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Encyclopedia > Sudetenland

Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... ...


The name is derived from the Sudeten mountains, though the Sudetenland extended beyond these mountains. The German inhabitants were called Sudeten Germans (German: Sudetendeutsche, Czech: Sudetští Němci, Polish: Niemcy Sudeccy). The German minority in Slovakia, the Carpathian Germans, is not included in this ethnic category. A view from Zygmuntówka refuge, Góry Sowie Åšnieżka/Sněžka/Snow Mountain Destroyed forest on the top of Wielka Sowa The Sudetes (IPA: ), also called Sudeten (in German; pronounced: ) or Sudety (pronounced in Czech, in Polish), is a mountain range in Central Europe. ... Carpathian Germans (German: , Slovak: Karpatskí Nemci), sometimes simply called Slovak Germans (German: Slowakeideutsche), is the name for a group of German language speakers on the territory of present-day Slovakia. ...

Contents

History of Sudetenland

Historically, the parts later known as Sudetenland belonged to the regions of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. Since they did not form a single historical region, except as united under the Bohemian crown, it is difficult to distinguish the history of the Sudetenland apart from that of Bohemia and Moravia, until the advent of nationalism and the coining of the term in the 19th century. Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... This is a list of major historical regions of Central Europe. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Early origins and part of Austria

The regions later called Sudetenland were situated on the borders of the Kingdom of Bohemia, which also consisted of Moravia (and later Silesia) and was in turn part of the Holy Roman Empire. After the extinction of the Czech Přemyslid dynasty, the kingdom was ruled by the Luxemburgs, later the Jagiellonians and finally the Habsburgs. Already from the 13th century onwards the border regions of Bohemia and Moravia, called Sudetenland in the 20th century, were settled by Germans, who were invited by the originally Slavic Bohemian nobility. Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... PÅ™emyslid coat of arms. ... The House of Luxembourg was a medieval Holy Roman Empire noble family. ... The Jagiellons were a royal dynasty which reigned in some Central European countries between the 14th and 16th century. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Bohemia, Moravia, Austrian Silesia - 1892, then part of Austria-Hungary Bohemia and Moravia-Silesia within Czechoslovakia in 1928 The Czech lands (Czech: ÄŒeské zemÄ›) is an auxiliary term used mainly to describe the combination of Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia. ...


The Habsburgs integrated the Kingdom of Bohemia and Moravia into their monarchy, and it remained an integral part of that kingdom until the advent of modern nationalism in the 19th century. Conflicts between Czech and German nationalists emerged, for instance in the Revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas: while the German-speaking population wanted to participate in the building of a German nation state, the Czech-speaking population insisted on keeping Bohemia out of such plans. Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... From March 1848 through July 1849, the Habsburgs Austrian Empire was threatened by revolutionary movements. ...


Emergence of the term

Ethnic distribution in Austria-Hungary (1911): regions with a German majority are depicted in pink, those with Czech majorites in blue.

In the wake of growing nationalism, the name "Sudetendeutsche" (Sudeten Germans) emerged by the early 20th century. It originally constituted part of a larger classification of three groupings of Germans within the Austrian Empire, which also included "Alpendeutsche" (Alpine Germans) in what later became the Republic of Austria and "Balkandeutsche" (Balkan Germans) in Hungary and the regions east of it. Of these three terms, only the term "Sudetendeutsche" survived, because of the ethnic and cultural conflicts within Bohemia. Image File history File links Germans_in_western_Austro-Hungaria. ... Image File history File links Germans_in_western_Austro-Hungaria. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Changes after World War I

After World War I, Austria-Hungary broke apart. Late in October 1918, an independent Czechoslovak state, consisting of the lands of the Bohemian kingdom, was proclaimed. However, the German deputies of Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia in the Imperial Parliament (Reichsrat) refused to adhere to the new state by referring to the Fourteen Points of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson. Instead they proclaimed the union of the German-speaking territories with the new Republic of German Austria, which itself aimed at joining Weimar Germany. Four regional governmental units were established: “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Between 1867 and 1918, the Reichsrat was the parliament of Cisleithania, the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary, which was officially known as the kingdoms and lands represented in the Reichsrat (German die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder). ... United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... The Republic of German Austria (German: ) was the initial rump state successor to Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I for areas with a predominantly ethnic German population. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature...

