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Encyclopedia > Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
The Sinai War
(Arab-Israeli conflict)

Israeli troops preparing for combat in the Sinai peninsula.
Date October 1956 – March 1957
Location Egypt, (Sinai and Suez Canal zone)
Result United Nations cease-fire.
UNEF occupation of Sinai.

Military: Victory for Israel, Britain and France.
Political: Victory for Egypt.
Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... UN redirects here. ... The first United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was established by United Nations General Assembly to secure an end to the 1956 Suez Crisis with resolution 1001 (ES-I) on November 7, 1956, and in large measure as a result of efforts by secretary general Dag Hammarskjöld and a proposal...

Belligerents
Israel
United Kingdom
France
Egypt
Commanders
Moshe Dayan
Charles Keightley
Pierre Barjot
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Abdel Hakim Amer
Strength
175,000 Israeli
45,000 British
34,000 French
70,000
Casualties and losses
197 Israeli KIA
56 British KIA
91 British WIA
10 French KIA
43 French WIA
1650 KIA[1]
4,900 WIA
6,185 POW

The Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression,[1] (Arabic: أزمة السويس - العدوان الثلاثي‎; French: Crise du canal de Suez; Hebrew: מבצע קדש‎) (Kadesh Campaign) was a military attack on Egypt by Britain, France, and Israel beginning on 29 October 1956.[2][3] The attack followed Egypt's decision of 26 July 1956 to nationalize the Suez Canal after the withdrawal of an offer by Britain and the United States to fund the building of the Aswan Dam.[4] Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Moshe Dayan (‎, born 20 May 1915, died 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician. ... Nasser redirects here. ... Abdel Hakim Amer (Arabic: عبد الحكيم عامر) ‎ (December 11, 1919– September 14, 1967) was an Egyptian military general and political leader. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... WIA is a three letter abbreviation meaning Wounded in action. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... This article describes violent events in the Old City of Jerusalem from April 4-7, 1920. ... On May 1, 1921, a scuffle began in Tel Aviv-Jaffa between rival groups of Jewish Bolsheviks, carrying Yiddish banners demanding Soviet Palestine, and Socialists parading on May Day. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... Combatants Palestine Jews Palestine Arabs United Kingdom The 1947-1948 Civil War in the Mandate Palestine lasted from 30 November 1947 to 14 May 1948. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... For other uses, see War of Attrition (disambiguation). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army PLO Strength 25,000 10,000 Casualties 20 9,800 The 1978 South Lebanon conflict (code-named Operation Litani by Israel) was the name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani River. ... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450... Belligerents Hezbollah Israel South Lebanon Army Casualties and losses 1282 250 IDF, 1000 SLA During the 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict Hezbollah waged a guerrilla campaign against Israeli forces occupying Southern Lebanon. ... Combatants  Israel Unified National Leadership ot the Uprising Commanders Yitzhak Shamir Yasser Arafat Casualties 160 (5 children) 1,162 (241 children) The First Intifada (1987 - 1993) (also intifada and war of the stones) was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule[1] that began in Jabalia refugee camp and quickly... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Map showing reservoir The hydroelectric power station of Aswan Dam Aswan (Assuan) is a city on the first cataract of the Nile in Egypt. ...

Contents

Background

The Suez Canal was opened in 1869, having been financed by the French and Egyptian governments. Technically, the territory of the canal proper was sovereign Egyptian territory, and the operating company, the Universal Company of the Suez Maritime Canal (Suez Canal Company) was an Egyptian-chartered company, originally part of the Ottoman Turkish Empire. For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... The Universal Suez Ship Canal Company (French: Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez) was the French corporation which constructed the Suez Canal between 1859 and 1869. ...


The canal was strategically important to the British, and hence to the other European powers. To the British, the canal was the ocean link with its colonies in India, the Far East, Australia, and New Zealand. Because the canal was strategically important, the area as a whole became strategically important. Thus, in 1875, the British government of Benjamin Disraeli bought the Egyptian share of the operating company, obtaining partial control of the canal's operations and sharing it with mostly-French private investors. In 1882, during the invasion and occupation of Egypt, the United Kingdom took de facto control of the canal proper, finance and operation. This article is about the Asian regions. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


The Convention of Constantinople (1888) declared the canal a neutral zone under British protection.[5] In ratifying it, the Ottoman Empire agreed to permit international shipping to freely pass through the canal, in time of war and peace.[6] See treaty text at wikisource:Constantinople Convention of the Suez Canal The Convention of Constantinople was a treaty signed by Great Britain, Germany, Austro-Hungary, Spain, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Russia, and Turkey on March 2, 1888. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Damaged package The Panama canal. ...


The Suez Canal proved its strategic importance during the Russo-Japanese War when the Japanese entered an agreement with the British. The Japanese launched a surprise attack on the Russian Pacific Fleet, based at Port Arthur. When the Russians sent reinforcements from the Baltic, the British denied them access to the canal. This forced the Russian fleet to steam around the entire continent of Africa, giving the Japanese forces time to regroup and solidify their position in the area.-1... Location within China Lüshun city or Lüshunkou or (literally) Lüshun Port (Simplified Chinese: 旅顺口; Traditional Chinese: 旅順口; Pinyin: , formerly in historic references both Port Arthur and Ryojun, is a town in the southernmost administrative district of Dalian of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The importance of the canal as a strategic center was also apparent during both World Wars; in the First World War, the British and French closed the canal to non-Allied shipping, in the Second World War, it was tenaciously defended in the North African Campaign. A world war is a war affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ...


Petroleum business historian Daniel Yergin wrote: Daniel H. Yergin (born February 6, 1947) is an American author and economic researcher. ...

[I]n 1948, the canal abruptly lost its traditional rationale . . . . [C]ontrol over the canal could no longer be preserved on grounds that it was critical to the defense either of India or of an empire that was being liquidated. And yet, at exactly the same moment, the canal was gaining a new role — as the highway not of empire, but of oil . . . . By 1955, petroleum accounted for half of the canal's traffic, and, in turn, two thirds of Europe's oil passed through it.[7] Petro redirects here. ...

In 1948, the British Mandate of Palestine ended, the British forces withdrew from Palestine, and Israel declared independence on the territory partitioned by UNSCOP (United Nations Special Committee on Palestine) for the Jewish state. The Arab League declared its refusal to recognize the UN resolution and the two-state solution, favoring a one-state solution run by an Arab majority, and including both the Jewish and Arab territories. Soon after, the newly declared State of Israel was invaded by a coalition of Arab nations, including Egypt, resulting in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War from which Israel emerged victorious. Failed peace talks in the aftermath of the war, combined with escalating border violence between Israel and its neighbours in the following years, helped to cement Arab-Israeli enmity. Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... UNSCOP stands for the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially...


See History of Israel, History of Egypt. This article is about the modern State of Israel, not History of Zionism. ... Hathor The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history, as a unified state, of any country in the world. ...


Events leading to and precipitating the Crisis

Early 1950s

At the outset of the 1950s Great Britain, the predominant foreign power in the Middle East, was reassessing its position in the region. The economic potential of the Middle East, with its vast oil reserves and the Suez Canal, as well as its geo-strategic importance in the context of the Cold War, prompted Britain to consolidate and strengthen her position there. Vital to maintaining British influence in the region were the kingdoms of Egypt and Iraq.


Britain's military strength was spread throughout the region, including the vast military complex at Suez with a garrison of some 80,000[8] making it one of the largest military installations in the world. The Suez base was considered an important part of Britain's strategic position in the Middle East; yet it was increasingly becoming a source of tension in Anglo-Egyptian relations. In the wake of the Second World War Egyptian domestic politics were experiencing a radical change, prompted in no small part by economic instability, inflation and unemployment. Unrest began to manifest itself in the growth of radical political groups, such as the communist party and the Muslim Brotherhood, and an increasingly hostile attitude towards Britain and her presence in the country. Added to this anti-British fervour was the perceived role Britain had held in the creation of Israel.[9]As such, the actions of the Egyptian government began to mirror those of its populace and an anti-British policy began to permeate Egypt's relations with the former. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimūn, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement and the worlds largest, most influential Islamist group[1]. The MB is the largest political... This article is about the modern State of Israel, not History of Zionism. ...


In October 1951, the Egyptian government unilaterally abrogated the 1936 Anglo-Egyptian treaty, the terms of which granted Britain lease on the Suez base for 20 years.[10] Britain refused to withdraw from Suez relying upon its impinged treaty rights, as well as the sheer presence of the Suez garrison. The price of such a course of action was a steady escalation in increasingly violent hostility towards Britain and British troops in Egypt, which the Egyptian authorities did little to curb. On January 25th 1952, British attempts to disarm a troublesome auxiliary police force barracks in Ismailia resulted in the deaths of 41 Egyptians[11]. This in turn led to anti-Western riots in Cairo resulting in heavy damage to property and the deaths of several foreigners, including 11 British citizens.[12] This proved to be a catalyst for the removal of the Egyptian monarchy. On July 23rd 1952 a military coup by the 'Free Officers Movement'- led by Muhammad Neguib and future Egyptian President Gamal Abdul Nasser- overthrew King Farouk I and established an Egyptian republic. In 1936 a treaty between Britain and Egypt was signed which became known as the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936. ... The 1952 Revolution (Arabic:ثورة 23 يوليو 1952), in Egypt also known as the July 23 Revolution, began with a military coup détat that took place on July 23, 1952 by a group of young army officers who named themselves The Free Officers Movement. The revolution was initially aimed at overthrowing... In Egypt, the clandestine revolutionary Free Officers Movement was founded by Colonel Gamal Abdul Nasser in the aftermath of Egypts sense of national disgrace from the War of 1948. ... Muhammad Naguib (محمد نجيب in Arabic; 20 February 1901 – 29 August 1984) was the first President of the Republic of Egypt. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر) Gamal Abdel Nasser (January 15, 1918 - September 28, 1970) was the second President of Egypt after Muhammad Naguib and is considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history. ... King Farouk of Egypt (February 11, 1920 - March 18, 1965) was the penultimate King of Egypt, succeeding his father Fuad I in 1936. ...


