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Encyclopedia > Suez Canal
Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit
Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit
Ships moored at El Ballah during transit
Ships moored at El Ballah during transit

The Suez Canal (Arabic: قناة السويس, transliteration: Qanā al-Suways), is a large artificial canal in Egypt, west of the Sinai Peninsula. It is 163 km (101 miles) long and 300 m (984 ft) wide at its narrowest point, and runs between Port Said (Būr Sa'īd) on the Mediterranean Sea, and Suez (al-Suways) on the Red Sea. Suez is a seaport town in north-eastern Egypt. ... NASA image of Nile Delta, taken by MISR sattelite on January 30, 2001. ... NASA image of Nile Delta, taken by MISR sattelite on January 30, 2001. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1116, 120 KB) [edit] Description Moored at El Ballah suez canal transit. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1116, 120 KB) [edit] Description Moored at El Ballah suez canal transit. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Port Said (postcard around 1915) Port Said (31. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Northermost part of Gulf of Suez with town Suez on map of 1856. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


The canal allows two-way water transportation, most importantly between Europe and Asia without circumnavigation of Africa. Before its opening in 1869, goods were sometimes offloaded from ships and carried over land between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... Water transportation is the intentional movement of water over large distances. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


The canal comprises seven parts, north and south of the Great Bitter Lake, linking the Mediterranean Sea to the Gulf of Suez on the Red Sea. The Great Bitter Lake from space For other places called Bitter Lake, see Bitter Lake. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... The northern end of the Red Sea is bifurcated by the Sinai Peninsula, creating the Gulf of Suez (Arabic: خليج السويس; transliterated: Khalyj as-Suways) in the west and the Gulf of Aqaba to the east. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...

Contents

History

2nd millennium BC

Perhaps as early as the 12th Dynasty, Pharaoh Senusret III (1878 BC1839 BC) may have had a west-east river dug through the Wadi Tumilat, joining the Nile with the Red Sea (which in ancient times reached north to the Bitter Lakes. See [1] and [2]) This allowed direct naval trade with Punt, and, indirectly, linked the Red Sea and the Mediterranean. Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twelfth Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... Khakhaure (The king of the two lands, The kas of Ra have appeared) Nomen Senusret (The son of Ra, man of the strong one) Horus name Netcher Kheperu (Horus, divine of form) Nebty name Netcher Mesut (The two ladies, divine of birth) Golden Horus Kheper (The golden Horus has... EGGS! ... EGGS! ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Land of Punt, which the Ancient Egyptians called Ta Netjeru, meaning Land of the Gods, was a fabled and exotic site in eastern Africa, which carried on extensive trade with Ancient Egypt, China and Arabia. ...


The reliefs of the Punt expedition under Hatshepsut depict sea-going vessels carrying the expeditionary force returning from Punt. This has given rise to the theory that, at the time, a navigable link existed between the Red Sea and the Nile.[1] The Land of Punt, which the Ancient Egyptians called Ta Netjeru, meaning Land of the Gods, was a fabled and exotic site in eastern Africa, which carried on extensive trade with Ancient Egypt, China and Arabia. ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau[1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I...


Evidence indicates its existence by the 13th century BC during the time of Ramesses II (see [3], [4], [5], [6], [7]). Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [2] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [2] Userrenput-aanehktu[1] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children...


Numerous geological surveys conducted since the mid-1960s have found no physical evidence of any ancient man-made canal (as opposed to natural tributaries) existing in the region and extending from the Nile to the Red Sea.


Repair by Necho, Darius I and Ptolemy

The waterway fell into disrepair, and according to the Histories of the Greek historian Herodotus, about 600 BC, Necho II undertook re-excavation but did not complete it. According to Herodotus 120,000 men perished in this undertaking. [8] The Histories of Herodotus by Herodotus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Wahemibre Nomen Necho Horus name Maaib Nebty name Maakheru Golden Horus Merynetjeru Consort(s) Khedebarbenet Died 595 BC Necho II (or more accurately, Nekau II) was a king of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (610 - 595 BC), and the son of Psammetichus I. His prenomen or royal name Wahemibre...