The U.S. commission to the Paris Peace Conference made the following, unheeded, recommendations. It should be noted they refer to all areas claimed by Czechoslovakia, including areas such as Lusatia, which would for obvious reasons never be joined to Czechoslovakia. [1] German Bohemia (German: ; Czech: ) is a historical region in Czech Republic. ... Town hall Liberec ( , German: Reichenberg, Romany: Libertsis) is a city of the Czech Republic, in the Liberec Region. ... Landeshauptmann (literally country captain or state captain) is the German title of the governor of a state of Austria or of the Italian province of Bolzano (South Tyrol). ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Silesia (Polish ÅšlÄ…sk, German Schlesien, Czech Slezsko) is a historical region in central Europe. ... Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region Moravian-Silesian District Opava First mentioned 1195 Mayor ZbynÄ›k Stanjura Area    - City 90,61 km² Elevation 257 m Population  - City 59 843 Postal code 746 01 Website: http://www. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Bohemian Forest in the afternoon Bohemian Forest at noon The Bohemian forest is a low mountain range in Central Europe. ... Bohemian Forest in the afternoon Bohemian Forest at noon The Bohemian forest is a low mountain range in Central Europe. ... South Bohemian Region (in Czech Jihočeský kraj) is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located mostly in the southern part of its historical region of Bohemia, with a small part in southwestern Moravia. ... Upper Austria (Ober sterreich) is one of the nine federal states or Bundesl nder of Austria. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... German South Moravia (German: ; Czech: ) is a historical region in Czechia. ... Map of Lower Austria showing districts and the four quarters (Waldviertel in green, Weinviertel in red, Mostviertel in yellow and Industrieviertel in blue) Lower Austria (de: Niederösterreich) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer in Austria. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern...

"To grant to the Czechoslovaks all the territory they demand would be not only an injustice to millions of people unwilling to come under Czech rule, but it would also be dangerous and perhaps fatal to the future of the new state ... the blood shed on March 3rd when Czech soldiers in several towns fired on German crowds ... was shed in a manner that is not easily forgiven... For the Bohemia of the future to contain within its limits great numbers of deeply discontented inhabitants who will have behind them across the border tens of millions of sympathizers of their own race will be a perilous experiment and one which can hardly promise success in the long run."

Several German minorities in Moravia, including German populations in Brno, Jihlava, and Olomouc also attempted to proclaim their union with German Austria but failed. Ethnic Germans – often simply called Germans – are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German but do not live within the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, nor necessarily hold its citizenship. ... Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region South Moravia Founded 1146 Area  - city 230. ... Jihlava â–¶(?) (German Iglau) is a city in the Czech Republic. ... town hall with astronomical clock Olomouc (German Olmütz, Polish OÅ‚omuniec, Latin Eburum or Olomucium) is a city in Moravia, in the east of the Czech Republic. ...


The Czechs thus rejected the aspirations of the Sudeten Germans and demanded the inclusion of the Sudetenland in their new state, despite the presence of more than three million ethnic Germans, on the grounds they had always been part of Bohemia and Moravia. The Treaty of Saint-Germain in 1919 affirmed the inclusion of the German-speaking territories within the new state of Czechoslovakia. Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... The Treaty of Saint-Germain, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new republic of Austria on the other. ...


However, over the next two decades, some Germans in the Sudetenland continued to strive for a separation of the German inhabited regions from Czechoslovakia.


Within the Czechoslovak Republic (1918-1938)

Main article: Germans in Czechoslovakia (1918-1938)

According to the February 1921 census 3,123,000 Germans lived in all Czechoslovakia - 23.4% of the total population. The most intractable nationality problem in the interwar period - one that played a major role in the destruction of democratic Czechoslovakia - was that of the Sudeten Germans living mostly in Sudetenland. ...


The controversies between the Czechs and the German minority (which was actually a majority in the Sudetenland areas) lingered on throughout the 1920s and intensified in the 1930s. The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ...


