article 133 extended Romanian citizenship to all Jewish residents and equal­ity of rights to all Romanian citizens.[8] Jewish Romanian history concerns the Jews of Romania and of Romanian origins. ... Bulgarian autonomy after the Treaty of Berlin - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich. ...


In the Republic of Maldives, only Muslim Maldivian citizens have voting rights and are eligible for parliamentary elections.[9]


Wealth, Tax class, Social class

Until the nineteenth century, many Western democracies had property qualifications in their electoral laws; e.g. only landowners could vote, or the voting rights were weighed according to the amount of taxes paid (as in the Prussian three-class franchise). Most countries abolished the property qualification for national elections in the late nineteenth century, but retained it for local government elections for several decades. Today these laws have largely been abolished, although the homeless may not be able to register because they lack regular addresses. After the 1848 revolutions in the German states, the Prussian three-class franchise system (Dreiklassenwahlrecht) was introduced in 1849 by the Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm IV for the election of the Lower House of the Prussian state parliament. ... Bag lady redirects here. ...


In the United Kingdom, prior to the House of Lords Act 1999, peers who were members of the House of Lords were excluded from voting for the House of Commons because they were not commoners. The Sovereign is also ineligible to vote in British parliamentary elections. The House of Lords Act 1999, an Act of Parliament passed by the British Parliament, was a major constitutional enactment as it reformed greatly one of the chambers of Parliament, the House of Lords (see Lords Reform). ... For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...


Knowledge

Sometimes the right to vote has been limited to people who had achieved a certain level of education or passed a certain test, e.g. "literacy test" in some states of the US.


Such practises were sometimes abandoned after protests about racial bias, see also the next section ("race").


Race

Various countries, usually with large non-white populations, have historically denied the vote to people of particular races or to non-whites in general. This has been achieved in a number of ways:

  • Official - laws and regulations passed specifically disenfranchising people of particular races (for example, indigenous Australians until 1967, and South Africa under apartheid).
  • Indirect - nothing in law specifically prevents anyone from voting on account of their race, but other laws or regulations are used to exclude people of a particular race. In southern American states before the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act, literacy and other tests were used to disenfranchise African-Americans. Property qualifications have tended to disenfranchise non-whites, particularly if tribally-owned land is not allowed to be taken into consideration. In some cases (such as early colonial New Zealand) property qualifications were deliberately used to disenfranchise non-whites; in other cases this was an unintended (but not usually unwelcome) consequence.
  • Unofficial - nothing in law prevents anyone from voting on account of their race, but people of particular races are intimidated or otherwise prevented from exercising this right.

A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... The National Voting Rights Act of 1965 ()[1] outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the United States take literacy tests to qualify to register to vote, and it provided for federal registration of voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible minority voters registered. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Predominantly Christianity and Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... Members of New Zealands House of Representatives, commonly called Parliament, normally gain their parliamentary seats through nationwide general elections, or (less frequently) in by-elections. ...

Age

Main article: Voting age

All modern democracies require voters to meet age qualifications to vote. Worldwide voting ages are not consistent, fluctuating between countries and even within countries, usually between 16 and 21 years. A voting age is a minimum age established by law that a person must attain in order to be eligible to vote in a public election. ...


Criminality

Many countries restrict the voting rights of convicted criminals. Some countries, and some U.S. states, also deny the right to vote to those convicted of serious crimes after they are released from prison. In some cases (e.g. the felony disenfranchisement laws found in many U.S. states) the denial of the right to vote is automatic on a felony conviction; in other cases (e.g. provisions found in many parts of continental Europe) the denial of the right to vote is an additional penalty that the court can choose to impose, over and above the penalty of imprisonment, such as in France or Germany. In the Republic of Ireland, prisoners are not specifically denied the right to vote, but are also not provided access to a ballot station, so are effectively disenfranchised. Canada allowed only prisoners serving a term of less than 2 years the right to vote, but this was found unconstitutional in 2002 by the Supreme Court of Canada in Sauvé v. Canada (Chief Electoral Officer), and all prisoners were allowed to vote as of the 2004 Canadian federal election. Felony disenfranchisement is the term used to describe the practice of prohibiting persons from voting based on the fact that they have been convicted of a felony. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... Sauvé v. ... Rendition of party representation in the 39th Canadian parliament decided by this election. ...