The canal was finally completed by Darius I of Persia, who conquered Egypt. According to Herodotus, the completed canal was wide enough that two triremes could pass each other with oars extended, and required 4 days to traverse. Darius commemorated his achievement with a number of granite stelae that he set up on the Nile bank, including one near Kabret, 130 miles (209 km) from Pie. The Darius Inscriptions read: Darius the Great (c. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... A Greek trireme. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... Stele is also a concept in plant biology. ... A stele of pink granite was discovered in 1866, by Charles de Lesseps, near Kabret, 130 kilometers from Suez in Egypt belonging to Darius the Great, king of ancient Persia, whose reign lasted from 522 to 486. ...

Saith King Darius: I am a Persian. Setting out from Persia, I conquered Egypt. I ordered this canal dug from the river called the Nile that flows in Egypt, to the sea that begins in Persia. When the canal had been dug as I ordered, ships went from Egypt through this canal to Persia, even as I intended. [9]

It was again restored by Ptolemy II about 250 BC. Over the next 1000 years it was successively modified, destroyed and rebuilt, until finally being put out of commission in the 8th century by the Abbasid Caliph al-Mansur. Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Head of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), with Arsinoë II. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), was of a delicate constitution, no Macedonian warrior-chief of the old style. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... pooperson he was the first bisexual man to have a heshe baby This article is abliph Al Mansur of Baghdad. ...

Construction of the canal
Construction of the canal

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (996x498, 179 KB) Suez Canal. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (996x498, 179 KB) Suez Canal. ...

Napoleon considers repair

At the end of the 18th century while in Egypt, Napoleon Bonaparte contemplated the construction of a canal to join the Mediterranean and Red Seas. But his project was abandoned after the preliminary survey erroneously concluded that the Red Sea was 10 meters higher than the Mediterranean, making a giant locks-based canal much too expensive and very long to construct. The Napoleonic survey commission's error came from fragmented readings mostly done during wartime, which resulted in imprecise calculations.[citation needed] Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...

1881 drawing of the Suez Canal.
1881 drawing of the Suez Canal.

Image File history File links Suez_Canal_drawing_1881. ... Image File history File links Suez_Canal_drawing_1881. ...

Re-construction by Suez Canal Company

In 1854 and 1856 Ferdinand de Lesseps obtained a concession from Said Pasha, the viceroy of Egypt, to create a company to construct a maritime Canal open to ships of all nations, according to plans created by Austrian engineer Alois Negrelli. The company was to operate the canal by leasing the relevant land, for 99 years from its opening, for navigation. De Lesseps had used his friendly relationship with Said, which he had developed while he was a French diplomat during the 1830s. The Suez Canal Company (Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez) came into being on December 15, 1858. Ferdinand de Lesseps. ... Said of Egypt ( 1822- 1863) was the Viceroy (or Pasha) of Egypt from 1854 until 1863, under the Ottoman Empire. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Alois Negrelli, Ritter von Moldelbe (January 23, 1799 - October 1, 1858), was an engineer and railroad pioneer in Austria, Italy and Switzerland. ... The Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez (Universal Suez Ship Canal Company) was the French corporation which constructed the Suez Canal between 1859 and 1869. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The excavation took nearly 11 years using forced labour of Egyptian workers. Some sources estimate that over 30,000 people were forced to work on the canal. [10] Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ...


The British recognized the canal as an important trade route and perceived the French project as a direct menace to their geopolitical and financial interests. The British Empire was the major global naval force and its power had increased during the American Civil War. So the British government officially condemned the forced work and sent armed bedouins to start a revolt among workers. Involuntary labour on the project ceased, and the Viceroy soon condemned the slavery, and the project stopped.[2] Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), is a desert-dwelling Arab nomadic pastoralist, found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev to the Arabian Desert. ...


Angered by the British opportunism, de Lesseps sent a letter to the British government remarking on the British lack of remorse only a few years earlier when Egyptian forced workers died in similar conditions while building the British railtrack in Egypt.


At first, international opinion was skeptical and the Suez Canal Company shares did not sell well overseas. Britain, United States, Austria and Russia did not buy any shares. All French shares were quickly sold in France. A contemporary British skeptic claimed:

"One thing is sure... our local merchant community doesn't pay practical attention at all to this grand work, and it is legitimate to doubt that the canals receipts... could ever by sufficient to recover its maintenance fee. It will never become a large ships accessible way in any case." (reported by German historian Uwe A. Oster)
One of the first traverses in the 19th century.
One of the first traverses in the 19th century.