Post-revolution period

Britain's desire to mend Anglo-Egyptian relations in the wake of the coup saw her strive for rapprochement with the latter throughout 1953 and 1954. Part of this process was the agreement, in 1953, to terminate British rule in The Sudan by 1956 in return for Cairo's abandoning of its claim to suzerainty over the Nile Valley region. In October 1954, Britain and Egypt concluded an agreement on the phased evacuation of British troops from the Suez base, the terms of which agreed to withdrawal of all troops within 20 months, maintenance of the base to be continued, and for Britain to hold the right to return for seven years.[13] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Sudan Sudan has a territorial dispute with Egypt over the Halaib Triangle. ...


Despite the establishment of such an agreement with the British, Nasser's position remained tenuous. The loss of Egypt's claim to the Sudan, coupled with the continued presence of Britain at Suez for a further 2 years, led to domestic unrest including an assassination attempt against him in October 1954. The tenuous nature of Nasser's rule caused him to believe that neither his regime, nor Egypt's independence would be safe until Egypt had established itself as head of the Arab world. This would manifest itself in the challenging of British Middle Eastern interests throughout 1955.


Britain's close relationship with the two Hashemite kingdoms of Iraq and Jordan were of particular concern to Nasser. In particular, Iraq's increasingly amicable relations with Britain were a threat to Nasser's desire to see Egypt as head of the Arab world. The creation of the Baghdad Pact in 1955 seemed to confirm Nasser's fears that Britain was attempting to draw the Eastern Arab World into a bloc centred upon Iraq, and sympathetic to Britain.[14] Nasser's response was a series of challenges to British influence in the region that would culminate in the Suez Crisis. Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... The Central Treaty Organization (also referred to as CENTO, the successor to the Middle East Treaty Organization or METO, also known as the Baghdad Pact) was adopted in 1955 by Iraq, Turkey, Iran, as well as United States chose not to initially participate as to avoid alienating Arab states with...


Nasser's frustration with Britain

Throughout 1955 and 1956 Nasser pursued a number of policies that would frustrate British aims throughout the Middle East, and result in increasing hostility between Britain and Egypt. Nasser "...played on the widespread suspicion that any Western defence pact was merely veiled colonialism and that Arab disunity and weakness—especially in the struggle with Israel—was a consequence of British machinations."[15] He also began to align Egypt with the kingdom of Saudi Arabia—whose rulers were hereditary enemies of the Hashemites—in an effort to frustrate British efforts to draw Syria, Jordan and The Lebanon into the orbit of the Baghdad Pact. Nasser frustrated British attempts to amalgamate Jordan into the pact by sponsoring demonstrations in Amman, leading King Hussein to dismiss the British commander of the Arab Legion Glubb Pasha in March 1956 and throwing Britain's Middle Eastern security policy into chaos.[16] The House of Saud ( transliteration: ) is the royal family of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Lebanon (disambiguation). ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Sir John Bagot Glubb, better known as Glubb Pasha (16 April 1897 – 17 March 1986), was a British soldier best known for commanding Transjordans Arab Legion 1939-1956. ...


Nasser struck a further, spectacular blow against Britain by negotiating an arms deal with Czechoslovakia in September 1955[17] thereby ending Egypt's reliance on Western arms. Under the terms of this deal, Czechoslovakia sold Egypt 200 tanks, 150 artillery pieces, 120 MiG jet fighters, 50 jet bombers, 20 transport planes, 15 helicopters, and hundreds of vehicles and thousands of modern rifles and machine guns. Although the arms were to be delivered promptly, Egypt paid for them over the span of twelve years with shipments of cotton to Czechoslovakia. This volume of arms was unlike any the Middle East had ever seen, and it was coupled with the sale of 100 tanks, 100 MiG fighters and hundreds of other items to Syria, as well as the provision of Czechoslovakian trainers and assistance personnel. Bulgaria later sold a few minesweepers to Egypt and Syria. Bulgaria later sold four destroyers, two submarines, and one frigate to Egypt, and two submarines and a missile boat to Syria. For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Mig may refer to: Mikoyan or MiG, formerly Mikoyan-Gurevich, a Russian military aircraft manufacturer Gas metal arc welding, also called MIG welding Mig Greengard, an online chess columnist (Mig on Chess) Main Industrial Groupings classification in trade statistics Mig Ayesa, an Australian singer-songwriter. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... The B-17 Flying Fortress is one of the most recognizable and famous bombers of World War II. A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... A cargo aircraft is an airplane primarily designed and used for the carriage of goods, rather than passengers. ... For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ...


This caused tensions in the United States because Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria now had a strong presence in the region. Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria were joined by the other members of the Warsaw Pact in selling arms to Egypt and Syria. Increasingly Nasser came to be viewed in British circles—and in particular by Prime Minister Anthony Eden—as a dictator, akin to Mussolini. Anglo-Egyptian relations would continue on their downward spiral.-1... For the eponymous hat, see Anthony Eden hat. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ...


Nationalization of the canal and the road to crisis

Britain was eager to tame the unruly Nasser and looked towards the U.S. for support. However, Washington remained unresponsive; America's closest ally in the region, Saudi Arabia, was just as fundamentally opposed to the Hashemite dominated Baghdad Pact as Egypt, and the U.S. was keen to increase its influence in the region. The failure of the Baghdad Pact aided such a goal by reducing Britain's dominance over the region. "Great Britain would have preferred to overthrow Nasser; America, however uncomfortable with the Czech arms deal, thought it wiser to propitiate him."[18]


The events that brought the crisis to a head occurred in the spring/summer of 1956. On May 16th Nasser officially recognised the People's Republic of China, a move that angered the U.S. and its Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, a keen sponsor of Taiwan.[19] This move, coupled with the impression that the project was beyond Egypt's economic capabilities, caused Washington to withdraw all American financial aid for the Aswan Dam project on July 19th.[20] Nasser's response was the nationalisation of the Suez Canal. On July 26th in a speech in Alexandria, Nasser gave a riposte to Dulles. During his speech he deliberately pronounced the name of Ferdinand de Lesseps, constructor of the Canal, a code-word for Egyptian forces to seize control of the Canal and implement nationalisation of it.[21] John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888 – May 24, 1959) served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. ... Map showing reservoir The hydroelectric power station of Aswan Dam Aswan (Assuan) is a city on the first cataract of the Nile in Egypt. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Ferdinand de Lesseps. ...


The weakness of Britain's position in the Middle East now became abundantly clear. The Suez Canal, vital to the British Empire, was in the hands of a hostile foreign power: worse, the withdrawal from the Suez base had made a swift reprisal impossible. Britain hoped to gain American acquiescence in forcing Nasser to back down. However, the American government, mistrustful of British motives, and mindful of the impending presidential election, rejected such a move and made implicit their objection to the use of force.


Britain was now faced with a dilemma. Direct military intervention with the French ran the risk of angering Washington and damaging Anglo-Arab relations still further. Yet to do nothing would run the risk of complete collapse of British prestige in the region. Britain, under immense domestic pressure from Conservative MPs who drew direct comparisons between the events of 1956 and those of Munich in the 1930s, was driven into a desperate secret military pact with France and Israel that aimed at regaining the Suez Canal. For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy. ...


Arab economic and military pressure on Israel

In order to pressure Israel, the Arab world implemented a series of economic sanctions against it in the early 1950s. Amongst other actions, Israel's neighbours all sealed their borders and thoroughly blocked all forms of transportation and communication across them.


The Arab world closed its ports to Israeli shipping, as well as to ships originating from or destined for Israeli ports. This action made shipping to Israel almost unfeasible, since no ship stopping in Israel could visit any other port in the region before or afterwards on that trip.


All flights departing from, landing in or passing through Israel were forbidden from passing over Arab air space. Individuals who had an Israeli visa in their passport were refused entry into Arab countries. Arab governments also pursued a campaign designed to dissuade private companies from doing business with Israel, and put a great deal of pressure on other governments to participate in their embargo.


In July 1950, Egypt passed a law requiring that the captains of ships passing through Egyptian ports guarantee that their cargo was intended for local consumption at their port of immediate destination. These restrictions were designed to prevent such cargo from being shipped to Israel from neutral ports.