Residency

Under certain electoral systems elections are held within subnational jurisdictions, preventing persons who would otherwise be eligible from voting because they do not reside within such a jurisdiction, or because they live in a kind which cannot participate. In the United States, residents of Washington, DC receive no voting representation in Congress and only three electoral votes, while residents of Puerto Rico have neither. Sometimes citizens become ineligible to vote because they are no longer resident in their country of citizenship. For example, Australian citizens who have been outside Australia more than one and less than six years may excuse themselves from the requirement to vote in Australian elections while they remain outside Australia (voting in Australia is compulsory for resident citizens).[10] Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 The United States Electoral College is a term used to describe the 538 President Electors who meet every 4 years to cast the electoral votes for President and Vice President of the United States; their votes represent... This article deals with elections to the Australian Parliament. ...


Nationality

In most countries, suffrage is limited to citizens and, in many cases, permanent residents of that country. However, some members of supra-national organisations such as the Commonwealth of Nations and the European Union have given voting rights to citizens of all countries within that organisation. Until the mid-twentieth century, many Commonwealth countries gave the vote to all British citizens in the country, regardless of whether they were normally resident there. In most cases this was because there was no distinction between British and local citizenship. Several countries qualified this with restrictions preventing non-white British citizens such as Indians and British Africans from voting. Under European Union law, citizens of European Union countries can vote in each others' local and European Parliament elections on the same basis as citizens of the country in question. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...


Naturalization

In some countries, naturalized citizens do not enjoy the right of vote and/or to be candidate, either permanently or for a determined period.


Article 5 of the 1831 Belgian Constitution made a difference between ordinary naturalization, and grande naturalisation. Only (former) foreigners who had been granted grande naturalisation were entitled to vote or be candidate for parliamentary elections or to be appointed as minister. However, ordinary naturalized citizens could vote for municipal elections.[11] Ordinary naturalized citizens and citizens who had acquired Belgian nationality through marriage were only admitted to vote, but not to be candidate, for parliamentary elections in 1976. The concepts of ordinary and grande naturalization were suppressed from the Constitution in 1991.[12] The Constitution of Belgium dates back to 1831. ...


In France, the 1889 Nationality Law barred those who had acquired the French nationality by naturalization or marriage from voting, eligibility and access to several public jobs. In 1938 the delay was reduced to 5 years.[13] These discriminations, as well as others against naturalized citizens, were gradually abolished in 1973 (9 January 1973 law) and 1983. is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


In Morocco, a former French protectorate, and in Guinea, a former French colony, naturalized citizens are prohibited from voting for 5 years after their naturalization.[14][15] This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ...


In the Federated States of Micronesia, Micronesian citizenship for a minimum of 15 years is an eligibility condition to be elected to the parliament.[16]


In Nicaragua, Peru and the Philippines, only citizens by birth are eligible for parliamentary elections, naturalized citizens enjoy only voting rights[17].[18][19]


In Uruguay, naturalized citizens have the right of eligibility to the parliament after 5 years.[20]


Function

In France, a 1872 law, only rescinded by a 1945 decree, prohibited all army personnel from voting.[21]


In the United Kingdom, public servants have to resign before running for an election.[22]


The 1876 Constitution of Texas (article VI, section 1) stated that "The following classes of persons shall not be allowed to vote in this State, to wit: (...) Fifth--All soldiers, marines and seamen, employed in the service of the army or navy of the United States.".[23]


History of suffrage around the world

History of suffrage in Canada

  • 1916 - Manitoba becomes the first province where women have the right to vote in provincial elections.
  • 1918 - Women gain full voting rights in federal elections.
  • 1919 - Women gain the right to run for federal office.
  • 1948 - Racial exclusions are removed from election laws.
  • 1955 - Religious exclusions are removed from election laws.
  • 1960 - Right to vote is extended unconditionally to First Nations people. (Previously they could vote only by giving up their status as First Nations people; this requirement was removed.)
  • 1960 - Right to vote in advance is extended to all electors willing to swear they would be absent on election day.
  • 1970 - Voting age lowered from 21 to 18.
  • 1982 - Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees all adult citizens the right to vote.
  • 1993 - Any elector can vote in advance.

Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ...

History of suffrage in New Zealand

Main article: History of voting in New Zealand
  • 1853 - British government passes the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, granting limited self rule, including a bicameral parliament to the colony. The vote was limited to male British subjects aged 21 or over who owned or rented sufficient property, and were not imprisoned for a serious offence. Communally owned land was excluded from the property qualification, thus disenfranchising most Māori (indigenous) men.
  • 1860 - Franchise extended to holders of miner's licenses who met all voting qualifications except that of property.
  • 1867 - Māori seats established, giving Mãori four reserved seats in the lower house. There was no property qualification; thus Mãori men gained universal suffrage before any other group of New Zealanders. However, the number of seats did not reflect the size of the Māori population.
  • 1879 - Property requirement abolished.
  • 1893 - Women given equal voting rights with men.
  • 1969 - Voting age lowered to 20.
  • 1974 - Voting age lowered to 18.
  • 1975 - Franchise extended to permanent residents of New Zealand, regardless of whether they have citizenship.
  • 1996 - Number of Māori seats increased to reflect Māori population.

Voting in New Zealand was introduced after colonisation by British settlers. ... The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 was the first enactment to grant the colony of New Zealand self-government. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... Māori Seats giving positions for Māori in the New Zealand Parliament were not created until 1867 even though Westminster-style Parliamentary Government was established in New Zealand in 1852. ... Several politico-constitutional arrangements use reserved political positions, especially when endeavoring to ensure the rights of minorities or preserving a political balance of power. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... Womens suffrage in New Zealand was an important political issue at the turn of the 19th century. ...

History of suffrage in the United Kingdom

See also: History of British society
See also: The Parliamentary Franchise in the United Kingdom 1885-1918

Suffrage in the United Kingdom was slowly changed over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries to allow universal suffrage through the use of the Reform Acts and the Representation of the People Acts. The History of British society demonstrates innumerable changes over many centuries. ... The Parliamentary Franchise in the United Kingdom 1885-1918 was the result of centuries of development in different kinds of constituencies. ... In the United Kingdom, the Reform Act could refer to various Acts Reform Act 1832 (The First Reform Act or The Great Reform Act), which abolished rotten boroughs and gave representation to previously unrepresented urban areas like Birmingham etc. ... Representation of the People Act can refer to the following acts: Representation of the People Act 1884 Representation of the People Act 1918 Representation of the People Act 1928 Representation of the People Act 1948 Representation of the People Act 1969 Representation of the People Act 1983 Representation of the...

  • Reform Act 1832 - extended voting rights to adult males who rented propertied land of a certain value, so allowing 1 in 7 males in the UK voting rights
  • Reform Act 1867 - enfranchised all male householders, so increasing male suffrage to the United Kingdom
  • Representation of the People Act 1884 - amended the Reform Act of 1867 so that it would apply equally to the countryside; this brought the voting population to 5,500,000, although 40% of males were still disenfranchised, whilst women could not vote
  • Between 1885-1918 moves were made by the suffragette movement to ensure votes for women. However, the duration of the First World War stopped this reform movement. See also The Parliamentary Franchise in the United Kingdom 1885-1918.
  • Representation of the People Act 1918 - the consequences of World War I convinced the government to expand the right to vote, not only for the many men who fought in the war who were disenfranchised, but also for the women who helped in the factories and elsewhere as part of the war effort. Property restrictions for voting were lifted for men, who could vote at 21; however women's votes were given with these property restrictions, and were limited to those over 30 years old. This raised the electorate from 7.7 million to 21.4 million with women making up 40% of the electorate. Seven percent of the electorate had more than one vote. The first election with this system was the United Kingdom general election, 1918
  • Representation of the People Act 1928 - this made women's voting rights equal with men, with voting possible at 21 with no property restrictions
  • Representation of the People Act 1948 - the act was passed to prevent plural voting
  • Representation of the People Act 1969 - extension of suffrage to those 18 and older
  • The Representation of the People Acts of 1983, 1985 and 2000 further modified voting
  • Electoral Administration Act 2006 - modified the ways in which people were able to vote and reduced the age of standing at a public election from 21 to 18.

