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Encyclopedia > Suffering

Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. Affective means having to do with emotion. ... Harm can be defined as causing physical or psychological/emotional damage or injury to a person, animal or other entity. ...

  • The intensity of suffering comes in all degrees, from the triflingly mild to the unspeakably insufferable. Factors of duration and frequency of occurrence are often considered along with that of intensity.
  • People's attitudes toward a suffering may vary hugely according to how much they deem it as light or severe, avoidable or unavoidable, useful or useless, of little or of great consequence, deserved or undeserved, chosen or unwanted, acceptable or unacceptable.
  • The words pain and suffering can be confusing and may require careful handling. (1) Sometimes they are synonyms and interchangeable. (2) Sometimes they are used in contradistinction to one another: e.g. "pain is inevitable, suffering is optional", or "pain is physical, suffering is mental". (3) Sometimes one word refers to a variety of that to which the other refers: e.g. "pain is physical suffering", or "suffering is severe physical or mental pain". (4) Sometimes yet, people use them in another fashion.

All sentient beings suffer during their lives, in diverse manners, and often dramatically. No field of human activity deals with the whole subject of suffering, but many are concerned with its nature and processes, its origin and causes, its meaning and significance, its related personal, social, and cultural behaviors, its remedies, management, and uses. Image File history File links PicassoGuernica. ... Image File history File links PicassoGuernica. ... Guernica is one of the most famous paintings by Pablo Picasso, depicting the consequences of the bombing of Guernica. ... Pain redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health) can be defined as a state of poor health. ... Paralysed redirects here. ... Dyspnea (Latin dyspnoea, emphysema, COPD, broken ribs, lung cancer, malignant hypertension, and so forth. ... An itch (Latin: pruritus) is a sensation felt on an area of skin that makes a person or animal want to scratch it. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Hate (disambiguation). ... Boring and Bored redirect here. ... Not to be confused with sapience. ...

Contents

Philosophical, ethical perspectives

Hedonism, as an ethical theory, claims that good and bad consist ultimately in pleasure and pain. Many hedonists, such as Epicurus, emphasize avoiding suffering over pursuing pleasure, because they find that the greatest happiness lies in a tranquil state (ataraxia) free from pain and from the worrisome pursuit or unwelcome consequences of pleasure. For stoicism, the greatest good lies in reason and virtue, but the soul best reaches it through a kind of indifference (apatheia) to pleasure and pain: as a consequence, this doctrine has become identified with self-control in front of even the worst sufferings. This article does not cite any sources. ... Epicure redirects here. ... Ataraxia (Ἀταραξία) is a Greek term used by Pyrrho and Epicurus for freedom from worry or any other preoccupation, and for Epicurus to achieve Hêdonê, the great pleasure. ... Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy, founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early third century BC. It proved to be a popular and durable philosophy, with a following throughout Greece and the Roman Empire from its founding until all the schools of philosophy were ordered closed... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Jeremy Bentham developed hedonistic utilitarianism, a popular doctrine in ethics, politics, and economics. Bentham argued that the right act or policy was that which would cause "the greatest happiness of the greatest number". He suggested a procedure called hedonic or felicific calculus, for determining how much pleasure and pain would result from any action. John Stuart Mill improved and promoted the doctrine of hedonistic utilitarianism. Karl Popper, in The Open Society and Its Enemies, proposed a negative utilitarianism, which prioritizes the reduction of suffering over the enhancement of happiness when speaking of utility: "I believe that there is, from the ethical point of view, no symmetry between suffering and happiness, or between pain and pleasure. (…) human suffering makes a direct moral appeal for help, while there is no similar call to increase the happiness of a man who is doing well anyway." David Pearce's utilitarianism asks straightforwardly for the abolition of suffering (see here under "Biological, neurological, psychological aspects"). Many utilitarians, since Bentham, hold that the moral status of a being comes from its ability to feel pleasure and pain: moral agents should therefore consider not only the interests of human beings but also those of animals. Richard Ryder developed such a view in his concepts of 'speciesism' and 'painism'. Peter Singer, with his book Animal Liberation and other writings, represents the leading edge of this kind of utilitarianism. Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (26 February [O.S. 15 February 15] 1748) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... The felicific calculus was an algorithm formulated by Jeremy Bentham for calculating the degree or amount of happiness that a specific action is likely to cause, and hence its degree of moral rightness. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... The Open Society and Its Enemies, Volume Two The Open Society and Its Enemies is an influential two-volume work by Karl Popper written during World War II. Failing to find a publisher in the United States, it was first printed in London, in 1945. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... There have been at least three notable people named Richard Ryder: A psychologist; see Richard D. Ryder A late 20th century British politician and current member of the House of Lords; see Richard Andrew Ryder A nineteenth century British politician; see Richard Ryder (19th century politician) This is a disambiguation... For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ... Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals is a book by Australian philosopher Peter Singer. ...