While all these measures had some effect on the Israeli economy,[22] Israel's economic growth nevertheless remained strong.[23]


The Arab states, and President Nasser of Egypt in particular, created and supported the Fedayeen who conducted cross-border raids against Israelis. The Fedayeen were trained and equipped by Egyptian Intelligence to infiltrate Israel, engage in hostile actions within it and to commit acts of sabotage and murder. The Fedayeen also operated from bases in Jordan. Fedayeen (from the Arabic fidāī, plural fidāīyun, فدائيون: one who is ready to sacrifice his life) of the Palestinians, constituted from the refugees of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, made efforts to infiltrate and strike against Israeli towns, infrastructure and citizens. ...


Their attacks violated the 1949 Armistice Agreements prohibiting hostilities by paramilitary forces, as did the Israeli counterattacks. However, only Israel was formally condemned by the UN Security Council.[24] The escalating tension and deaths contributed to an atmosphere of hostility and a desire for retaliation in Israel against the Fedayeen and their host countries. The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. ...


Anglo-Franco-American diplomacy

On August 1, a tripartite meeting was opened at 10 Downing Street between British Foreign Affairs Secretary Selwyn Lloyd, U.S. Ambassador Robert D. Murphy and French Foreign Affairs Minister Christian Pineau[25] is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prime Minister Tony Blair and U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney stand in front of the famous main door to Number 10. ... John Selwyn Brooke Lloyd, Baron Selwyn-Lloyd (28 July 1904 - 18 May 1978), known for most of his career as Selwyn Lloyd, was a British Conservative politician. ... Robert Daniel Murphy (1894 - 1978) was an American diplomat Murphy had begun his diplomatic career in 1917 as a member of the American Legation in Bern, Switzerland. ... Christian Pineau, French resistance leader and statesman Christian Pineau (October 14, 1904 - April 5, 1995) was a noted French Resistance fighter. ...


Soon an alliance was formed between Eden and French Prime Minister Guy Mollet, with headquarters based in London. Chief of Staff was made of General Stockwell and Admiral Barjot. The United Kingdom sought cooperation with the United States throughout 1956 to deal with what it maintained was a threat of Israeli attack against Egypt, to little effect. Categories: French government | France-related stubs | Prime ministers of France ... Guy Mollet (31 December 1905 - 3 October 1975) was a French Socialist politician. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The term Chief of Staff can refer to: The White House Chief of Staff, the highest-ranking member of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. ...


Between July and October 1956, unsuccessful initiatives encouraged by the United States were made to reduce the tensions that would ultimately lead to war. International conferences were organized to secure agreement on canal operations; all were ultimately fruitless.


Meanwhile, France used its secret connection with Israel, which was the only option for British-French joint intervention, even though the United States nuclear umbrella was deactivated.[26]


Protocol of Sèvres

Main article: Protocol of Sèvres

Three months after Egypt's nationalization of the canal company, a secret meeting took place at Sèvres, outside Paris. Britain and France enlisted Israeli support for an alliance against Egypt. The parties agreed that Israel would invade the Sinai. Britain and France would then intervene, instructing that both the Israeli and Egyptian armies withdraw their forces to a distance of 16 km from either side of the canal. The British and French would then argue that Egypt's control of such an important route was too tenuous, and that it needed be placed under Anglo-French management. The Protocol of Sèvres recorded the agreements reached between the governments of Great Britain, France and Israel during discussions held in Sèvres, France between 22nd and 24th October 1956, on a joint politico-military response to Egypts nationalisation of the Suez Canal. ... Road to Sèvres, Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, 1855-1865. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ...


The interests of the parties were various. Britain was anxious lest it lose access to the remains of its empire. France was nervous about the growing influence that Nasser exerted on its North African colonies and protectorates. Both Britain and France were eager that the canal should remain open as an important conduit of oil. Israel wanted to reopen the canal to Israeli shipping, and saw the opportunity to strengthen its southern border and to weaken a dangerous and hostile state.


Prior to the operation, Britain deliberately neglected to take counsel with the Americans, trusting instead that Nasser's engagement with communist states would persuade the Americans to accept British and French actions if they were presented as a fait accompli. This proved to be a fatal miscalculation for the colonial powers.


Invasion

Israeli conquest of Sinai
Israeli conquest of Sinai

Download high resolution version (740x918, 131 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (740x918, 131 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Operation Kadesh: The Israeli operation in the Sinai Peninsula

Operation Kadesh received its name from the ancient city of Kadesh, mentioned in the book of Deuteronomy and in more distant antiquity the site of the decisive battle fought by the forces of Pharaoh Ramses II against the Hittites, located in the northern Sinai Area. Israeli military planning for this operation in the Sinai hinged on four main military objectives; Sharm el-Sheikh, al-Arish, Abu Uwayulah, and the Gaza Strip. The Egyptian blockade of the Tiran Straits was based at Sharm el-Sheikh, and by capturing the town, Israel would have access to the Red Sea for the first time since 1953, which would allow it to restore the trade benefits of secure passage to the Indian Ocean. The Gaza Strip was chosen as another military objective because Israel wished to remove the training grounds for Fedayeen groups, and because Israel recognised that Egypt could use the territory as a staging ground for attacks against the advancing Israeli troops. Israel advocated rapid advances, for which a potential Egyptian flanking attack would present even more of a risk. al-Arish and Abu Uwayulah were important hubs for soldiers, equipment, and centres of command and control of the Egyptian Army in the Sinai. Capturing them would deal a deathblow to the Egyptian's strategic operation in the entire Peninsula. The capture of these four objectives were hoped to be the means by which the entire Egyptian Army would rout, and fall back into Egypt proper, which British and French forces would then be able to push up against an Israeli advance, and crush in a decisive encounter. Belligerents New Kingdom of Egypt Hittite Empire Commanders Ramesses II Muwatalli II Strength 2,000+ chariots[3] and ca. ... View of the Red Sea and Tiran Island from the Sheraton Sharm hotel. ... Al Arish (alternate spelling El Arish) is the capital and largest city (with 114,900 inhabitants as of 2002) of the Egyptian governate of Shamal Sina, lying on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai peninsula, 344 kilometers (214 miles) northeast of Cairo. ... The Straits of Tiran (Arabic: مضيق تيران ), are the narrow sea passages, about 13 km (8 miles) wide, between the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separates the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea. ... View of the Red Sea and Tiran Island from the Sheraton Sharm hotel. ... Fedayeen (from the Arabic fidāī, plural fidāīyun, فدائيون: one who is ready to sacrifice his life, Armenian: ) describes several distinct, primarily Arab groups at different times in history. ... This article is about the military tactic. ... Al Arish (alternate spelling El Arish) is the capital and largest city (with 114,900 inhabitants as of 2002) of the Egyptian governate of Shamal Sina, lying on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai peninsula, 344 kilometers (214 miles) northeast of Cairo. ...


Early actions in southern Sinai

The Israeli chief-of-staff, Major General Moshe Dayan, first planned to take the vital Mitla Pass. Dayan planned for the 1st Battalion, 202nd Paratroop Brigade, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Rafael Eitan, a veteran of the Israel War of Independence, and future head of the IDF; to drop at Parker's Memorial, near one of the defiles of the pass, Jebel Heitan. The rest of the brigade, under the command of Colonel Ariel Sharon would then advance to meet with the battalion, and consolidate their holdings. Moshe Dayan (‎, born 20 May 1915, died 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician. ... The Mitla Pass is a 32 km-long snaky pass in the Sinai wedged between mountain ranges to the north and south. ... Rafael Eitan (Hebrew: רפאל איתן) (January 11, 1929 – November 23, 2004) was an Israeli general, former Chief of Staff of the Israeli Defence Forces and later a politician, a Knesset member, and Minister of Agriculture. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ...


On 29 October 1956, Operation Kadesh, the conquest of the Sinai, began when the battalion dropped into the Peninsula. However, the landing had not gone as planned, and the forces were now several miles from their target, and wasted valuable hours, and physical energy, moving into their positions opposite the Egyptian positions in the pass. The Israelis then dug in, received artillery and weapons from another airlift, and awaited the rest of the brigade. is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Early actions along the Gulf of Aqaba, and the central front

Meanwhile, the 9th Infantry Brigade captured Ras an-Naqb, an important staging ground for that brigade's later attack against Sharm el-Sheikh. Instead of attacking the town by a frontal attack, they enveloped the town, and negotiated through some of the natural chokepoints into the rear of the town, and surprised the Egyptians before they could ready themselves to defend. The Egyptians surrendered, with no Israeli casualties sustained. The 4th Infantry Brigade, under the command of Colonel Josef Harpaz, captured al-Qusaymah, which would be used as a jumping off point for the assault against Abu Uwayulah. Sinai Peninsula, with the Gulf of Aqaba (east) and the Gulf of Suez (west), as viewed from the Space Shuttle STS-40. ... View of the Red Sea and Tiran Island from the Sheraton Sharm hotel. ...


Battle of Jebel Heitan, 202nd Paratroop Brigade under attack

The portion of the 202nd under Sharon's command continued to advance to meet with the 1st Brigade. En route, Sharon assaulted Themed, and was able to storm the town through the Themed Gap, and was able to capture the settlement. On the 30th, Sharon linked up with Eytan near Nakla.


Dayan had no more plans for further advances beyond the passes, but Sharon decided to attack the Egyptian positions at Jebel Heitan. Sharon would send his lightly armed paratroopers against dug-in Egyptians supported by air and heavy artillery, as well as tanks. Although the Israelis succeeded in forcing the Egyptians to retreat, the heavy casualties sustained would surround Sharon with a lot of controversy. Most of the deaths sustained by the Israelis in the entire operation, were sustained at Jebel Heitan.