The canal finally opened to traffic on November 17, 1869. Although numerous technical, political (due to the British rivalry), and financial problems had been overcome, the final cost was more than double the original estimate. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1071x801, 285 KB) Suez Canal, between Kantara and El-Fedane. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1071x801, 285 KB) Suez Canal, between Kantara and El-Fedane. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


The canal had an immediate and dramatic effect on world trade. Combined with the American Transcontinental Railroad completed six months earlier, it allowed the entire world to be circled in record time. It played an important role in increasing European penetration and colonization of Africa [citation needed]. External debts forced Said Pasha's successor, Isma'il Pasha, to sell his country's share in the canal for £4,000,000 to the United Kingdom (UK) in 1875, but France still remained the majority shareholder. This article refers to a railroad built in the United States between Omaha and Sacramento completed in 1869. ... Ismail Pasha Ismail Pasha, known as Ismail the Magnificent (December 31, 1830–March 2, 1895) (Arabic: إسماعيل باشا), was khedive of Egypt from 1863 until he was removed at the behest of the British in 1879. ...


The Convention of Constantinople in 1888 declared the canal a neutral zone under the protection of the British; British troops had moved in to protect it during a civil war in Egypt in 1882. Under the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936, the UK insisted on retaining control over the canal. But in 1951, Egypt repudiated the treaty, and in 1954 the UK agreed to pull out its troops. The withdrawal was completed in July 1956. See treaty text at wikisource:Constantinople Convention of the Suez Canal The Convention of Constantinople was a treaty signed by Great Britain, Germany, Austro-Hungary, Spain, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Russia, and Turkey on March 2, 1888. ... In 1936 a treaty between Britain and Egypt was signed which became known as the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936. ...


Suez Crisis

Main article: Suez Crisis

After the UK and the United States withdrew their pledge to support the construction of the Aswan Dam due to Egyptian overtures towards the Soviet Union, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Canal in 1956, intending to finance the dam project using revenue from the Canal, while at the same time closing the Gulf of Aqaba to all Israeli shipping by closure of the Straits of Tiran. This provoked the Suez Crisis, in which the UK, France and Israel colluded to invade Egypt. The intention was for Israel to invade on the ground, and for the UK-France partnership to give air and other support, later to intervene to resolve the crisis and hence assume control of the Canal. Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Map showing reservoir The hydroelectric power station of Aswan Dam Aswan is a city on the first cataract of the Nile in Egypt. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... Sinai Peninsula, with the Gulf of Aqaba (east) and the Gulf of Suez (west), as viewed from the Space Shuttle STS-40. ... The Straits of Tiran The Straits of Tiran are the narrow sea passages, about 3 miles wide, formed by the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separates the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1...


To stop the war from spreading and to save the British from what he thought was a disastrous action, Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs, Lester B. Pearson, proposed the creation of the very first United Nations peacekeeping force to ensure access to the canal for all and an Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai. On November 4, 1956, a majority of nations at the UN voted for Pearson's peacekeeping resolution, which mandated the UN peacekeepers to stay in the Sinai Peninsula unless both Egypt and Israel agreed to their withdrawal. The US backed up this proposal by putting immense financial pressure on the British government which only then agreed to withdraw its troops. Pearson was later awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Mike Pearson redirects here. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


As a result of damage and sunken ships, the canal was closed until April 1957, when it had been cleared with UN assistance. A UN force (UNEF) was established to maintain the neutrality of the canal and the Sinai Peninsula. The first United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was established by United Nations General Assembly to secure an end to the 1956 Suez Crisis with resolution 1001 (ES-I) on November 7, 1956, and in large measure as a result of efforts by secretary general Dag Hammarskjöld and a proposal... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ...


The Arab-Israeli Wars of 1967 and 1973,

In May 1967 President Nasser ordered the UN peacekeeping forces out of the Sinai Peninsula, including the Suez Canal area. Despite Israeli objections in the United Nations, the peace keepers were withdrawn and the Egyptian army took up positions on the Israeli border, and again closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping. The canal itself had been closed to Israeli shipping since 1949, except for a short period in 1951-1952. Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر) Gamal Abdel Nasser (January 15, 1918 - September 28, 1970) was the second President of Egypt after Muhammad Naguib and is considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The Straits of Tiran The Straits of Tiran are the narrow sea passages, about 3 miles wide, formed by the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separates the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea. ...