Another doctrine related to the relief of suffering is humanitarianism (see also humanitarian aid and humane society). "Where humanitarian efforts seek a positive addition to the happiness of sentient beings, it is to make the unhappy happy rather than the happy happier. (...) [Humanitarianism] is an ingredient in many social attitudes; in the modern world it has so penetrated into diverse movements (...) that it can hardly be said to exist in itself."[4] There are a number of meanings for humanitarianism: humanitarianism, humanism, the doctrine that peoples duty is to promote human welfare. ... Humanitarian aid arriving by plane at Rinas Airport in Albania in the summer of 1999. ... A humane society is a group that aims to stop animal and human suffering due to cruelty or other reasons. ...


Pessimism, as Arthur Schopenhauer famously describes, holds this world to be the worst possible, plagued with worsening and unstoppable suffering. Schopenhauer recommends to take refuge in things like art, philosophy, loss of the will to live, and tolerance toward 'fellow-sufferers'. Friedrich Nietzsche, first influenced by Schopenhauer, developed afterward quite another attitude, exalting the will to power, despising weak compassion or pity, and recommending to embrace wilfully the 'eternal return' of the greatest sufferings. Half empty or half full? Pessimists to respond with half empty Pessimism, from the Latin pessimus (worst), is the decision to evaluate something as a negative when it is uncommon to do so. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philologist and philosopher. ...


Philosophy of pain focuses on pain as a sensation, but much of its content concerns also suffering in general. A much-talked-about issue in philosophy is the role of pain. ... Pain redirects here. ...


Religious perspectives

Suffering plays an important role in most religions, regarding matters like consolation or relief, moral conduct (do no harm, help the afflicted), spiritual advancement (penance, ascetism), and ultimate destiny (salvation, damnation, hell). For other uses, see Penance (disambiguation). ... An ascetic is one who practices a renunciation of worldly pursuits to achieve spiritual attainment. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... “Dammit” redirects here. ... This article is about the theological or philosophical afterlife. ...


Theodicy deals with the problem of evil, which is the difficulty of reconciling an omnipotent and benevolent god with evil. People often consider that the worst form of evil consists in extreme suffering, especially in innocent children or in beings created ultimately for being tormented without end (see problem of hell). Theodicy (IPA: ) (adjectival form theodicean) is a specific branch of theology and philosophy that attempts to reconcile the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the belief in an omniscient, omnipotent, and benevolent God, i. ... In the philosophy of religion and theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of a god. ... The problem of Hell is a variant of the problem of evil, applying specifically to religions which hold both that: An omnipotent (all-powerful), omniscient (all-knowing), and omnibenevolent (all-loving) God exists. ...


The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism are about dukkha, a term usually translated as suffering. The Four Noble Truths state (1) the nature of suffering, (2) its cause, (3) its cessation, and (4) the way leading to its cessation (which is the Noble Eightfold Path). Buddhism considers liberation from suffering as basic for leading a holy life and attaining nirvana. The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... Dukkha (Pāli दुक्ख ; according to grammatical tradition from Sanskrit uneasy, but according to Monier-Williams more likely a Prakritized form of unsteady, disquieted) is a central concept in Buddhism, the word roughly corresponding to a number of terms in English including sorrow, suffering, affliction, pain, anxiety, dissatisfaction, discomfort, anguish, stress... The Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: Ariyo aá¹­á¹­haá¹…giko maggo; Sanskrit: Ä€rya ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ; Chinese: 八正道, Bāzhèngdào; Japanese: 八正道, Hasshōdō, Thai: อริยมรรคแปด, Ariya Mugg Paad, Mongolian qutuÉ£tan-u naiman gesigün-ü mör) is, in... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ...