Anglo-French Task Force

Further information: Operation Musketeer (1956) and Operation Telescope

To support the invasion, large air forces had been deployed to Cyprus and Malta by the UK and France and many aircraft carriers were deployed. The two airbases on Cyprus were so congested that a third field which was in dubious condition had to be brought into use for French aircraft. Even RAF Luqa on Malta was extremely crowded with RAF Bomber Command aircraft. The UK deployed the aircraft carriers HMS Eagle, Albion and Bulwark and France had the Arromanches and La Fayette on station. In addition, HMS Ocean and Theseus acted as jumping-off points for Britain's helicopter-borne assault (the world's first). Meanwhile the Israel Border Police militarized the Israel-Jordan border (including the Green Line with the West Bank) which resulted in the killing of 48 Arab civilians by Israeli forces on October 29 (known as the Kafr Qasim massacre). Operation Musketeer was the Anglo-French invasion of Egypt to capture the Suez Canal during the Suez Crisis. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... Luqa was an RAF base on Malta during the Second World War. ... Bomber Command badge RAF Bomber Command was the organisation that controlled the RAFs bomber forces. ... HMS Eagle was an aircraft carrier of the British Royal Navy, in service 1951-1972. ... The eighth HMS Albion (R07) was a 22,000 ton Centaur-class light fleet carrier of the Royal Navy. ... See HMS Bulwark for other ships of this name. ... The fourth and last HMS Colossus (R15) had a relatively brief time with the Royal Navy. ... The USS Langley (CVL-27) was an 11,000-ton Independence-class aircraft carrier that served the United States Navy from 1943 - 1964. ... The fifth HMS Ocean was a Royal Navy Colossus-class light fleet aircraft carrier of 13,190 tons built in Glasgow. ... HMS Theseus (R64) was a Colossus-class light fleet aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... The Israel Border Police (Hebrew: משמר הגבול, Mishmar HaGvul) is the combat branch of the Israeli Police. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Memorial at Kafr Qasim The Kafr Qasim massacre took place in the Israeli Arab village of Kafr Qasim situated on the Green Line, at that time, the de facto border between Israel and Jordan (Arabic: كفر قاسم, also known as Kafr Qassem, Kufur Kassem and Kafar Kassem) on October 29, 1956. ...


On October 30, in the morning, United Kingdom and France sent an ultimatum to Egypt. They initiated Operation Musketeer on October 31, with a bombing campaign. On November 3, 20 F4U-7 Corsairs from the 14.F and 15.F Aéronavale taking off from the French carriers Arromanches and La Fayette, attacked the Cairo aerodrome. Nasser responded by sinking all 40 ships present in the canal, closing it to further shipping until early 1957. is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation Musketeer was the Anglo-French invasion of Egypt to capture the Suez Canal during the Suez Crisis. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Chance Vought F4U Corsair was an American fighter aircraft that saw service in World War II and the Korean War (and in isolated local conflicts). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ...


On late November 5, the 3rd Battalion of the British Parachute Regiment dropped at El Gamil Airfield, clearing the area and establishing a secure base for incoming support aircraft and reinforcements. At first light on November 6, Commandos of Nos 42 and 40 Commando Royal Marines stormed the beaches, using landing craft of World War II vintage (LCA's and LVT's). The battlegroup standing offshore opened fire, giving covering fire for the landings and causing considerable damage to the Egyptian batteries and gun emplacements. The town of Port Said sustained great damage and was seen to be alight. is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Parachute Regiment redirects here, for the Indian regiment, see The Parachute Regiment (India) The Parachute Regiment is the Airborne Infantry element of the British Army. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Commandos were first formed by the Army in June 1940 during World War II as a well-armed but non-regimental raider force employing unconventional and irregular tactics to assault, disrupt and reconnoitre the enemy in mainland Europe and Scandinavia. ... The Royal Marines (RM) are the marines and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom and, along with the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, form the Naval Service [2]. They are also the United Kingdoms amphibious force and specialists in mountain and Arctic warfare. ... Landing craft Rapière LCU 1656 departs USS Bataan (LHD-5) well deck during Hurricane Katrina relief operations. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Suppressive fire is a military term for firing weapons at the enemy with the goal of suppressing their ability to return fire or to move without cover, such as during an enemy assault. ... Port Said (postcard around 1915) Port Said (31. ...

2ème RPC paratroopers patrol in Port Said. October 1956
2ème RPC paratroopers patrol in Port Said. October 1956

Acting in concert with British forces, 500 heavily-armed paratroopers of the French 2nd Colonial Parachute Regiment (2ème RPC), hastily redeployed from combat in Algeria, jumped over the al-Raswa bridges from Noratlas Nord 2501 transports of the ET (Escadrille de Transport) 1/61 and ET 3/61, together with some combat engineers of the Guards Independent Parachute Company. Despite the loss of two soldiers, the western bridge was swiftly secured by the paras, and F4U Corsairs of the Aéronavale 14.F and 15.F flew a series of close-air-support missions, destroying several SU-100 tank destroyers. F-84Fs also hit two large oil storage tanks in Port Said, which went up in flames and covered most of the city in a thick cloud of smoke for the next several days. Egyptian resistance varied, with some positions fighting back until destroyed, while others were abandoned with little resistance. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Port Said (postcard around 1915) Port Said (31. ... The 2nd Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment (French: ) is an Airborne regiment in the French army. ... The Nord Noratlas was a French military transport plane built by Nord Aviation in the 1950s. ... The Chance Vought F4U Corsair was an American fighter aircraft that saw service in World War II and the Korean War (and in isolated local conflicts). ... The Aviation Navale (Naval Air Force) of the French Navy includes 162 airplanes (138 of them combat-capable) and 6 800 men, both civilians and military personel. ... The SU-100 was a Soviet self-propelled gun used during World War II. // History The SU-100 was developed as an improvement to the SU-85, with a more powerful gun. ... The Republic Aviation Company F-84 Thunderjet was an American-built turbojet fighter-bomber aircraft. ...


In the afternoon, 522 additional French paras of the 1er REP (Régiment Étranger Parachutiste, 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment) were dropped near Port Fouad. These were also constantly supported by the Corsairs of the French Aéronavale, which flew very intensive operations: for example, although the French carrier La Fayette developed catapult problems, no less than 40 combat sorties were completed. In total, 10 French soldiers were killed and 30 injured during the landing and the subsequent battles. Port Fouad is located across the Suez Canal from Port Said. ... Lafayette or La Fayette is the name of several places in the United States of America, generally named for the French hero of the American Revolution, the Marquis de Lafayette (sometimes referred to as the Marquis de la Fayette), as are most places named Fayette, or Fayetteville: La Fayette, Alabama...


British commandos of No. 45 Commando assaulted by helicopter, meeting stiff resistance, with shore batteries striking several helicopters, while friendly fire from British carrier-borne aircraft caused heavy casualties to 45 Commando and HQ. Street fighting and house clearing, with strong opposition from well-entrenched Egyptian sniper positions, caused further casualties. For other uses, see Friendly Fire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sniper (disambiguation). ...


End of hostilities

The operation to take the canal was highly successful from a military point of view, but was a political disaster due to external forces. Along with Suez, the United States was also dealing with the near-simultaneous Hungarian revolution, and faced the public relations embarrassment of criticizing Hungary's suppression of the revolutionaries there while at the same time avoiding criticism of its two principal European allies' actions. Perhaps more significantly, the United States also feared a wider war after the Soviet Union and the other Warsaw Pact nations threatened to intervene on the Egyptian side and use "all types of weapons of destruction" on London, Tel Aviv, and Paris. There have been a number of Hungarian Revolutions: 1848 Hungarian Revolution 1919 Hungarian Revolution 1956 Hungarian Revolution This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... For the Arrested Development episode, see Public Relations (Arrested Development episode). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Thus, the Eisenhower administration forced a cease-fire on Britain, Israel, and France which it had previously told the Allies it would not do. The U.S. demanded that the invasion stop and sponsored resolutions in the UN Security Council calling for a cease-fire. Britain and France, as permanent members of the Council, vetoed these draft resolutions. The U.S. then appealed to the United Nations General Assembly and proposed a resolution calling for a cease-fire and a withdrawal of forces. The General Assembly consequently held an 'emergency special session' under the terms of Uniting for Peace resolution, and adopted Assembly resolution 1001,[27] which established the first United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF), and called for "an immediate cease-fire". Portugal and Iceland went so far as to suggest ejecting Britain and France from NATO if they didn't withdraw from Egypt.[28] Britain and France withdrew from Egypt within a week. Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Spanish president in the General Assembly in New York Org type: Principal Organ Acronyms: GA, UNGA Head: President of the UN General Assembly As of 18 September 2007 Srgjan Kerim former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Status: Active Established: 1945 Website: www. ... United Nations General Assembly Resolution 377, also known as the Uniting for Peace Resolution, states that, in the event that the UN Security Council cannot maintain international peace, a matter can be taken up by the General Assembly. ... The first United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was established by United Nations General Assembly to secure an end to the 1956 Suez Crisis with resolution 1001 (ES-I) on November 7, 1956, and in large measure as a result of efforts by secretary general Dag Hammarskjöld and a proposal...