The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. ... Contemporary cartoon of Disraeli outpacing Gladstone. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Representation of the People Act 1884 In the United Kingdom, The Representation of the People Act of 1884 (48 & 49 Vict. ... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the womens suffrage movement, originally in the United Kingdom. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Parliamentary Franchise in the United Kingdom 1885-1918 was the result of centuries of development in different kinds of constituencies. ... The Representation of the People Act 1918 widened suffrage by abolishing practically all property qualifications for men and by enfranchising women over 30 who met minimum property qualifications. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1918 held on 14th December 1918, after the Representation of the People Act 1918. ... The Representation of the People Act 1928 is an act of parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The 1948 Representation of the People Act was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The plurality electoral system (or first past the post electoral system), is a voting system for single-member districts. ... The Representation of the People Act 1969 increased suffrage to 18 year olds. ... Representation of the People Act can refer to the following acts: Representation of the People Act 1884 Representation of the People Act 1918 Representation of the People Act 1928 Representation of the People Act 1948 Representation of the People Act 1969 Representation of the People Act 1983 Representation of the... The Representation of the People Act 1983 changed the British electoral process in the following ways: Amended the 1969 Representation of the People Act. ... The Representation of the People Act 1985 was a piece of legislation passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom concerning British electoral law. ... The Representation of the People Act 2000 changes the British electoral process in the following ways: Amends the 1983 Representation of the People Act. ... The Electoral Administration Act 2006 is an Act which was passed by Parliament of the United Kingdom on 11 July 2006. ...

History of suffrage in the United States

In the United States, suffrage is determined by the separate states, not federally. However, the "right to vote" is expressly mentioned in five Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. These five Amendments limit the basis upon which the right to vote may be abridged or denied: The issue of voting rights in the United States has been contentious over the countrys history. ...

  • 15th Amendment (1870): "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
  • 19th Amendment (1920): "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex."
  • 24th Amendment (1964): "The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax."
  • 26th Amendment (1971): "The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age."

In addition, the 23rd Amendment (1961): provides that residents of the District of Columbia can vote for the President and Vice-President. Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... Amendment XIX in the National Archives The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution provides that neither any individual state or the federal government may deny a citizen the right to vote because of that citizens sex. ... Amendment XXIV in the National Archives Amendment XXIV (the Twenty-fourth Amendment) of the United States Constitution prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax. ... Amendment XXVI (the Twenty-sixth Amendment) of the United States Constitution was ratified on July 1, 1971. ... Amendment XXIII in the National Archives Amendment XXIII was the twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution which permits the District of Columbia to choose Electors for President and Vice President. ... ...