Hinduism holds that suffering follows naturally from personal negative behaviors in one’s current life or in a past life (see karma). One must accept suffering as a just consequence and as an opportunity for spiritual progress. Thus the soul or true self, which is eternally free of any suffering, may come to manifest itself in the person, who then achieves liberation (moksha). Abstinence from causing pain or harm to other beings (ahimsa) is a central tenet of Hinduism. For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ...


The Bible's Book of Job reflects on the nature and meaning of suffering. The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ...


Pope John Paul II wrote "On the Christian Meaning of Human Suffering".[5] This meaning revolves around the notion of redemptive suffering. Redemptive suffering is the Roman Catholic belief that human suffering, when accepted and offered up in union with the Passion of Jesus, can remit the just punishment for ones sins or for the sins of another. ...


Arts and literature perspectives

A painting of a man in distress.

Artistic and literary works often engage with suffering, sometimes at great cost to their creators or performers. The Literature, Arts, and Medicine Databaseoffers a list of such works under the categories art, film, literature, and theater.


Social sciences approaches

Social suffering, according to Arthur Kleinman and others, describes "collective and individual human suffering associated with life conditions shaped by powerful social forces."[6] Such suffering is an increasing concern in medical anthropology, ethnography, mass media analysis, and Holocaust studies, says Iain Wilkinson,[7] who is developing a sociology of suffering. Arthur Kleinman (b. ...


The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a monumental work by the Union of International Associations. It has three core parts: World Problems (30,000 items), Human Potential: Transformation and Values (7,000 items), Strategies - Actions – Solutions (35,000 items). As it says in its Notes and Commentaries: “the most fundamental entry common to the core parts is that of pain (or suffering)” and “common to the core parts is the learning dimension of new understanding or insight in response to suffering”. Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential published since 1972 by the Union of International Associations (UIA). ... The Union of International Associations is a non-profit organization which gives out information on international organizations. ...


Ralph G.H. Siu, an American author, urged in 1988 the "creation of a new and vigorous academic discipline, called panetics, to be devoted to the study of the infliction of suffering."[8] The International Society for Panetics was founded in 1991 to study and develop ways to reduce the infliction of human suffering by individuals acting through professions, corporations, governments, and other social groups.


In economics, the following notions relate not only to the matters suggested by their positive appellations, but to the matter of suffering as well: Well-being or Quality of life, Welfare economics, Happiness economics, Gross National Happiness, Genuine Progress Indicator. This article is about the economic and philosophical concept. ... Welfare economics is a branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to simultaneously determine the allocational efficiency of a macroeconomy and the income distribution associated with it. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Gross National Happiness (GNH) is an attempt to define a standard of living in more holistic and psychological terms than Gross National Product. ... The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) is a concept in green economics and welfare economics that has been suggested as a replacement metric for gross domestic product (GDP) as a metric of economic growth. ...


"Pain and suffering" is a legal term that refers to the mental anguish or physical pain endured by a plaintiff as a result of injury for which the plaintiff seeks redress. Pain and suffering is the legal term for the physical and emotional stress caused from an injury. ...