These actions were the key factors in the Israeli decision to launch a pre-emptive all out attack on Egypt in June 1967, and to capture the Sinai Peninsula to the Suez Canal. After the 1967 Arab-Israeli war, also called the Six Day War, the canal was closed by an Egyptians blockade until June 5, 1975. As a result, fourteen cargo ships known as "The Yellow Fleet" remained trapped in the canal for over eight years. In 1973, during the Yom Kippur War, the canal was the scene of a major crossing by the Egyptian army into Israeli-occupied Sinai, which was followed by an Israeli counteroffensive which ended in the cutting off of the Egyptian Third Army. Many pieces of sun-bleached destroyed military equipment from this conflict can still be seen along the edge of the canal. Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Yellow Fleet was the name given to a group of fourteen ships trapped in the Suez Canal (in the Great Bitter Lake section) from 1967 to 1975 as a result of the Six-Day War. ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Crossing is a term used in Egypt to refer to the west to east crossing of the Suez Canal by the Egyptian army at the start of the Yom Kippur War in 1973. ...


The UNEF mandate expired in 1979. Despite the efforts of the US, Israel, Egypt, and others to obtain an extension of the UN role in observing the peace between Israel and Egypt, as called for under the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty of 1979, the mandate could not be extended because of the veto by the USSR in the Security Council, at the request of Syria. Accordingly, negotiations for a new observer force in the Sinai produced the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO), stationed in Sinai in 1981 in coordination with a phased Israeli withdrawal. It is there under agreements between the US, Israel, Egypt, and other nations. (Multinational Force and Observers). UNEF may refer to: United Nations Emergency Force National Union of Students of France, a French students union Category: ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... The Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) is an international peacekeeping force. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ...


Operation

USS Bainbridge, an American warship in the Suez Canal
USS Bainbridge, an American warship in the Suez Canal

The canal has no locks because the terrain through which it passes is flat, and the minor difference in sea level at the ends is easily coped with through the length of the canal. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (740x605, 127 KB) Summary USS Bainbridge im Suezkanal. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (740x605, 127 KB) Summary USS Bainbridge im Suezkanal. ... USS Bainbridge (DLGN-25) was a 7800-ton nuclear-powered guided missile frigate in the United States Navy. ... Canal locks in England. ...


The canal allows the passage of ships of up to some 150,000 tons displacement, with cargo. It permits ships of up to 16 m (53 ft) draft to pass, and improvements are planned to increase this to 22 m (72 ft) by 2010 to allow passage of fully-laden supertankers. Presently, supertankers can offload part of their cargo onto a canal-owned boat and reload at the other end of the canal. Tankers exceeding Suezmax, the largest allowable size for passing through the canal, have to travel around the Cape of Good Hope instead. In fluid mechanics, displacement occurs when an object is immersed in a fluid, pushing it out of the way and taking its place. ... The draft of a ships hull is the vertical distance from the bottom of the hull to the waterline. ... A supertanker is an unofficial nickname that applies to a certain class of tanker ship built to transport very large quantities of liquids; in practice this typically refers to crude oil. ... Suezmax is a naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of fitting through the Suez Canal fully loaded, and is almost exclusively used in reference to tankers. ... For other uses, see Cape of Good Hope (disambiguation). ...


There is one shipping lane with several passing areas. On a typical day, three convoys transit the canal, two southbound and one northbound. The first southbound convoy enters the canal in the early morning hours and proceeds to the Great Bitter Lake, where the ships anchor out of the fairway and await the passage of the northbound convoy. The northbound convoy passes the second southbound convoy, which moors to the canal bank in a by-pass, in the vicinity of El Qantara. The passage takes between 11 and 16 hours at a speed of around 8 knots (15 km/h). The low speed helps prevent erosion of the canal banks by ship's wakes. The Great Bitter Lake from space For other places called Bitter Lake, see Bitter Lake. ... Al Qantarah esh Sharqiya (30. ...


Egypt's Suez Canal Authority (SCA) reported that in 2003 17,224 ships passed through the canal. The canal averages about 8% of the world shipping traffic. Suez Canal Authority (SCA) - A state owned authority which own & maintain the Suez Canal. ...