Part of the pressure that the United States and the rest of NATO used against Britain was financial, as President Eisenhower threatened to sell the United States reserves of the British pound and thereby precipitate a collapse of the British currency. After Saudi Arabia started an oil embargo against Britain and France, the U.S. refused to fill the gap, until Britain and France agreed to a rapid withdrawal. The other NATO members refused to sell oil they received from Arab nations to Britain or France.[29] There was also a measure of discouragement for Britain in the rebuke by the Commonwealth Prime Ministers St. Laurent of Canada and Menzies of Australia at a time when Britain was still continuing to regard the Commonwealth as an entity of importance as the residue of the British Empire and as an automatic supporter in its effort to remain a world power. Percentage of global currencies A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency which is held in significant quantities by many governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves. ... For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Louis Stephen St. ... Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, FRS, QC (20 December 1894 – 15 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia, serving eighteen and a half years. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ...


The British government and the pound thus both came under pressure. Sir Anthony Eden, the British Prime Minister at the time, was forced to resign and announced a cease fire on November 6, warning neither France nor Israel beforehand. Troops were still in Port Said when the order came from London. Without further guarantee, the Anglo-French Task Force had to finish withdrawing by December 22, 1956, to be replaced by Danish and Colombian units of UNEF.[30] The Israelis left the Sinai in March, 1957. GBP redirects here. ... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG (June 12, 1897 - January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary during World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the 1950s. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A task force (TF) is a temporary unit or formation established to work on a single defined task or activity. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of Colombia is a country in north-western South America. ...


Introduction of UN peacekeepers

Before the withdrawal, Canadian Lester B. Pearson, who would later become the Prime Minister of Canada, had gone to the United Nations and suggested creating a United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) in the Suez to "keep the borders at peace while a political settlement is being worked out." The United Nations accepted this suggestion, and after several days of tense diplomacy, a neutral force not involving the major alliances which were NATO and the Warsaw Pact was sent with the consent of Nasser, stabilizing conditions in the area. Pearson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 for his efforts. The United Nations Peacekeeping Force was Pearson's creation and he is considered the father of the modern concept of "peacekeeping". Mike Pearson redirects here. ... UN redirects here. ... The first United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was established by United Nations General Assembly to secure an end to the 1956 Suez Crisis with resolution 1001 (ES-I) on November 7, 1956, and in large measure as a result of efforts by secretary general Dag Hammarskjöld and a proposal... The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Danish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


Aftermath

Eden's resignation marked, until the Falklands War, the last significant attempt Britain made to impose its military will abroad without U.S. support. However, Nigel Ashton argues "that British strategy in the region changed very little in the wake of Suez." Harold Macmillan was every bit as determined as Eden had been to stop Nasser, although he was more willing to enlist American support in the future for that end. Some argue that the crisis also marked the final transfer of power to the new superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. Belligerents Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties and losses 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... Superpowers redirects here. ...


The incident demonstrated the weakness of the NATO alliance in its lack of planning and cooperation beyond the European stage. From the point of view of General de Gaulle, the Suez events demonstrated that France could not rely on allies any more. Britain withdrew its troops in the midst of the battle without warning its allies. In 1957, following these events, the French government launched an autonomous nuclear programme conducted in the Sahara,[31] known as Force de frappe, as a deterrent not only against the USSR but vis-à-vis every potential threat around the globe. By 1966 de Gaulle withdrew France from the integrated NATO military command. According to the protocol of Sèvres agreements, France secretly transmitted parts of its own atomic technology to Israel, including a detonator.[32] This article is about the military alliance. ... This article is about the person. ... The Redoutable, the first French nuclear missile submarine // a Pluton missile mobile launcher The Force de frappe (literally Striking Force; meant for dissuasion, i. ... Gerboise Bleue (blue jerboa) was the name of the first French nuclear test. ...


The imposed end to the crisis signalled the definitive weakening of the United Kingdom and France as Global Powers. Nasser's standing in the Arab world was greatly improved, with his stance helping to promote pan-Arabism and reinforce hostility against Israel and the West. The crisis also arguably hastened the process of decolonization, as the remaining colonies of both Britain and France gained independence over the next several years. The top global powers usually have relatively high military budgets, reflecting their powerful military capabilities. ... Arab States redirects here. ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. ...


After Suez, Aden and Iraq became the main bases for the British in the region while the French concentrated their forces at Bizerte and Beirut. Port of Aden (around 1910). ... Bizerte or Bizerta (Arabic: بنزرت; transliterated: Binzart) is a capital city of Bizerte Governorate in Tunisia. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ...

Canadian members of the UNEF on the Egypt - Israel border in 1962.
Canadian members of the UNEF on the Egypt - Israel border in 1962.

UNEF was placed in the Sinai (on Egyptian territory only) with the express purpose of maintaining the cease-fire. While effective in preventing the small-scale warfare that prevailed before 1956 and after 1967, budgetary cutbacks and changing needs had seen the force shrink to 3,378 by 1967. The Egyptian government then began to remilitarize the Sinai, and demanded that the UNEF withdraw. This action, along with the blockade of the Strait of Tiran, led directly to the Six Day War. During the war, Israeli armed forces captured the east bank of the canal, which subsequently became a de facto boundary between Egypt and Israel and the canal was therefore closed until June, 1975. Image File history File links Canadian_members_of_UNEF_on_Egypt-Israel_border_1962. ... Image File history File links Canadian_members_of_UNEF_on_Egypt-Israel_border_1962. ... Militarism (military+-ism) is an ideology which claims that the military is the foundation of a societys security, and thereby claims to be its most important aspect. ... The Straits of Tiran are the narrow passages formed by the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separates the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea. ... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ...


See also

  • Protocol of Sèvres
  • Anglo-American relations
  • Franco-American relations
  • Israel-United States relations

The Protocol of Sèvres recorded the agreements reached between the governments of Great Britain, France and Israel during discussions held in Sèvres, France between 22nd and 24th October 1956, on a joint politico-military response to Egypts nationalisation of the Suez Canal. ... Anglo-American relations are used to describe the relations of the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... The statue of liberty, a gift from France to the U.S. Franco-American relations refers to interstate relations between the French Republic and the United States of America. ... Israel-United States relations have evolved from an initial United States policy of sympathy and support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in 1947 to an unusual partnership that links a small but militarily powerful Israel with the United States, with the U.S. superpower trying to balance competing...

Notes

  1. ^ The Suez Crisis is also known as the Suez War or 1956 War, commonly known in the Arab world as the Tripartite aggression; other names include the Sinai war, Suez-Sinai war, 1956 Arab-Israeli War, the Second Arab-Israeli War, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Kadesh Operation and Operation Musketeer
  2. ^ Damien Cash "Suez crisis" The Oxford Companion to Australian History. Ed. Graeme Davison, John Hirst and Stuart Macintyre. Oxford University Press, 2001.
  3. ^ Roger Owen "Suez Crisis" The Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World, Second edition. Joel Krieger, ed. Oxford University Press Inc. 2001.
  4. ^ "Suez crisis" The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Ed. Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press, 2003.
  5. ^ Suez Canal. Egyptian State Information Service. Retrieved on March 18, 2007.
  6. ^ Howard M. Sachar. A History of Israel from the Rise of Zionism to Our Time. Published by Alfred A. Knopf (New York). 1976. ISBN 0-394-28564-5.
  7. ^ References Yergin Page 480
  8. ^ Darwin, J; "Britain and Decolonisation", page 207
  9. ^ "Nothing could have been better calculated to lash popular Muslim feeling to new fury...and to redouble Egyptian hostility to Britain on whose 'betrayal' of the Palestine Arabs the catastrophe could easily be blamed." Ibid
  10. ^ Butler, L.J.; "Britain and Empire", page 111
  11. ^ Darwin, J; "Britain and Decolonisation", page 208
  12. ^ Ibid
  13. ^ Butler L.J.; "Britain and Empire", page 112
  14. ^ Darwin, J;"Britain and Decolonisation", page 210.
  15. ^ Ibid
  16. ^ Kissinger, H; "Diplomacy", page 529
  17. ^ Darwin, J; "Britain and Decolonisation", page 211
  18. ^ Kissinger, H; "Diplomacy", page 528
  19. ^ Ibid, page 529
  20. ^ Ibid
  21. ^ Ibid, page 530
  22. ^ Howard M. Sachar. A History of Israel from the Rise of Zionism to Our TimePublished by Alfred A. Knopf (New York). 1976. pp. 453-6. ISBN 0-394-28564-5.
  23. ^ Israel's economic growth: success without security - MERIA Journal Vol. 6 No. 3 September 2002
  24. ^ Fedayeen. jewishvirtuallibrary.org.
  25. ^ Le Canal de Suez et la nationalisation par le Colonel Nasser, Les Actualité Française - AF, 08.01.1956
  26. ^ French Minister of Defense archives ECPAD, La distribution de vivres à la population civile de Port Saïd et de Port Fouad, lors de l'expédition de Suez. MO56137A
  27. ^ UNGA Emergency Special Sessions
  28. ^ Z Magazine, April 2, 2003, http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?SectionID=1&ItemID=3376 last visited 2/28/07
  29. ^ Kennett Love, Suez: The Twice-Fought War, New York: McGraw Hill, 1969, p.651
  30. ^ Service Cinématographique des Armées SCA reportage de Paul Corcuff, December 22nd 1956 French Ministry of Defense arcvhives ECPAD MO56141AR14
  31. ^ [http://www.defense.gouv.fr/content/download/60823/571529/file/SAHARA.pdf Délégation à l’Information et à la Communication de la Défense: Dossier de présentation des essais nucléaires et leur suivi au Sahara], French Defense Ministry, January 2007
  32. ^ Affaire de Suez, Le Pacte Secret, Peter Hercombe et Arnaud Hamelin, France 5/Sunset Presse/Transparence, 2006