Biological, neurological, psychological aspects

Suffering and pleasure, the former being called negative and the latter positive, are the two affects, or hedonic tones, or valences that psychologists often identify as basic in our emotional life.[9] The evolutionary role of physical and mental suffering, through natural selection, is primordial: it warns of threats, it motivates coping (fight or flight, escapism), and as a punishment it reinforces certain behaviors. Despite its initial disrupting nature, suffering contributes to organize meaning in an individual's world and psyche. In turn, meaning determines how individuals or societies experience and deal with suffering. Thus,[citation needed] in the end, persons or cultures differ in their affectivity and behavior, for instance from the most oversensitive to the most insensitive. Valence, as used in psychology, especially in discussing emotions, means the intrinsic attractiveness (positive valence) or aversiveness (negative valence) of an event, object, or situation[1] However, the term is also used to characterize and categorize specific emotions. ... A warning system is any system of biological or technical nature deployed by an individuum or group to inform of imminent danger. ... In psychology, coping is the process of managing taxing circumstances, expending effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and seeking to master, minimize, reduce or tolerate stress or conflict. ... This article or section should include material from Fight-or-flight The flight or fight response, also called the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in the 1920s as a theory that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. ... Escapism is mental diversion by means of entertainment or recreation, as an escape from the perceived unpleasant aspects of daily stress. ... In psychology, punishment has a precise definition based on the modification of a human or animals behavior. ...

Neuroimaging sheds light on the seat of suffering
Neuroimaging sheds light on the seat of suffering

Many brain structures and physiological processes take part in the occurrence of suffering: (list to come). Various hypotheses try to account for unpleasant experiences. One of these, the pain overlap theory[10] takes note, thanks to neuroimaging studies, that the cingulate cortex fires up when the brain feels unpleasantness from experimentally induced social distress or physical pain as well. It therefore proposes that physical pain and social pain (i.e., two radically differing kinds of suffering) share a common phenomenological and neural basis. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cortex. ...


According to David Pearce’s online manifesto The Hedonistic Imperative, suffering is the avoidable result of Darwinian genetic design. BLTC Research and the Abolitionist Society,[11] following Pearce's abolitionism, promote replacing the pain/pleasure axis with robot-like response to noxious stimuli[12] or with gradients of bliss,[13] through genetic engineering and other technical scientific advances. David Pearce is a British philosopher who promotes the abolition of suffering in all sentient life. ... Abolitionism is a bioethical school and movement which proposes the use of biotechnology to maximize happiness and minimize suffering while working towards the abolition of involuntary suffering. ...


Hedonistic psychology,[14] affective science, and affective neuroscience are some of the emerging scientific fields that could in the coming years focus their attention on the phenomenon of suffering. Affective science is the scientific study of emotion. ... Affective neuroscience is the study of the neural mechanisms of emotion. ...


Health care approaches

Disease and injury cause suffering in humans and animals. Health care addresses such suffering in many ways, in medicine, clinical psychology, psychotherapy, alternative medicine, hygiene, public health, and through various health care providers. A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Health care approaches to suffering remain highly problematic, according to Eric Cassell, the most cited author on that subject: "The obligation of physicians to relieve human suffering stretches back to antiquity. Despite this fact, little attention is explicitly given to the problem of suffering in medical education, research or practice." Cassell defines suffering as "the state of severe distress associated with events that threaten the intactness of the person."[15]


Some medical fields nevertheless, like palliative care, pain management, oncology or psychiatry, give more importance to suffering 'as such'. In palliative care, for instance, pioneer Cicely Saunders created the concept of 'total pain' ('total suffering' say now the textbooks[16]), which encompasses the whole set of physical and mental distress, discomfort, symptoms, problems, or needs that a patient painfully experiences. Palliative care (from Latin palliare, to cloak) is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of disease symptoms, rather than providing a cure. ... Pain management (also called pain medicine) is the discipline concerned with the relief of pain. ... See cancer for the biology of the disease, as well as a list of malignant diseases. ... An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ... Dame Cicely Mary Saunders, OM, DBE (June 22, 1918 in Barnet, Hertfordshire, England – July 14, 2005 at St Christophers Hospice, South London, England) was a prominent English nurse, physician and writer, involved with many international universities. ...


Relief and prevention in collective life

Since suffering is such a universal motivating experience, people, when asked, can relate easily their activities to its relief and prevention: farmers, for instance, may claim that they prevent famine, artists that they take our minds off our worries, and teachers that they hand down tools for coping with life hazards. However, in aspects of collective life such as those below, suffering by itself comes often as a forefront concern. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ...