By 1955 approximately two-thirds of Europe's oil passed through the canal. About 7.5% of world sea trade is carried via the canal today. Receipts from the canal July 2005 to May 2006 totaled $3.246 billion. In 2005, 18,193 vessels passed through the canal. [11]


Connections between the shores

From north to south connections are:

A railway on the west bank runs parallel to the canal for its entire length. An American ship passing under the bridge. ... Al Qantarah esh Sharqiya (30. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The El Ferdan Railway Bridge is a swing bridge that spans the Suez Canal near Ismailia, Egypt. ... Ismailia is the capital of the governorate of Al Ismailiyah, and one of the newest cities in Egypt. ... A swing bridge is a bridge that has as its primary structural support a vertical locating pin and support ring at or near to its center, about which it can then pivot horizontally as shown in the animated illustration below. ... The Ahmed Hamdi Tunnel is an Automobile tunnel under the Suez Canal. ... The Great Bitter Lake from space For other places called Bitter Lake, see Bitter Lake. ... The Suez Canal overhead line crossing is an electrical power line built across the Suez Canal in 1998. ...


Environmental Impact

The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 created the first salt-water passage between the Mediterranean and Red seas. The Red Sea is about 1.2 m higher than the Eastern Mediterranean [12], so the canal serves as a tidal strait that pours Red Sea water into the Mediterranean. The Bitter Lakes, which are hypersaline natural lakes that form part of the canal, blocked the migration of Red Sea species into the Mediterranean for many decades, but as the salinity of the lakes gradually equalized with that of the Red Sea, the barrier to migration was removed, and plants and animals from the Red Sea have begun to colonize the eastern Mediterranean. The Red Sea is generally saltier and more nutrient-poor than the Atlantic, the direction of flow is generally from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean, so the Red Sea species have advantages over Atlantic species in the salty and nutrient-poor Eastern Mediterranean. Accordingly, most Red Sea species invade the Mediterranean biota, and only few do the opposite; this migratory phenomenon is known as the Lessepsian migration (after Ferdinand de Lesseps, the French engineer of the canal) or Erythrean invasion. The construction of the Aswan High Dam across the Nile River in the 1960s reduced the inflow of freshwater and nutrient-rich silt from the Nile into the eastern Mediterranean, making conditions there even more like the Red Sea, and worsening the impact of the invasive species. The Great Bitter Lake from space For other places called Bitter Lake, see Bitter Lake. ... Lessepsian migration is the term used to describe animal migration over man-made structures, i. ... Map of Egypt showing the location of Aswan and Lake Nasser. ... There is also Nile, a death metal band from South Carolina, USA. The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ...


Invasive species originated from the Red Sea and introduced into the Mediterranean by the construction of the canal have become a major component of the Mediterranean ecosystem, and have serious impacts on the Mediterranean ecology, endangering many local and endemic Mediterranean species. Up to this day, about 300 species native to the Red Sea have already been identified in the Mediterranean Sea, and there are probably others yet unidentified. In recent years, the Egyptian government's announcement of its intentions to deepen and widen the canal, have raised concerns from marine biologists, fearing that such an act will only worsen the invasion of Red Sea species into the Mediterranean, facilitating the crossing of the canal for yet additional species[3]. IT is a new species. ... Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ... Marine biology is the study of animal and plant life within saltwater ecosystems. ...


Construction of the Suez Canal was preceded by cutting a small fresh-water canal from the Nile delta along Wadi Tumilat to the future canal, with a southern branch to Suez and a northern branch to Port Said. Completed in 1863, these brought fresh water to a previously arid area, initially for the canal construction, but then allowing the growth of agriculture and settlements along the canal. [4]