In the years of Great Depression the mostly mountainous regions populated by German minority - together with other peripheral regions in Czechoslovakia - were hurt by economic depression more than the inland. Unlike the underdeveloped regions (Ruthenia, Wallachia...) there was a high concentration of industry dependent on export (such as glass works, textile industry, paper-making and toy-making industry) and thus very vulnerable in the period of global depression. For example: 60% of the bijouterie and glass-making industry were located in Sudetenland, 69% of employees in this sector were Germans, 95% of bijouterie and 78% of other glass-ware were produced for export. Then the glass-making sector was affected by decreased spending power and also by protective measures in other countries and many German workers lost their work.[2] For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... In economics, a depression is a term commonly used for a sustained downturn in the economy. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... Moravian Vlach from Brumov, 1787 Moravian Wallachia (Czech: Valašsko) is a mountainous region located in the easternmost part of Moravia, Czech Republic, near the Slovakian border. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Textile manufacturing. ... Costume jewelry is jewelry that is made of less valuable materials, including base metals, glass, plastic, and synthetic stones, in place of more valuable materials such as precious metals and gems. ... Costume jewelry is jewelry that is made of less valuable materials, including base metals, glass, plastic, and synthetic stones, in place of more valuable materials such as precious metals and gems. ...


The high unemployment made people more open to the populist and extremist movements (communism, fascism). In these years, the parties of German nationalists and later Sudetendeutsche Party (SdP) with its radical demands gained immense popularity among Germans in Czechoslovakia. The Sudetendeutsche nationalsozialistische Partei or Sudeten German National Socialist Party was created when the new state of Czechoslovakia outlawed the DNSAP, the German National Socialist Workers Party. At the end of WWI, the Austro-Hungarian Empire broke up into its constituent nation states, and the new Czech-dominated government considered... The most intractable nationality problem in the interwar period - one that played a major role in the destruction of democratic Czechoslovakia - was that of the Sudeten Germans living mostly in Sudetenland. ...


Sudeten Crisis and German annexation

After 1933, the Sudeten-German party (SdP) pursued a policy of escalation. Party leader Konrad Henlein with his deputy Karl Hermann Frank had secretly formed a pact with the Nazi Party now ruling in Germany and would gradually increase his demands so that Hitler could reap the fruits of the conflict. The Sudetendeutsche nationalsozialistische Partei or Sudeten German National Socialist Party was created when the new state of Czechoslovakia outlawed the DNSAP, the German National Socialist Workers Party. At the end of WWI, the Austro-Hungarian Empire broke up into its constituent nation states, and the new Czech-dominated government considered... Konrad Henlein as SS-Gruppenführer Konrad Henlein (May 6, 1898 - May 10, 1945) was the most important pro-Nazi politician in Czechoslovakia and leader of Sudeten German separatists. ... Karl Hermann Frank (January 24, 1898 – May 22, 1946) was a prominent Sudeten-German Nazi official in Czechoslovakia prior to and during World War IIand SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS und Polizei. ... The Nazi Party (German: , or NSDAP, English: National Socialist German Workers Party), was a far-right, racist political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ...

It has been frequently suggested that Henlein was a sinister schemer and his SdP nothing more than a subversive Nazi organization bent on the destruction of Czechoslovak independence. It is easy to understand how these notions arose, yet neither Henlein at the outset of his political career nor the SdP for many years of its development had anything to do with the National Socialist movement in Germany. Both were originally dedicated to a democratic settlement of the Sudeten German question, which was to be achieved by peaceful negotiations in the Czech parliament. All attemps to reach an acceptable settlement, however, failed, and the gradual escalation of the Czech-Sudeten confrontation resulted in forcing Henlein into the arms of Adolf Hitler, who promised to provide an international sounding board for the Sudeten case. […] Hitler of course, more than welcomed the opportunity of making the Sudeten case his own and did not hesitate to misuse the principle of self-determination as a weapon to further his own Lebensraum policy.[3]

Immediately after the Anschluss of Austria into the Third Reich in March 1938, Hitler made himself the advocate of ethnic Germans living in Czechoslovakia, triggering the "Sudeten Crisis". German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Munich Agreement and the first Vienna Award After the Austrian Anschluss, Czechoslovakia was to become Hitlers next target. ...