For other uses, see Security (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... The definition of international security has been debated extensively by political scientists and others, and has varied over time. ... Human security refers to an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Humanitarian aid arriving by plane at Rinas Airport in Albania in the summer of 1999. ... Emergency operations or Emergency preparedness is a set of doctrines to prepare civil society to cope with natural or man-made disasters. ... Philanthropy is the act of donating money, goods, time, or effort to support a charitable cause, usually over an extended period of time and in regard to a defined objective. ... Foreign aid, international aid or development assistance is when one country helps another country through some form of donation. ... A social worker is a person employed in the administration of charity, social service, welfare, and poverty agencies, advocacy, or religious outreach programs. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer. ...

Uses of suffering

"But Nature, as we now know, regards ultimately only fitness and not our happiness (Darwin, 1871, p. 298), and does not scruple to use hate, fear, punishment and even war alongside affection in ordering social groups and selecting among them, just as she uses pain as well as pleasure to get us to feed, water and protect our bodies and also in forging our social bonds"[17] writes philosopher Leonard D. Katz.


People make use of suffering for specific social or personal purposes in many areas of human life:

  • Politics: there is infliction of suffering in war, torture, and terrorism; people may use nonphysical suffering against competitors in nonviolent power struggles; also, people point to relieving, preventing, or avenging a suffering when they want to discuss or justify a course of action.
  • Crime: criminals may use suffering for coercion, revenge, or pleasure.
  • Law: penal law uses suffering for punishment; compensation is asked for pain and suffering; a victim's suffering can be used as an argument against the accused; an accused's or defensor's suffering may be an argument in their favor.
  • News media: suffering is often their raw material.
  • Religion: see section above.
  • Business: abusive demands are made on people or animals for profit.
  • Interpersonal relationships: there are various kinds of uses and abuses of suffering in family, school, or workplace.
  • Personal conduct: in various ways, people find meaning in their lives by striving against suffering;[18] suffering may lead to bitterness, depression, or spitefulness, but also to character-building, spiritual growth, or moral achievement;[19] realizing the extent or gravity of suffering in the world may motivate to relieve it and give an inspiring direction to one's life; alternatively, people make self-detrimental use of suffering; compulsive reenactment of painful feelings occurs in order to protect oneself from seeing their origin in unmentionable past experiences; people may addictively indulge in a disagreeable emotion like fear, anger, or jealousy, in order to enjoy the feeling of release when the emotion ceases.
  • Sex: see for instance sadism and masochism.
  • Sports: a lot of suffering occurs for the sake of performance, see for instance no pain no gain.
  • Arts and literature: see section above.
  • Entertainment: see for instance violent video games, blood sport.
  • Rites of passage make use of suffering.
  • For the sick, or victims, or malingerers, suffering may facilitate primary, secondary, tertiary gain.

For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Terrorist redirects here. ... In the most general sense, penal is the body of laws that are enforced by the State in its own name and impose penalties for their violation, as opposed to civil law that seeks to redress private wrongs. ... Look up Punishment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pain and suffering is the legal term for the physical and emotional stress caused from an injury. ... Abuser redirects here. ... Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... No pain, no gain (or No gain without pain) is an exercise motto that came into prominence in the bodybuilding community. ... For other uses, see Blood sport (disambiguation). ... A rite of passage is a ritual that marks a change in a persons social or sexual status. ... Malingering is a medical and psychological term that refers to an individual fabricating or exaggerating the symptoms of mental or physical disorders for a variety of motives, including getting financial compensation (often tied to fraud), avoiding work, obtaining drugs, getting lighter criminal sentences, or simply to attract attention or sympathy. ... In psychology, primary gain, or a reduction in anxiety, is the primary motivation for seeking help seen in those suffering from Somatization disorders. ...