Timeline

  • Circa 1799 — Napoleon I of France conquered Egypt and ordered a feasibility analysis. This reported a supposed 10 metre difference in sea levels, and a high estimated cost, so the project was set on standby.
  • Circa 1840 — A second survey demonstrated that the first one was erroneous; a direct link between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea would be possible and would not be as expensive as expected.
  • Circa 1854 — The French consul in Cairo, Ferdinand Marie de Lesseps, created the "Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez".
  • 25 Apr 1859 — The French were officially allowed to begin the canal construction (Said Pacha acquired 22% of the Suez Canal Company, the rest of the shares were controlled by French private holders).
  • 16 Nov 1869 — The Suez Canal opened; operated and owned by Suez Canal Company.
  • 25 Nov 1875 — Britain became a minority share holder in the Suez Company, acquiring 44% of the Suez Canal Company. The rest of the shares were controlled by French syndicates.
  • 25 Aug 1882 — Britain took control of the canal.
  • 2 Mar 1888 — The Convention of Constantinople guaranteed right of passage of all ships through the Suez Canal during war and peace.
  • 14 Nov 1936 — Suez Canal Zone established, under British control.
  • 13 Jun 1956 — Suez Canal Zone restored to Egypt.
  • 26 Jul 1956 — Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal.
  • 5 Nov 1956 to 22 Dec 1956 — French, British, and Israeli forces occupied the Suez Canal Zone.
  • 22 Dec 1956 — Restored to Egypt.
  • 5 June 1967 to 10 June 1967 — Canal closed and blockaded by Egypt, against Israel, sparking the Six-Day War.
  • 10 April 1975 — Suez Canal reopened.

Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ...

Presidents of the Suez Canal Company (1855-1956)

Before nationalization:

Ferdinand de Lesseps. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Auguste-Louis-Albéric, prince dArenberg (15 September 1837–24 January 1924) was a French noble and monarchist politician. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Charles Jonnart (1857-1927) was a French politician. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Chairmen of the Suez Canal Authority (1956-Present)

Since nationalization:

is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Engineer Mahmoud Younis (April 12, 1911 - April 18, 1976) Suez Canal nationalization Engineer on July 26, 1956. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...

British Vice-Consuls of Port Suez (1922-1941)

  • G. E. A. C. Monck-Mason, 1922 – 1924
  • G. C. Pierides (acting), 1924 – 1925
  • Thomas Cecil Rapp, 1925 – 1926
  • Abbas Barry (acting), 1926 – 1927
  • E. H. L. Hadwen (acting to 1930), 1927 – 1931
  • A. N. Williamson-Napier, 1931 – 1934
  • H. M. Eyres, 1934 – 1936
  • D. J. M. Irving, 1936 – 1940
  • R. G. Dundas, 1940 – 1941

northermost part of Gulf of Suez with town Suez on the map of 1856 Suez (Arabic: السويس as-Suways) is a port town (population ca. ...

British Consuls of Port Suez (1941-1956)

  • R. G. Dundas, 1941 – 1942
  • H. G. Jakins, 1942 – 1944
  • W. B. C. W. Forester, 1944 – 1946
  • Frederick Herbert Gamble, 1946 – 1947
  • E. M. M. Brett (acting), 1947 – 1948
  • C. H. Page, 1948 – 1954
  • F. J. Pelly, 1954 – 1955
  • J. A. D. Stewart-Robinson (acting), 1955 – 1956
  • J. Y. Mulvenny, 1956

Governors of the Suez Canal Zone

Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (May 5, 1883 _ May 24, 1950) was a British General and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only to be defeated by the German army. ... Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck, GCB, GCIE, CSI, DSO, OBE (June 21, 1884 - 1981), nicknamed The Auk, was a British army commander during World War II. Born in Aldershot, he grew up in impoverished circumstances, but was able through hard work and scholarships to graduate from the Royal... Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis (December 10, 1891 - June 16, 1969) was a British military commander and Field Marshal, notably during World War II as the commander of the 15th Army Group. ... Field Marshal Henry Maitland Wilson, 1st Baron Wilson of Libya (5 September 1881 - 31 December 1964), better known as Jumbo Wilson was a senior British General during World War II. He saw active service in the Boer War and the First World War. ... Sir Sir Bernard Charles Tolver Paget was a British soldier who served in World War II. He commanded British forces at Ã…ndalsnes in Norway in 1940 during the unsuccessful Norwegian campaign. ... Lieutenant-General Dempsey Lieutenant-General Sir Miles Christopher Dempsey GBE KCB DSO MC (15th December 1896 - 5th June 1969) was commander of the British Second Army during the D-Day landings in World War II. After graduating from Sandhurst Military Academy in 1915 Dempsey joined the Royal Berkshire Regiment. ... Crocker in France, August 1944, as I Corps commander. ... General Sir Brian Hubert Robertson, GCB, GBE, KCMG, KCVO, DSO, MC, 1st Baron Robertson of Oakridge (born July 22, 1896, died 1974) was a British Army officer in both World War I and World War II. // WWI and WWII Robertson went to the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich and subsequently served... General Sir Charles Frederic Keightley, GCB, GBE, DSO (24 June 1901 - 17 June 1974) was a senior officer in the British Army during and following World War II. He was born in 1901 and was commissioned into the 5th Royal Inniskilling Dragoon Guards in 1921. ...