References

  1. ^ Williamson, Chilton (1960), American Suffrage. From property to democracy, Princeton University Press 
  2. ^ Constitution of Delaware, 1776, The Avalon Project at Yale Law School, <http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/states/de02.htm>. Retrieved on 7 December 2007 
  3. ^ State Constitution (Religious Sections) - Delaware, The Constitutional Principle: Separation of Church and State], <http://members.tripod.com/candst/cnst_de.htm>. Retrieved on 7 December 2007 
  4. ^ An Act for establishing the constitution of the State of South Carolina, March 19, 1778, The Avalon Project at Yale Law School, <http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/states/sc02.htm>. Retrieved on 5 December 2007 
  5. ^ Georgia (U.S. state) Constitution, The Avalon Project at Yale Law School, <http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/states/ga02.htm>. Retrieved on 7 December 2007 
  6. ^ An Act for the relief of Jews in Maryland, passed February 26, 1825, Archives of Maryland, Volume 3183, Page 1670, February 26, 1825, <http://www.msa.md.gov/megafile/msa/speccol/sc4800/sc4872/003183/html/m3183-1670.html>. Retrieved on 5 December 2007 
  7. ^ A History of the Vote in Canada, Chapter 3 Modernization, 1920–1981, Elections Canada, Last Modified: 2007-7-9, <http://www.elections.ca/content.asp?section=gen&document=chap3&dir=his&lang=e&textonly=false>. Retrieved on 6 December 2007 
  8. ^ Chronology - From the History Museum of the Romanian Jews; Hasefer Publishing House, The Romanian Jewish Community, <http://www.romanianjewish.org/en/mosteniri_ale_culturii_iudaice_03_13.html>. Retrieved on 6 December 2007 
  9. ^ Maldives. Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
  10. ^ Australian Electoral Commission, "Voting Overseas - Frequently Asked Questions", 20 November 2007
  11. ^ Delcour, M.C., Traité théorique et pratique du droit électoral appliqué aux élections communales, Louvain, Ickx & Geets, 1842, p.16
  12. ^ Lambert, Pierre-Yves (1999), La participation politique des allochtones en Belgique - Historique et situation bruxelloise, Academia-Bruylant (coll. Sybidi Papers), Louvain-la-Neuve, <http://suffrage-universel.be/be/00.htm>. Retrieved on 6 December 2007 
  13. ^ Patrick Weil, Nationalité française (débat sur la)", dans Jean-François Sirinelli (dir.), Dictionnaire historique de la vie politique française au XXe siècle, Paris, PUF, 1995, p. 719-721
  14. ^ Nadia Bernoussi, L’évolution du processus électoral au Maroc, 22/12/2005
  15. ^ art. 3, al. 3, Loi Organique portant code électoral guinéen
  16. ^ Federated States of Micronesia. Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
  17. ^ Nicaragua. Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
  18. ^ Peru. Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
  19. ^ Philippines. Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
  20. ^ Uruguay. Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
  21. ^ Plénitude de la République et extension du suffrage universel, Assemblée nationale (National Assembly of France), <http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/histoire/suffrage_universel/suffrage-extension.asp#militaires>. Retrieved on 5 December 2007 
  22. ^ Fonction publique et mandats électifs dans l'Union européenne, Études de législation comparée, Assemblée nationale (National Assembly of France), May 2006, <http://www.assemblee-nationale.tv/europe/comparaisons/2005-030_incompatiblite_mandats_fonctionnaires_ue.asp>. Retrieved on 5 December 2007 
  23. ^ Constitution of the State of Texas (1876), Tarlton Law Library, The University of Texas School of Law, <http://tarlton.law.utexas.edu/constitutions/text/IART06.html>. Retrieved on 8 December 2007 

Chronicles is a U.S. monthly magazine published by the paleoconservative Rockford Institute. ... The Sterling Law Building Sculptural ornamentation on the Sterling Law Building Yale Law School, or YLS, is the law school of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1778 (MDCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Sterling Law Building Sculptural ornamentation on the Sterling Law Building Yale Law School, or YLS, is the law school of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. ... The Sterling Law Building Sculptural ornamentation on the Sterling Law Building Yale Law School, or YLS, is the law school of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: ) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: ) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The University of Texas School of Law is an ABA-certified American law school located on The University of Texas at Austin campus. ...

Bibliography

  • Neill Atkinson, Adventures in Democracy: A History of the Vote in New Zealand (Dunedin: University of Otago Press, 2003).
  • Alexander Keyssar, The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States (New York: Basic Books, 2000). ISBN 0-465-02968-X
  • U.S. Commission on Civil Rights: Reports on Voting (2005) ISBN 978-0837731032
  • "Smallest State in the World," New York Times, June 19, 1896, p 6
  • A History of the Vote in Canada, Chief Electoral Officer of Canada, 2007.

is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ...

See also

In politics, an electorate is the group of people entitled to vote in an election. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... The Valiant Five or The Famous Five were five Canadian women who, in 1927 asked the Supreme Court of Canada to answer the question, Are women persons? The case came to be known as the Persons Case. ... The issue of voting rights in the United States has been contentious over the countrys history. ...