In August, UK Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, sent Lord Runciman to Czechoslovakia in order to see if he could obtain a settlement between the Czechoslovak government and the Germans in the Sudetenland. His mission failed because, on Hitler's command, Sudeten German Party refused all conciliating proposals.[4][5][6] Runciman reported the following to the British government: Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940), known as Neville Chamberlain, was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ... Walter Runciman, 1st Viscount Runciman of Doxford (1870-1949) was a prominent Liberal, later National Liberal politician in the United Kingdom from the 1900s until the 1930s. ... The Sudetendeutsche nationalsozialistische Partei or Sudeten German National Socialist Party was created when the new state of Czechoslovakia outlawed the DNSAP, the German National Socialist Workers Party. At the end of World War I, the Austro-Hungarian Empire broke up into its constituent nation states, and the new Czech-dominated...

Czech officials and Czech police, speaking little or no German, were appointed in large numbers to purely German districts; Czech agricultural colonists were encouraged to settle on land confiscated under the Land Reform in the middle of German populations; for the children of these Czech invaders Czech schools were built on a large scale; there is a very general belief that Czech firms were favoured as against German firms in the allocation of State contracts and that the State provided work and relief for Czechs more readily than for Germans. I believe these complaints to be in the main justified. Even as late as the time of my Mission, I could find no readiness on the part of the Czechoslovak Government to remedy them on anything like an adequate scale ... the feeling among the Sudeten Germans until about three or four years ago was one of hopelessness. But the rise of Nazi Germany gave them new hope. I regard their turning for help towards their kinsmen and their eventual desire to join the Reich as a natural development in the circumstances.[7]
Cropped image of what first appeared in the Nazi party newspaper Völkischer Beobachter, ostensibly depicting a Sudeten German woman in Asch crying tears of joy when Hitler crossed the border in 1938. Allied propaganda later used the cropped image with other interpretations.
Cropped image of what first appeared in the Nazi party newspaper Völkischer Beobachter, ostensibly depicting a Sudeten German woman in Asch crying tears of joy when Hitler crossed the border in 1938. Allied propaganda later used the cropped image with other interpretations.

The Nazis, together with their Sudeten German allies, demanded incorporation of the region into Nazi Germany to escape "oppression", in fact to destroy the Czechoslovak state. While the Czechoslovak government mobilized its troops, the Western powers urged it to comply with Germany believing that they could prevent or postpone a general war by appeasing Hitler. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 464 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2322 × 3000 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 464 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2322 × 3000 pixel, file size: 1. ... One of the last editions of the Völkischer Beobachter (April 20, 1945) hails Adolf Hitler as man of the century on the occasion of his 56th birthday, ten days before his suicide. ... AÅ¡ is a city in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic. ... A representation of the changes in territory controlled by Allies and Axis powers over the course of the war. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during the World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from during the Cultural Revolution. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ...


British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain met with Adolf Hitler in Berchtesgaden on 15 September and agreed to the cession of the Sudetenland. Three days later, French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier did the same. No Czechoslovak representative was invited to these discussions. Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940), known as Neville Chamberlain, was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Berchtesgaden is a town in the German Bavarian Alps. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Note: this article name (or a redirect to it) is a homophone with session. ... French politician Édouard Daladier Édouard Daladier (June 18, 1884 - October 10, 1970) was a French politician, and Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War. ...


Chamberlain met Hitler in Godesberg on September 22 to confirm the agreements. Hitler however, aiming at using the crisis as a pretext for war, now demanded not only the annexation of the Sudetenland but the immediate military occupation of the territories, giving the Czechoslovakian army no time to adapt their defence measures to the new borders. To achieve a solution, Italian prime minister Benito Mussolini suggested a conference of the major powers in Munich and on September 29, Hitler, Daladier and Chamberlain met and agreed to Mussolini's proposal (actually prepared by Hermann Göring) and signed the Munich Agreement accepting the immediate occupation of the Sudetenland. The Czechoslovak government, though not party to the talks, promised to abide by the agreement on September 30. Location of Bad Godesberg in Bonn Bad Godesberg became a municipal district of Bonn in 1969. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring ( ) (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Sudetenland was occupied by Germany between October 1 and October 10, 1938. This unification with the Third Reich was followed by the flight or expulsion of most of the region's Czech population to areas remaining within Czechoslovakia. is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