Supreme Allied Commander

During the Suez Crisis: Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1...

is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Sir Charles Frederic Keightley, GCB, GBE, DSO (24 June 1901 - 17 June 1974) was a senior officer in the British Army during and following World War II. He was born in 1901 and was commissioned into the 5th Royal Inniskilling Dragoon Guards in 1921. ...

Popular culture

A popular film, Suez was made in 1938 and starred Tyrone Power as de Lesseps and Loretta Young as a love interest. A sweeping epic, it is very loosely based on history. Tyrone Edmund Power, Jr. ... Loretta Young in 1935 Loretta Young (January 6, 1913 – August 12, 2000) was an Academy Award-winning American actress. ...


The Suez Canal makes an appearance in the 1962 film Lawrence of Arabia, where it marks the end of T. E. Lawrence's march across the Sinai Peninsula to report to his superiors in Cairo. Lawrence of Arabia is an award-winning 1962 film based on the life of T. E. Lawrence. ... Lawrence of Arabia redirects here. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ...


See also

Pharaoh (Polish: Faraon) is the fourth and last of the major novels by Bolesław Prus. ... A historical novel a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... BolesÅ‚aw Prus BolesÅ‚aw Prus (pronounced: [bÉ”lεswaf prus]; August 20, 1847 – May 19, 1912), born Aleksander GÅ‚owacki, was a Polish journalist, short-story writer, and novelist. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cost overrun is defined as excess of actual cost over budget. ... Lessepsian migrants are marine species that are native to the waters on one side of the Suez Canal, and were introduced by the creation of the canal to the waters on its other side, creating new colonies there and becoming invasive. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Sanford (1938), p.72; Garrison (1999), p.36
  2. ^ Oster (2006)
  3. ^ Galil and Zenetos (2002)
  4. ^ Britannica (2007)

References

  • Britannica (2007) "Suez Canal", in: The new encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., 28, Chicago, Ill. ; London : Encyclopaedia Britannica, ISBN 1-59339-292-3
  • Galil, B.S. and Zenetos, A. (2002). "A sea change: exotics in the eastern Mediterranean Sea", in: Leppäkoski, E., Gollasch, S. and Olenin, S. (eds), Invasive aquatic species of Europe : distribution, impacts, and management, Dordrecht ; Boston : Kluwer Academic, ISBN 1-4020-0837-6 , p. 325–336
  • Garrison, Ervan G. (1999) A history of engineering and technology : artful methods, 2nd ed., Boca Raton, Fla. ; London : CRC Press, ISBN 0-84939-810-X
  • Oster, Uwe (2006) Le fabuleux destin des inventions : le canal de Suez, TV documentary produced by ZDF and directed by Axel Engstfeld (Germany)
  • Sanford, Eva Matthews (1938) The Mediterranean world in ancient times, Ronald series in history, New York : The Ronald Press Company, 618 p.

Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (Second German Television), ZDF, is a public service German television channel based in Mainz. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Coordinates: 30°42′18″N, 32°20′39″E Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Suez Canal - LoveToKnow 1911 (2556 words)
Trade between Egypt and countries to the east was originally overland to ports south of the Gulf of Suez; the proximity of the roadstead at the head of that gulf to Memphis and the Delta nevertheless marked it as the natural outlet for the Red Sea commerce of Lower Egypt.
After the closing of the canal in the 8th century it does not appear for certain that it was ever restored, although it is asserted that in the year r000 Sultan Hakim rendered it navigable.
Suez to such dimensions that the depth of water in it would be 22 metres at high Nile and at least i metre at low Nile.
Suez Canal - MSN Encarta (604 words)
Suez Canal, artificial waterway running north to south across the Isthmus of Suez in northeastern Egypt; it connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez, an arm of the Red Sea.
The canal utilizes three bodies of water—Lake Manzilah, Lake Timsāh, and the Bitter Lakes (the latter is actually one continuous body of water)—and is not the shortest distance across the isthmus.
Excavation of the canal was begun on April 25, 1859, and the canal was opened to navigation on November 17, 1869.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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