External links

  • National Youth Rights Association
  • Votes at 16 Campaign to Lower the Voting Age in the UK
  • Suffrage in Canada
  • Vote sizing is different from the suffrage (vote counting) reform movements, in that each voter’s political voice can be altered; whereas vote counting usually maintains that each voter only gets one (or equal amounts) vote.
  • Women´s suffrage in Germany - January 19, 1919 - first suffrage (active and passive) for women in Germany
is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred towards people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Adultism is a predisposition towards adults, which some see as biased against children, youth, and all young people who arent addressed or viewed as adults. ... Biphobia is the fear of, discrimination against, or hatred of bisexuals (although in practice it extends to pansexual people too). ... Classism (a term formed by analogy with racism) is any form of prejudice or oppression against people who are in, or who are perceived as being like those who are in, a lower social class (especially in the form of lower or higher socioeconomic status) within a class society. ... Elitism is the belief or attitude that the people who are considered to be the elite — a selected group of persons with outstanding personal abilities, wealth, specialised training or experience, or other distinctive attributes — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously, or... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Heterosexism is the presumption that everyone is straight or heterosexual (i. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church, a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Lesbophobia (sometimes Lesbiphobia) is a term which describes prejudice, discrimination, harassment or abuse, either specifically targeting a lesbian person, based on their lesbian identity, or, more generally, targetting lesbians as a class. ... Lookism is discrimination against or prejudice towards others based on their appearance. ... Look up Misandry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Eva Prima Pandora, by Jean Cousin (Louvre Museum), Eve, the equivalent of Pandora embodies Original Sin Misogyny (pronounced ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ... The fat acceptance movement, also referred to as the fat liberation movement, is a grass-roots effort to change societal attitudes about fat people. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights · Masculinism Children... Anti-Arabism or Arabophobia is a term that refers to prejudice or hostility against people of Arabic origin. ... Anti-Catalanism is the collective name given to various political attitudes in Spain. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Anti-Europeanism is opposition or hostility toward the governments, culture, or people of the countries of Europe. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... This box:      Anti-Malay racism refers to prejudice against ethnic Malays. ... Anti-Persian sentiments, or Anti-Persianism, are feelings or actions of discrimination, hostility, hatred, or prejudice against Persians. ... Anti-Quebec sentiment is opposition or hostility toward the government, culture, or people of Quebec, that is French-Canadians, English Quebecers and people from other origins. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... The Nazi inscription reads: The Russian must die so that we may live (1941) Anti-Russian sentiment covers a wide spectrum of dislikes or fears of Russia, Russians, or Russian culture, including Russophobia. ... Serbs rule ... The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... Anti-Catholicism is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Catholics or the Catholic Church. ... This box:      Anti-Christian discrimination, anti-Christian prejudice, Christianophobia or Christophobia is a negative categorical bias against Christians or the religion of Christianity. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... An anti-Mormon political cartoon from the late nineteenth century. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... Anti-Protestantism is an institutional, ideological or emotional bias against Protestantism and its followers. ... Opposition to cults and new religious movements (NRMs) comes from several sources with diverse concerns. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... Ephebiphobia (from Greek ephebos έφηβος = teenager, underage adolescent and fobos φόβος = fear, phobia), also known as hebephobia (from Greek hebe = youth), denotes both the irrational fear of teenagers or of adolescence, and the prejudice against teenagers or underage adolescents. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... Ethnocide is a concept related to genocide; unlike genocide, which has entered into international law, ethnocide remains primarily the province of ethnologists, who have not yet settled on a single cohesive meaning for the term. ... The persecution of gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered individuals is the practice of attacking a person, usually physically, because they are or are perceived to be lesbian, gay or transgender. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people, as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Image of traditional cultural paternalism: Father Junipero Serra in a modern portrayal at Mission San Juan Capistrano, California Paternalism refers usually to an attitude or a policy stemming from the hierarchic pattern of a family based on patriarchy, that is, there is a figurehead (the father, pater in Latin) that... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... Slave redirects here. ... January 31 1919: David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by batons of the Glasgow police Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ... GOP redirects here. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Aryan race is a notion mentioned in the Old Persian inscriptions and other Persian sources from c. ... Youths supporting Grey Wolves movement. ... A hate group is an organized group or movement that advocates hate, hostility or violence towards a group of people or some organization upon spurious grounds, despite a wider consensus that these people are not necessarily better or worse than any others. ... Speaking: US-born Rabbi Meir Kahane, leader of the Kach party in the Knesset. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... Not to be confused with suprematism. ... This article is about slavery. ... This box:      The autism rights movement (which has also been called autistic self-advocacy movement [1] and autistic liberation movement [2]) was started by adult autistic individuals in order to advocate and demand tolerance for what they refer to as neurodiversity. ... Childrens rights are the human rights of children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to the young,[1] including their right to association with both Biological parents, human identity as well as the basic needs for food, universal state-paid education, health care... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The disability rights movement aims to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities. ... For the concept of inclusion in organizational culture, see the article Inclusion (value and practice). ... Feminists redirects here. ... This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ... Masculism (also referred to as masculinism) consists of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies primarily based on the experiences of men. ... This box:      Mens Rights involves the promotion of male equality, rights, and freedoms in society. ... The Fathers rights movement or Parents rights movement is part of the mens movement and/or the parents movement that emerged in the 1970s as a loose social movement providing a network of interest groups, primarily in western countries. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... Graffiti in Madrid promoting equality, reads todos somos iguales, or we are all equal. Equalism is a name often given to forms of egalitarianism (advocacy of equality) concerned with issues of gender or race. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Sex segregation is the separation, or segregation, of people according to sex or gender. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... For other uses, see Emancipation (disambiguation). ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation... Equal opportunity is a descriptive term for an approach intended to provide a certain social environment in which people are not excluded from the activities of society, such as education, employment, or health care, on the basis of immutable traits. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... In the philosophy of justice, reparation is the idea that a just sentence ought to compensate the victim of a crime appropriately. ... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except... Employment equity refers to Canadian policies that require or encourage preferential treatment in employment practices for certain designated groups: women, people with disabilities, Aboriginal peoples, and visible minorities. ... Text of the act. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Miscegenation is an archaic term invented in 1863 to describe people of different human races (usually one European and one African) producing offspring; the use of this term is invariably restricted to those who believe that the category race is meaningful when applied to human beings. ... The Apartheid Legislation in South Africa was a series of different laws and acts which were to help the apartheid-government to enforce the segregation of different races and cement the power and the dominance by the Whites, of substantially European descent, over the other race groups. ... The several Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and Nonconformists. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... Ethnocracy is a form of government where all offices are held by a certain ethnic group purposefully and the other ethnic groups are subdued and sometimes killed by the state because of their race or cultural differences. ... This is a list of anti-discrimination acts (often called discrimination acts), which are laws designed to prevent discrimination. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial... Androcentrism (Greek ανδρο, andro-, man, male, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... Colorism is a form of discrimination that is an international phenomenon, where human beings are accorded differing social and/or economic status and treatment based on skin color. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Economic discrimination is a term that describes a form of discrimination based on economic factors. ... Christopher Columbus 1492 voyage is seen by many Europeans as the discovery of the Americas, despite the fact that humans first reached it some 12,000 years prior. ... Gynocentrism (Greek γυνο, gyno-, woman, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, often consciously adopted, of placing female human beings or the female point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... Linguicism is a form of prejudice, an -ism along the lines of racism, ageism or sexism. ... Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Supremacism. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Suffrage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1258 words)
Universal suffrage is a counterintuitive term that does not actually apply to all citizens or residents of a region, but the extension of voting privileges is given without distinction to race, sex, belief, or social status.
Women's suffrage was the goal of suffragists (commonly referred to as "Suffragettes"), who led a major Liberal and Democratic movement of the early 20th century, protesting vigorously for many years, demanding equality with men, and the right to vote.
Equal suffrage is a term sometimes confused with Universal suffrage, although its meaning is the removal of graded votes, where a voter could possess a number of votes in accordance with income, wealth or social status.
Women's suffrage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5313 words)
The suffrage movement was led by suffragists, defined as anyone, man or woman, who supports the extension of suffrage to women, and by suffragettes, the feminine form of the title given only to women who campaigned for the right of suffrage.
The early suffrage movement advocated equal suffrage (abolition of graded votes) rather than universal suffrage (abolition of all discrimination, for example, due to race), which was considered too radical at the time.
Political movement towards women's suffrage began during the war and in 1918, the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed an act granting the vote to: women over the age of 30 who were householders, the wives of householders, occupiers of property with an annual rent of £5, and graduates of British universities.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m