is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Walter Arnstein, Britain Yesterday and Today: 1830 to the Present (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001).
  • Ahron Bregman, Israel's Wars: A History Since 1947 (London: Routledge, 2002). ISBN 0-415-28716-2
  • L.J. Butler, Britain and Empire: Adjusting to a Post-Imperial World I.B. Tauris 2002. ISBN 1-86064-449-X
  • Erskine B Childers, The Road To Suez MacGibbon & Kee 1962 ASIN B000H47WG4
  • John Darwin, Britain and Decolonisation: The Retreat From Empire in the Post Cold War World Palgrave Macmillan 1988. ISBN 0-333-29258-8
  • Ronald Hyam, Britain's Declining Empire: The Road to Decolonisation 1918-1969 Cambridge University Press 2006. ISBN 0-521-68555-9
  • Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy Simon & Schuster 1994. ISBN 0-671-51099-1
  • Keith Kyle, Suez: Britain's End of Empire in the Middle East (I B Tauris & Co Ltd, 2003). ISBN 1-86064-811-8
  • Leuliette, Pierre, St. Michael and the Dragon: Memoirs of a Paratrooper, Houghton Mifflin, 1964
  • Aniruddha Pathak - Conquest of Suez Canal
  • David Reynolds Brittania Overruled: British Policy and World Power in the Twentieth Century Longman 1991/2000. ISBN 0-582-38249-1
  • David Tal (ed.), The 1956 War (London: Frank Cass Publishers, 2001). ISBN 0-7146-4394-7
  • Bertjan Verbeek, "Decision-Making in Great Britain During the Suez Crisis. Small Groups and a Persistent Leader" (Aldershot, Ashgate, 2003).
  • Yergin, Daniel (1991). The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-50248-4. . Chapter 24 is devoted entirely to the Suez Crisis.

The Prize (1991; ISBN 0671502484) is Daniel Yergins 800-page history of the global oil industry from the 1850s through 1990. ...