The remaining parts of Czechoslovakia were subsequently invaded and annexed by Germany in March 1939. Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Sudetenland as part of Nazi Germany

The Sudetenland was initially put under military administration, with General Wilhelm Keitel as Military governor. On 21 October 1938, the annexed territories were divided, with the southern parts being incorporated into the neighbouring Reichsgaue Oberdonau and Niederdonau. Generalfeldmarschall Wilhelm Keitel Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (September 22, 1882 - October 16, 1946) was a German field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) and a senior military leader during World War II. // Keitel was born in Helmscherode, Brunswick, German Empire, the son of Carl Keitel, a middle-class landowner, and his wife Apollonia... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The northern and western parts were reorganised as the Reichsgau Sudetenland, with the city of Reichenberg (present-day Liberec) established as its capital. Konrad Henlein (now openly a NSDAP member) administered the district first as Reichskommissar (until 1 May 1939) and then as Reichsstatthalter (1 May 19394 May 1945). Sudetenland consisted of three political districts: Eger (with Karlsbad as capital), Aussig (Aussig) and Troppau (Troppau). Town hall Liberec ( , German: Reichenberg, Romany: Libertsis) is a city of the Czech Republic, in the Liberec Region. ... Konrad Henlein as SS-Gruppenführer Konrad Henlein (May 6, 1898 - May 10, 1945) was the most important pro-Nazi politician in Czechoslovakia and leader of Sudeten German separatists. ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Reichskommissar (Commissionary of the Empire) was an official title of authorized representative of the Deutsches Reich (after 1871) who was appointed to a special task, e. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reichsstatthalter, German Statthalter (cfr. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region Karlovy Vary District Karlovy Vary Founded around 1350 Area    - city 59. ...

Map of the Sudetenland Reichsgau.
Map of the Sudetenland Reichsgau.

Shortly after the annexation, the Jews living in the Sudetenland were widely persecuted. Only a few weeks after, the great pogrom called "Kristallnacht" occurred. As elsewhere in Germany, many synagogues were set on fire and many Jews were sent to concentration camps. In later years, the Nazis transported up to 300.000 Czech and Slovak Jews to concentration camps.[8] where 90% of them were killed or died. Jews and Czechs were not the only afflicted peoples; German Socialists, communists and pacifists were widely persecuted as well. Some of the German Socialist fled Sudetenland via Prague and London to other countries. The "Gleichschaltung" would damage permamently the community in the Sudetenland. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1298x575, 27 KB) [edit] Summary Map of Sudetenland created by w:en:user:Clevelander. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1298x575, 27 KB) [edit] Summary Map of Sudetenland created by w:en:user:Clevelander. ... A Reichsgau was a province within the Greater Germany of 1938 to 1945 (from the start of territorial annexation to the fall of the Third Reich). ... Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Internment camp for Japanese in Canada during World War II Internment is the imprisonment or confinement[1] of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. ... The German word Gleichschaltung Ⓗ Ⓘ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ...


Despite this, on 4 December 1938 there were elections in Reichsgau Sudetenland, in which 97.32% of the adult population voted for NSDAP. About half million Sudeten Germans joined the Nazi Party which was 17.34% of the German population in Sudetenland (the average NSDAP participation in Nazi Germany was 7.85%). This means, the Sudetenland was the most "pro-Nazi" region in the Third Reich.[5] Because of their knowledge of the Czech language, many Sudeten Germans were employed in administration of Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia as well as in Nazi organizations (Gestapo, etc.). The most notable was Karl Hermann Frank: the SS and Police general and Secretary of State in the Protectorate. is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Czech (čeÅ¡tina []) is one of the West Slavic languages, along with Slovak, Polish, Pomeranian (Kashubian), and Lusatian Sorbian. ... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13... Karl Hermann Frank (January 24, 1898 – May 22, 1946) was a prominent Sudeten-German Nazi official in Czechoslovakia prior to and during World War IIand SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS und Polizei. ...