See also

*** Topics related to suffering
Pain-related topics Pain and nociception · Pain (philosophy) · Weltschmerz · Agony · Psychological pain · Psychalgia
Evil-related topics Evil · Problem of evil · Good and evil: welfarist theories
Sympathy-related topics Sympathy · Pity · Mercy · Compassion · Empathy
Cruelty-related topics Cruelty · Schadenfreude · Sadistic personality disorder · Violence · Physical abuse · Psychological abuse · Emotional abuse · Self-harm
Death-related topics Euthanasia · Animal euthanasia · Suicide
Other related topics Dukkha · Theory of relative suffering · Amor fati · Dystopia · Victimology · Penology · Pleasure · Happiness

Pain redirects here. ... A much-talked-about issue in philosophy is the role of pain. ... Look up Weltschmerz in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about suffering. ... Psychological pain refers to pain caused by psychological stress and by emotional trauma, as distinct from that caused by physiological injuries and syndromes. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikiquote. ... For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ... In the philosophy of religion and theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of a god. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... ... Not to be confused with Empathy, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... For other uses, see Mercy (disambiguation). ... Compassion is best described as an understanding of the emotional state of another; not to be confused with empathy. ... Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... Look up cruelty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Schadenfreude in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sadistic personality disorder was never formally admitted into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM); nevertheless, some researchers and theorists continue to use its criteria. ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... Physical abuse is abuse involving contact intended to cause pain, injury, or other physical suffering or harm. ... Psychological abuse refers to the humiliation or intimidation of another person, but is also used to refer to the long-term effects of emotional shock. ... Emotional abuse refers to a long-term situation in which one person uses his or her power or influence to adversely affect the mental well-being of another. ... Self-harm (SH) is deliberate injury to ones own body. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... Put down redirects here. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Dukkha (Pāli दुक्ख ; according to grammatical tradition from Sanskrit uneasy, but according to Monier-Williams more likely a Prakritized form of unsteady, disquieted) is a central concept in Buddhism, the word roughly corresponding to a number of terms in English including sorrow, suffering, affliction, pain, anxiety, dissatisfaction, discomfort, anguish, stress... Amor fati is a Latin phrase, which loosely translates to Love of fate. It is used to describe the attitude that everything which occurs in ones life, including suffering and loss, is good. ... This article is about the philosophical concept and literary form. ... Victimology is the study of why certain people are victims of crime and how lifestyles affect the chances that a certain person will fall victim to a crime. ... Penology (from the Latin poena, punishment) comprises penitentiary science: that concerned with the processes devised and adopted for the punishment, repression, and prevention of crime, and the treatment of prisoners. ... Look up Pleasure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ...

Selected bibliography

  • Joseph A. Amato. Victims and Values: A History and a Theory of Suffering. New York: Praeger, 1990. ISBN 0-275-93690-2
  • Cynthia Halpern. Suffering, Politics, Power : A Genealogy in Modern Political Theory. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002. ISBN 0-7914-5103-8
  • Jamie Mayerfeld. Suffering and Moral Responsibility. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-515495-9
  • David B. Morris. The Culture of Pain. Berkley: University of California, 2002. ISBN 0-520-08276-1
  • Elaine Scarry. The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. ISBN 0-19-504996-9