External links

For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

Media links

  • "The Suez canal and the nationalization by Colonel Nasser" French news from the National Audiovisual Institute, August 1st, 1956 Fr.
    (views of Nasser EG, Pineau FR, Lloyd UK, Murphy US, Downing street, comment on international tension)
  • "The new pilots engaged for the Suez canal" French news from the National Audiovisual Institute, October 3rd, 1956 French
    (views of Port Said, the canal and Ferdinand de Lesseps' statue few weeks before the Suez Crisis, incl. a significant comment on Nasser)
  • "French paratroopers in Cyprus" French news from the National Audiovisual Institute, November 6th, 1956 French
    (details on the French-British settings and material, views of Amiral Barjot, General Keightley, camp and scenes in Cyprus)
  • "Dropping over Port Said" French news from the National Audiovisual Institute, November 6th, 1956 French
    (views of British paratroopers dropping over Port Said, comment on respective mission for the French and British during Operation Amilcar)
  • "Suez: French-British landing in Port Fouad & Port Said" French news from the National Audiovisual Institute, November 9th, 1956 mute
    (views of French-British in Cyprus, landing in Port Fouad, landing Port Said, Gal Massu, Gal Bauffre, convoy)
  • "The French in Port Said" French news from the National Audiovisual Institute, November 9th, 1956 mute
    (views of prisonners and captured material, Gal Massu, para commandos, Egyptian cops surrender, Gal Beauffre, landing craft on the canal)
  • "Dropping of Anglo-French over the canal zone" French news from the National Audiovisual Institute, November 14th, 1956 French
    (views of 2 Nordatlas, paratroopers, dropping of para and material circa Port Said, comment on no bombing to secure the population)
  • "Canal obstructed by sunken ships" French news from the National Audiovisual Institute, November 14th, 1956 French
    (views of troops in Port Said, Ferdinand de Lesseps' statue, comment on the 21 ships sunken by the "dictator")
For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... -1... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This concerns the Soviet occupation of Iran, not the Iran hostage crisis. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Czechoslovak coup détat of 1948 (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: , Slovak: , meaning February 1948; in Communist historiography known as Victorious February (Czech: , Slovak: ) was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Belligerents French Union France, State of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... In the 1953 Iranian coup détat, the administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orchestrated the overthrow of the democratically-elected administration of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet from power. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... THE CUBAN REVOLUTION The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ... The Kitchen Debate was an impromptu debate (through interpreters) between Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev at the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow, on July 24, 1959. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Belligerents Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces Cuban exiles trained by the United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel John F. Kennedy Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 15,000 1,511 Cuban exiles 2 CIA agents Casualties and losses... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) is a term sometimes used to denote the variety of socialism as practised in the Hungarian Peoples Republic between 1962-63 and 1989. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants PLO Jordan Commanders Yasser Arafat King Hussein Casualties 7,000-8,000 killed[1] This article, Black September in Jordan, describes the events surrounding September, 1970 in Jordan. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Belligerents MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] Soviet Union UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire United States Commanders Agostinho Neto José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Holden Roberto Casualties and losses Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began in... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... People on the streets of Bucharest The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and protests in late December of 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship... Baltic Way, reflecting the peak of the Singing Revolution The Singing Revolution is the common title for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the regaining of independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the supposed dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CIA redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage, describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Communism Portal Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is a variant of Communism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Mao Zedong (Wade-Giles Romanization: Mao Tse-tung). Marxism consists of thousands of truths, but they all... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... // At its simplest, the Cold War is said to have begun in 1947. ... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Yemen. ... For other uses of Amal, see the disambiguation page. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_League_of_Arab_States. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... ALF symbol Arab Liberation Front (Arabic: جبهة التحرير العربية, jabha at-tahrir al-arabia) is a minor Palestinian political movement, politically tied to the Baath Party of Saddam Hussein. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... Image File history File links DFLP_flag. ... The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) (Arabic: الجبهة الديموقراطية لتحرير فلسطين, transliterated Al-Jabha al-Dimuqratiya Li-Tahrir Filastin) is a Palestinian Marxist-Leninist, secular political and military organization. ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... The logo of the Guardians of the Cedars. ... Image File history File links Hamas_flag2. ... Ḥamas (; acronym: , or Ḥarakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement) is a democratically-elected Palestinian Sunni Islamist[1] militant organization and political party which currently holds a majority of seats in the legislative council of the Palestinian Authority. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hezbollah. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Palestinian group. ... The Kataeb Party, better known in English-speaking countries as the Phalange, is a Lebanese political party that was first established as a Maronite nationalist youth movement in 1936 by Pierre Gemayel. ... Lebanese Forces (LF) (Arabic: القوات اللبنانية al-quwat al-lubnāniyya) is a Lebanese political party and a former militia, which fought on the Christian side during the civil war that ravaged Lebanon from 1975 to 1990. ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... The Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) (جبهة التحرير الفلسطينية) is a militant Palestinian group which is designated by the United States and European Union [1] as a terrorist organization. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... PPSF symbol The Palestinian Popular Struggle Front (PPSF, occasionally abbr. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين - القيادة العامة) is a left-wing Palestinian nationalist organization, backed by Syria. ... Emblem of the Popular Resistance Committees The Popular Resistance Committees (PRC) are various Palestinian militant organizations which operate in the Gaza Strip and are regarded as terrorist organizations by Israel and the United States. ... As Saiqa can mean: Commando (military) forces of the various Arab military and para-military forces. ... The South Lebanon Army (SLA), also South Lebanese Army, (Arabic: ; transliterated: Jaysh Lubnān al-JanÅ«bi. ... The Arab Higher Committee was the central political organ of the Arab community of Palestine, established in 1936. ... The Arab Liberation Army (Jaysh al-Inqadh al-Arabi, or Arab Salvation Army, also referred to in some accounts as the Arab Peoples Army) was an army of volunteers from Arab countries led by Iraqi soldier Fawzi al-Qawuqji. ... The Army of the Holy War or Holy War Army (Jaysh al-Jihad al-Muqaddas) was a force of Palestinian irregulars in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War led by Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni and Hasan Salama. ... Irgun emblem. ... For other uses, see Lehi. ... The Black Hand (Arabic: ‎) was an underground Islamist militant organization that operated in the British Mandate of Palestine. ... A Black September terrorist on a balcony in the Olympic Village in September 1972, during what became known as the Munich Massacre, in which 11 Israeli athletes were kidnapped and killed. ... Image File history File links Palestine-Mandate-Ensign-1927-1948. ... Flag Palestine and Transjordan were incorporated (under different legal and administrative arrangements) into the British Mandate of Palestine, issued by the League of Nations to Great Britain on 29 September, 1923 Capital Not specified Organizational structure League of Nations Mandate High Commissioner  - 1920 — 1925 Sir Herbert Louis Samuel  - 1945 — 1948... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_OIC.svg Beschreibung The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). ... The flag of the Organ of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Membership in the OIC:  Member Members once temporarily suspended Withdrew Observer Attempted to join but blocked OIC redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_United_Arab_Republic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Mike Pearson redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Abdel Hakim Amer (Arabic: عبد الحكيم عامر) ‎ (December 11, 1919– September 14, 1967) was an Egyptian military general and political leader. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسنى سيد مبارك Muḥammad ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), has been the President of Egypt since 14 October 1981. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Nasser redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ...  [1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای, pronounced []) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[3] has been Supreme Leader of Iran since 1989 and before that was president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian politician and religious figure, and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942) is an Israeli politician, former Prime Minster, and current Minister of Defense and leader of Israels Labor Party. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ...   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Jewish-Polish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Ben Gurion redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Moshe Dayan (‎, born 20 May 1915, died 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... â–¶(?) (Hebrew לֵוִי אֶשְׁכּוֹל ) (Born Levi Skolnick) (Hebrew לֵוִי שְׁקוֹלְנִיק) (October 25, 1895 - February 26, 1969), was the third Prime Minister of Israel from 1963 until his death of a heart attack in 1969. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Golda Meir (‎, Arabic: ‎, born Golda Mabovitch, May 3, 1898 - December 8, 1978, known as Golda Myerson from 1917-1956) was the fourth prime minister, and a founder, of the State of Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ...   (‎, Binyamin Bibi Netanyahu, born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel and is Chairman of the Likud Party. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Ehud Olmert (‎; Arabic: ‎; pronounced , born 30 September 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ...   (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן) November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) was a chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected February 1, 1949, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in Israel that eventually became the Weizmann Institute of Science. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... Abdullah I of Jordan as-Sayyid Abdullah I, King of Jordan, GCMG, GBE, (1882 – July 20, 1951 by assassination) (Arabic: عبد الله الأول), also known as as-Sayyid Abdullah bin al-Husayn (Arabic: عبد الله بن الحسين `as=Sayyid Abd Allāh ibn al-Ḥusayn), was, successively, Emir of Transjordan (1921–1946) under a British Mandate, then... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... King Abdullah II bin Al Hussein (Arabic: ‎, al-Malik Ê¿Abdullāh aṯ-ṯānÄ« bin al-Ḥusayn) is the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... Hussein bin Talal, King of Jordan (Arabic: ‎, ) (November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999) was the ruler of Jordan since his father, King Talal, abdicated in 1952, until his death. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Émile Lahoud General Émile Geamil Lahoud (Arabic: اميل لحود) (born January 12, 1936) is the current President of Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Sayyed Hasan Nasrallah (Arabic: ) (b. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Fouad Siniora (alternative spellings: Fouad Sanyoura, Fuad Siniora, Fouad Saniora, Fouad Seniora) (Arabic: ‎, Fuād As-SanyÅ«rah) is the Prime Minister of Lebanon, a position he assumed on 19 July 2005, succeeding Najib Mikati. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Mona Juul is an official in the Norwegian Foreign Affairs Ministry. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Johan Jørgen Holst Bust by Per Ung 1999 Johan Jørgen Holst (November 29, 1937 - January 13, 1994) was a Norwegian politician, best known for his involvement with the Oslo Accords. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Terje Rød-Larsen (born November 22, 1947) is a Norwegian diplomat and sociologist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Marwan Barghouti Marwan Bin Khatib Barghouti ( مروان البرغوثي born June 6, 1959) is a Palestinian leader from the West Bank and a leader of the Fatah movement. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... George Habash (Arabic جورج حبش) (born August 2, 1926 in Lod), sometimes known by his nom de guerre Al-Hakim, الحكيم, meaning the doctor, is a Palestinian politician, formerly a militant, and the founder and former Secretary-General of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Ismail Haniya (more frequently Haniyeh) (born 1963) (Arabic: إسماعيل هنية) is the Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Khaled Mashal, also known as Khaled Mashaal (Arabic: خالد مشعل) (b. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Dr. Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi (in the Arabic script عبدالعزيز الرنتيسي) (October 23, 1947 - April 17, 2004) was the co-founder of the Palestinian Islamist paramilitary and political organization Hamas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Ahmad Shukeiri (1908 - 1980), also Al-Shuqeiry, Shukeiry, etc. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Yassin (1936 - 2004 (about 68 years old)) (Arabic: ) was the co-founder (with Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi) and the spiritual leader of the militant Palestinian Islamist organization of Hamas,[1] originally calling it the Palestinian Wing of the Muslim Brotherhood. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... `Abd al-`AzÄ«z Ä€l Sa`Å«d, King of Saudi Arabia, GCIE ( 1876 – November 9, 1953) (Arabic: عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was the first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney walks with newly crowned King Abdullah, former U.S. President George H.W. Bush, and former U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell during a retreat at King Abdullahs Farm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, August 2005. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud (Arabic: ‎, 1921 – August 1, 2005) was the king and prime minister of Saudi Arabia and leader of the House of Saud. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Faisal ibn Abdelaziz Al Saud, King of Saudi Arabia (1324-1395 AH) (1903 or 1906—March 25, 1975) (Arabic: فيصل بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Count Folke Bernadotte of Wisborg (January 2, 1895 - September 17, 1948), or simply Count Bernadotte, was a Swedish diplomat noted for his negotiation of the release of 15,000 mostly Scandinavian prisoners [1] from the German concentration camps in World War II and for his assassination by members of a... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ) (October 6, 1930 – June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Dr Bashar al-Assad (Arabic: , ) (born 11 September 1965) is the President of the Syrian Arab Republic, Regional Secretary of the Baath Party, and the son of former President Hafez al-Assad. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Official portrait of Shukri al Quwatli when he assumed the Syrian Presidency in Aug 1947 at the age of 51 Shukri al-Quwatli (Born 1891, Damascus, Syria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Salah Jadid (1926? - 1993) was a Syrian general and political figure. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Ernest Bevin (9 March 1881 - 14 April 1951) was a British labour leader, politician, and statesman best known for his time as Minister of Labour in the war-time coalition government, and as Foreign Secretary in the post-war Labour government. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For the steel manufacturer, see Arthur Balfour, 1st Baron Riverdale. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Richard Howard Stafford Crossman (15 December 1907 to April 1974) was a British politician and writer. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Dr. Ralph Johnson Bunche (August 7, 1903 – December 9, 1971) was an American political scientist, diplomat who received the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize for his late 1940s mediation in Palestine. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Ambassador Dennis Ross speaking at Emory University Dennis B. Ross is an American author and political figure who served as the director for policy planning in the State Department under President George H.W. Bush and special Middle East coordinator under President Bill Clinton. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Cyrus Roberts Vance (March 27, 1917–January 12, 2002), was the United States Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1980. ... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... This article describes violent events in the Old City of Jerusalem from April 4-7, 1920. ... On May 1, 1921, a scuffle began in Tel Aviv-Jaffa between rival groups of Jewish Bolsheviks, carrying Yiddish banners demanding Soviet Palestine, and Socialists parading on May Day. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... The 1947 Jerusalem Riots occurred following the 1947 UN Partition Plan. ... Combatants Palestine Jews Palestine Arabs United Kingdom The 1947-1948 Civil War in the Mandate Palestine lasted from 30 November 1947 to 14 May 1948. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... Arab violence was rampant during wave of anti-Jewish riots in 1920-21, during the pogroms of 1929 (which included the massacre of the Jewish community in Hebron and Safed), during the Arab Revolt of 1936-39 (which included the massacre of Jewish community in Tiberias), and in many other... The Qibya massacre was carried out in October 1953 by Israeli troops on the Jordanian West Bank village of that name. ... Combatants Israel Defense Forces Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Commanders Yoav Shalam Levi Eshkol Bahjat al-Muhsin Hussein I bin Talal Strength 400 troops 40 half-tracks 10 tanks 100 troops 20 convoy vehicles Casualties 1 killed 10 wounded 16 Jordanian Armed Forces killed 54 Jordanian Armed forces wounded 15 vehicles... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... For other uses, see War of Attrition (disambiguation). ... The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September, a group with ties to Yasser Arafat’s Fatah organization. ... The operation was ordered in response to the massacre of 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics. ... Combatants Sayeret Matkal PLO Strength 25,000 unknown Casualties 2 KIA 12-100 KIA 3 civilian casualties The 1973 Israeli raid on Lebanon (code-named Operation Spring of Youth) took place on the night of April 9 and early morning of April 10, 1973 when Israel Defense Forces special forces... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... Belligerents Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Amal Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the... Belligerents Israel PFLP Revolutionäre Zellen Uganda Commanders Yekutiel Kuti Adam Dan Shomron Yonatan Netanyahu† Moshe Muki Betser Wadie Haddad Wilfried Böse† Idi Amin Strength Approximately 100 Commandos, plus air crew and support personnel Unknown Casualties and losses Yonatan Netanyahu killed 5 commandos wounded 7 hijackers killed 45 Ugandan... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army PLO Strength 25,000 10,000 Casualties 20 9,800 The 1978 South Lebanon conflict (code-named Operation Litani by Israel) was the name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani River. ... Combatants Israel Iraq Strength 8 F-16A fighters 6 F-15A fighters Unknown numbers of radar and Anti-aircraft artillery Casualties None 10 Iraqi soldiers and 1 French researcher killed Operation Opera (also known as Operation Babylon and Operation Ofra) was an Israeli air strike against the Iraqi Osirak nuclear... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450... Belligerents Hezbollah Israel South Lebanon Army Casualties and losses 1282 250 IDF, 1000 SLA During the 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict Hezbollah waged a guerrilla campaign against Israeli forces occupying Southern Lebanon. ... Operation Wooden Leg was the October 1, 1985 Israeli Air Force raid on the Palestinian Liberation Organizations headquarters in Tunis, Tunisia. ... Combatants  Israel Unified National Leadership ot the Uprising Commanders Yitzhak Shamir Yasser Arafat Casualties 160 (5 children) 1,162 (241 children) The First Intifada (1987 - 1993) (also intifada and war of the stones) was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule[1] that began in Jabalia refugee camp and quickly... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... In July 1993, Israeli Forces launched a massive attack against Lebanon named Operation Accountability in Israel and Seven-Day War in Lebanon, in an attempt to displace the Lebanese and Palestinian refugee population, in order to pressure the Lebanese government and population to withdraw support for Hezbollah[1]. Israeli artillery... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Combatants Israel, South Lebanon Army Hezbollah Casualties 3 killed. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Combatants  Israel (Israel Defense Forces) Fatah (Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades & Tanzim) Hamas Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestinian security forces Commanders Aluf Itzhak Eitan (Central commander) Strength Golani Brigade, Nahal Brigade, Paratroopers Brigade, 5th Reserve Infantry Brigade, 408th Reserve Infantry Brigade, Jerusalem Brigade(reserve), Shayetet 13, Armor and Engineering forces. ... Combatants Israeli Air Force Syria Palestinian militants (Israeli claim) Strength Several F-16s Unknown Casualties 1 injured The Ain es Saheb airstrike occured on October 5, 2003 and was the first Israeli military operation in Syria since the 1973 Yom Kippur War. ... Operation Rainbow (In Hebrew, מבצע קשת בענן) is a controversial military operation which began on May 18, 2004 in the Gaza Strip. ... Combatants Israel Defense Forces Hamas Casualties 5 killed (3 Of them civilians) 104 - 133 killed (42 of them civilians) Operation Days of Penitence (In Hebrew, מבצע ימי תשובה) was the name used by Israel to describe an Israel Defense Forces operation in the northern Gaza Strip, conducted between September 30, 2004 and October... Combatants  Israel Defense Forces (Israeli Security Forces) Hamas Fatah (al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades), Popular Resistance Committees Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestinian Army of Islam Commanders Dan Halutz (Chief of Staff) Yoav Galant (Regional) Khaled Mashal (Leader of Hamas[1])Mohammed Deif (Leader of Hamas military wing) Strength 3,000 unknown possibly... Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... Belligerents Israeli Air Force Syria Strength F-15I fighters F-16 fighters 1 ELINT aircraft Total: As many as 8 aircraft Unknown numbers of radar and Anti-aircraft artillery of the Syrian Air Defence Forces Casualties and losses None Reported. ... Geneva Accord October 20, 2003 Road Map for Peace April 30, 2003 The Peoples Voice July 27, 2002 Elon Peace Plan 2002 ... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... The Damascus Protocol was a document defining the independent Arab territories in the Middle East after the conspired Arab Revolt had taken place. ... The Hussein-McMahon Correspondence during World War I was a 1915-1916 exchange of letters between the Hejazi (the Hejaz later became part of Saudi Arabia) leader Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca, and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, concerning the future political status of the Arab... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then... Arthur James Balfour. ... The Declaration to the Seven was a document written by Sir Mark Sykes and released by the British Government on 16 June 1918 in response to a memorandum issued anonymously by seven Syrian notables in Cairo who were members of the newly-formed Party of Syrian Unity, which had been... ANGLO-FRENCH DECLARATION November 7, 1918 The goal envisaged by France and Great Britain in prosecuting in the East the War let loose by German ambition is the complete and final liberation of the peoples who have for so long been oppressed by the Turks, and the setting up of... The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement was signed on January 3, 1919, by Emir Faisal (son of the King of Hejaz) and Chaim Weizmann (later President of the World Zionist Organization) as part of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 settling disputes stemming from World War I. It was a short-lived agreement... The San Remo conference (19-26 April 1920, San Remo, Italy) of the post-World War I Allied Supreme Council determined the allocation of Class A League of Nations mandates for administration of the former Ottoman-ruled lands of the Middle East by the victorious powers. ... The Churchill White Paper of 3 June 1922 clarified how Britain viewed the Balfour Declaration, 1917. ... London Conference, St. ... Map showing the UN Partition Plan. ... David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194 [1] was passed on December 11, 1948, near the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. ... The Palestinian National Covenant or Palestinian National Charter (Arabic: الميثاق الوطني الفلسطيني; transliterated: al-Mithaq al-Watani al-Filastini) is the charter or constitution of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). ... The Khartoum Resolution of September 1, 1967 was issued at the conclusion of a meeting between the leaders of eight Arab countries in the wake of the Six-Day War. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ... The three-line United Nations Security Council Resolution 338 (S/RES/338), approved on October 22, 1973, called for a cease fire in the Yom Kipur War in accordance with a joint proposal by the United States and the Soviet Union. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 339 (S/RES/339) was adopted on 23 October 1973 in order to bring a cease fire in the Yom Kippur War where Resolution 338 two days before had failed after Israeli forces broke the terms of the cease fire and made substantial military gains. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 350, adopted on 31 May 1974, established the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force, to monitor the ceasefire between Israel and Syria in the wake of the Yom Kippur War. ... On March 19, 1978, five days after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, United Nations Security Council Resolution 425 was adopted, calling on Israel to immediately withdraw its forces from Lebanon and establishing the United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon (UNIFIL). ... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Al Sadat. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 446 concerned the issue of Israeli settlements in the Arab territories occupied by Israel since 1967, including Jerusalem. This refers to the Palestinian territories of the West Bank including East Jerusalem, Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights. ... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 452 was on the issue of the Israeli settlements in the Palestinian territories of East Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza Strip and the Syrian Golan Heights. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 declared that the 1980 Knesset law (the Jerusalem Law) declaring Jerusalem as Israels eternal and indivisible capital was null and void and must be rescinded forthwith. This resolution, not taken under chapter VI or VII of the charter (the binding chapters), advised member... United Nations Security Council Resolution 497 calls on Israel to rescind its annexation of the Golan Heights. ... The 1983 May 17 Agreement was a failed U.S.-backed attempt to create peace between Lebanon and Israel during the Lebanese Civil War, after Israel invaded Lebanon and besieged Beirut in 1982. ... The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) (Hebrew:הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: HaSekhem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisrael Le-Yarden) (Arabic: معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Orduniyah al-Israyliyah, and commonly referred to as Araba Valley... The Wye River Memorandum was a political agreement negotiated to implement the earlier Interim Agreement of 28 September, 1995 brokered by the United States between Israel and the Palestine Authority completed on October 23, 1998. ... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... The Taba summit (or: Taba Summit; Taba Talks; Taba Conference; Taba), also known as the permanent status talks at Taba between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, held from January 21 to January 27, 2001 at Taba in the Sinai peninsula, were peace talks aimed at reaching the final status negotiations... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373 is a counter-terrorism measure adopted September 28, 2001 following the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States. ... Israel and the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1559 was a resolution adopted by the United Nations Security Council on September 2, 2004. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1566 is an anti-terrorism resolution adopted on 8 October 2004. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1583 calls on Lebanon to assert full control over its border with Israel (See: Hezbollah). ... The Sharm el-Sheikh Summit of 2005 took place on February 8, (2005), when four Middle Eastern leaders gathered at Sharm el-Sheikh, a town at the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in order to declare their wish to work towards the end of the four-year Al-Aqsa... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the Disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to remove all... The Prisoners document is a document drawn up by Palestinian prisoners who are currently being held in Israeli jails. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 is a resolution intended to resolve the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. ... The Annapolis Conference is being held on November 27, 2007 at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, United States. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Suez Crisis - MSN Encarta (923 words)
Suez Crisis, international confrontation along the Suez Canal in 1956 that pitted Egypt against the combined forces of Israel, Britain, and France.
The crisis, which was provoked by Egypt’s nationalization of the strategic waterway, triggered the diplomatic intervention of both the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
The Suez crisis began as a result of the increasingly independent and assertive leadership role played by Egyptian prime minister (later president) Gamal Abdel Nasser.
Suez Canal - MSN Encarta (604 words)
Suez Canal, artificial waterway running north to south across the Isthmus of Suez in northeastern Egypt; it connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez, an arm of the Red Sea.
In 1858 La Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez (Universal Company of the Maritime Suez Canal) was formed with authority to cut a canal and to operate it for 99 years, after which ownership would return to the Egyptian government.
Egyptian nationalists demanded repeatedly that Britain evacuate the Suez Canal Zone, and in 1954 the two countries signed a seven-year agreement that superseded the 1936 treaty and provided for the gradual withdrawal of all British troops from the zone.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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