Notes and references

  1. ^ See the entry 'Pleasure' in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, which begins with this paragraph: "Pleasure, in the inclusive usages most important in moral psychology, ethical theory, and the studies of mind, includes all joy and gladness — all our feeling good, or happy. It is often contrasted with similarly inclusive pain, or suffering, which is similarly thought of as including all our feeling bad."
  2. ^ More examples of physical suffering: pain, nausea, shortness of breath, weakness, dryness, various feelings of sickness, certain kinds of itching, tickling, tingling, and numbness[1][2].
  3. ^ More examples of mental suffering: grief, depression or sadness, disgust, irritation, anger, rage, hate, contempt, jealousy, envy, craving or yearning, frustration, heartbreak, anguish, anxiety, angst, fear, panic, horror, sense of injustice or righteous indignation, shame, guilt, remorse, regret, resentment, repentance, embarrassment, humiliation, boredom, apathy, confusion, disappointment, despair or hopelessness, doubt, emptiness, homesickness, loneliness, rejection, pity, and self-pity...
  4. ^ Crane Brinton, article Humanitarianism, Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, 1937
  5. ^ On the Christian Meaning of Human Suffering.
  6. ^ Social suffering. Daedalus. Proc Amer Acad Arts Sciences 1996;125(1).
  7. ^ Iain Wilkinson, Suffering - A Sociological Introduction, Polity Press, 2005
  8. ^ Ralph G.H. Siu, Panetics − The Study of the Infliction of Suffering, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Vol. 28 No. 3, Summer 1988. See also Ralph G. H. Siu, Panetics Trilogy, Washington: The International Society for Panetics, 1994, ISBN 1-884437-00-1.
  9. ^ Giovanna Colombetti, Appraising Valence, Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (8-10), pp. 106-129 (2005).
  10. ^ Pain Overlap Theory
  11. ^ Abolitionist Society
  12. ^ See Vanity Fair interview with Pearce
  13. ^ See Life in the Far North - An information-theoretic perspective on Heaven
  14. ^ Kahneman, D., E. Diener and N. Schwartz (eds.) Well-being: The Foundations of Hedonistic Psychology, Russell Sage Foundation, 1999
  15. ^ Eric J Cassell, The Nature of Suffering and the Goals of Medicine, 2004.
  16. ^ See Existential pain — an entity, a provocation, or a challenge? in Journal of Pain Symptom and Management, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 241-250 (March 2004)
  17. ^ Editor’s Introduction, Evolutionary Origins of Morality: Cross Disciplinary Perspectives, Leonard D. Katz (editor), Imprint Academic, 2000 (ISBN 090784507X).
  18. ^ See Frankl's Man's Search for Meaning
  19. ^ See for instance Francis Fukuyama Our Posthuman Future. Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002 (ISBN 0-374-23643-7)
It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... In everyday language depression refers to any downturn in mood, which may be relatively transitory and perhaps due to something trivial. ... A woman showing disgust. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... This article is about the emotion. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Hate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Contempt (disambiguation). ... Jealous redirects here. ... For other uses, see Envy (disambiguation). ... Taṇhā (Pāli: तण्हा) or Tṛṣṇā (Sanskrit: तृष्णा) means thirst, desire, craving, wanting, longing, yearning. Synonyms: 愛 Cn: ài; Jp: ai; Vi: ái Tibetan: The most basic of these meanings (the literal meaning) is thirst; however, in Buddhism it has a technical meaning that is much broader. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Broken Heart A condition that may result in illness. ... Look up anguish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... For other uses, see Angst (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... Panic is the primal urge to run and hide in the face of imminent danger. ... Horror is the feeling of revulsion that usually occurs after something frightening is seen, heard, or otherwise experienced. ... Righteous indignation is an emotion one feels when one gets angry over perceived mistreatment, insult, or malice. ... For other uses, see Shame (disambiguation). ... “Guilty” redirects here. ... People feel remorse when reflecting on their actions that they believe are wrong. ... Regret is an intelligent (and/or emotional) dislike for personal past acts and behaviors. ... Resentment is an emotion, from ressentiment, a French word, meaning malice, anger, being rancorous. The English word has the sense of feeling bitter. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Embarrassment is an unpleasant emotional state experienced upon having a socially or professionally unacceptable act or condition witnessed by or revealed to others. ... Etymology: Late Latin humiliatus, past participle of humiliare, from Latin humilis low. ... Boring and Bored redirect here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Confusion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Confusion can have the following meanings: Unclarity or puzzlement, e. ... Disappointment is the emotion felt when a strongly held expectation of something desired is not met. ... Despair in common usage is the condition of having abandoned hope. ... This article is about the mental state. ... For other uses, see Emptiness (disambiguation). ... Homesickness is generally described as a feeling of longing for ones familiar surroundings. ... Loneliness is an emotional state in which a person experiences a powerful feeling of emptiness and isolation. ... Emotional rejection is the feeling a person experiences when disappointed about not achieving something desired or expected. ... Not to be confused with Empathy, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Viktor Frankls 1946 book Mans Search for Meaning chronicles his experiences as a concentration camp inmate and describes his psychotherapeutic method of finding a reason to live. ... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the emotion. ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... Sadness is a mood that displays feeling of disadvantage and loss. ... For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ... A woman showing disgust. ... Alertness is the the process of paying close and continuous attention. ... For other uses, see Acceptance (disambiguation). ... For the change in vowel and consonant quality in Celtic languages, see Affection (linguistics). ... Look up ambivalence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Angst (disambiguation). ... Annoyance is an unpleasant mental state that is characterized by such effects as irritation and distraction from ones conscious thinking. ... Anticipation is an emotion involving pleasure (and sometimes anxiety) in considering some expected or longed-for good event, or irritation at having to wait. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Resentment is an emotion, from ressentiment, a French word, meaning malice, anger, being rancorous. The English word has the sense of feeling bitter. ... Boring and Bored redirect here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Compassion is best described as an understanding of the emotional state of another; not to be confused with empathy. ... For other uses, see Contempt (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Severe confusion of a degree considered pathological usually refers to loss of orientation (ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time, location, and personal identity), and often memory (ability to correctly recall previous events or learn new materal). ... In everyday language depression refers to any downturn in mood, which may be relatively transitory and perhaps due to something trivial. ... Disappointment is the emotion felt when a strongly held expectation of something desired is not met. ... This article is about the mental state. ... This article is about informal use of the term. ... Embarrassment is an unpleasant emotional state experienced upon having a socially or professionally unacceptable act or condition witnessed by or revealed to others. ... For other uses, see Emptiness (disambiguation). ... Enthusiasm (Greek: enthousiasmos) originally meant inspiration or possession by a divine afflatus or by the presence of a God. ... For other uses, see Envy (disambiguation). ... This article is about a feeling, for other meanings see epiphany (disambiguation). ... Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... Fanaticism is an emotion of being filled with excessive, uncritical zeal, particularly for an extreme religious or political cause, or with an obsessive enthusiasm for a pastime or hobby. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gratification is the positive emotional response (happiness) to a fulfillment of desire. ... For other uses, see Gratitude (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... “Guilty” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hate (disambiguation). ... Homesickness is generally described as a feeling of longing for ones familiar surroundings. ... For other uses, see Hope (disambiguation). ... Horror is the feeling of revulsion that usually occurs after something frightening is seen, heard, or otherwise experienced. ... Etymology: Late Latin humiliatus, past participle of humiliare, from Latin humilis low. ... Inspiration in artistic composition refers to an irrational and unconscious burst of creativity. ... Jealous redirects here. ... Look up Limerence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Loneliness is an emotional state in which a person experiences a powerful feeling of emptiness and isolation. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification. ... Melancholy redirects here. ... Panic is the primal urge to run and hide in the face of imminent danger. ... Patience, engraving by Hans Sebald Beham, 1540 Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: patience Patience is the ability to endure waiting, delay, or provocation without becoming annoyed or upset, or to persevere calmly when faced with difficulties. ... Not to be confused with Empathy, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... Pride is the name of an emotion which refers to a strong sense of self-respect, a refusal to be humiliated as well as joy in the accomplishments of oneself or a person, group, nation or object that one identifies with. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Regret is an intelligent (and/or emotional) dislike for personal past acts and behaviors. ... People feel remorse when reflecting on their actions that they believe are wrong. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Righteous indignation is an emotion one feels when one gets angry over perceived mistreatment, insult, or malice. ... Look up Schadenfreude in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Shame (disambiguation). ... In humans, shyness is the feeling of apprehension or lack of confidence experienced in regard to social association with others, e. ... ... The human expression of surprise Look up surprise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
suffer. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. (263 words)
To permit; allow: “They were not suffered to aspire to so exalted a position as that of streetcar conductor” (Edmund S. Morgan).
In general usage the preferred preposition after suffer is from, rather than with, in constructions such as He suffered from hypertension.
In medical usage suffer with is sometimes employed with reference to the pain or discomfort caused by a condition, while suffer from is used more broadly in reference to a condition, such as anemia, that is detrimental but not necessarily painful.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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