Expulsions and resettlement after World War II

After the end of World War II, the Potsdam Conference in 1945 determined that Sudeten Germans would have to leave Czechoslovakia (see Expulsion of Germans after World War II). As a consequence of the immense hostility against all Germans that had grown within Czechoslovakia due to Nazi behavior, the overwhelming majority of Germans were expelled. (While the relevant Czechoslovak legislation provided for the remaining of those Germans that were able to prove their anti-Nazi affiliation, in many instances these provisions were not respected.) The number of expelled Germans in early phase (spring-summer 1945) is estimated to be around 500,000 people. These expulsions and forced resettlements were associated with excesses and even murders of Germans, e.g. during the Brno death march ("Brünner Todesmarsch", the forced march of some 20,000 German inhabitants of Brno toward the Austrian borders in the end of May 1945). There were about 24,000 known deaths directly related to the expulsion (this includes murders as well as suicides or deaths from disease, old age, etc.). More than 62,000 German people were reported missing by relatives, but their deaths could not be verified. The property of practically all Sudeten Germans, claimed to be part of war reparations, was confiscated by Czechoslovakia pursuant to the Beneš decrees. During the organised phase in 1946, a total of 2,232,544 people were transferred to Germany: two-thirds of them to the American sector, and one-third to the Soviet sector (note: not all of the transferred were actual Germans, the number includes the non-German members of mixed families and renegades). Only about 244,000 Germans were allowed to remain in Czechoslovakia. Many German refugees from Czechoslovakia are represented by the Sudetendeutsche Landsmannschaft. Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region South Moravia Founded 1146 Area  - city 230. ... War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... The BeneÅ¡ decrees (Czech: ; German: ; Slovak: ; Hungarian: ) refers to a series of laws enacted by the Czechoslovak government of exile during World War II in absence of Czechoslovak parliament (see details in Czechoslovakia: World War II (1939 - 1945)). Today, the term is most frequently used for the part of them... Sudetendeutsche Landsmannschaft is an organization formed in January 1950 by German refugees. ...


Many of the Germans who stayed in Czechoslovakia later emigrated to West Germany (more than 100,000). As the German population was transferred out the country, the former Sudetenland was resettled, mostly by Czechs but also by other nationalities of Czechoslovakia: Slovaks, Volhynian Czechs, Gypsies and Hungarians (though the Hungarians were forced into this and later returned home). Some areas remained depopulated for several strategic reasons (extensive mining, military interests etc.) or simply for their lack of attractions. There remained areas with noticeable German minorities only in the westernmost borderland. In the 2001 census, only approximately 40,000 people in the Czech Republic claimed German ethnicity. The term Sudetenland now has only a historical meaning, generally closely linked to its Nazi past. Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Alfred de Zayas, "Anglo-American Responsibility for the Expulsion of the Germans, 1944-48", (Pittsburg lecture, published in Vardy/Tooley "Ethnic Cleansing in 20th Century Europe" pp. 239-254) p. 245
  2. ^ Kárník, Zdeněk. České země v éře první republiky (1918-1938). Díl 2. Praha 2002.
  3. ^ de Zayas, Alfred-Maurice. Nemesis at Potsdam. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1977 ISBN 0710084684, pp. 28f
  4. ^ Šamberger, Zdeněk: Mnichov 1938 v řeči archivních dokumentů. Praha 2002. (ISBN 8085475936)
  5. ^ a b Zimmermann, Volker: Die Sudetendeutschen im NS-Staat. Politik und Stimmung der Bevölkerung im Reichsgau Sudetenland (1938-1945). Essen 1999. (ISBN 3884747703)
  6. ^ Čelovský, Bořivoj: Germanisierung und Genozid. Hitlers Endlösung der tschechischen Frage - deutsche Dokumente 1933-1945. Dresden 2005. (ISBN 8090355013)
  7. ^ Alfred de Zayas, "Anglo-American Responsibility for the Expulsion of the Germans, 1944-48", (Pittsburg lecture, published in Vardy/Tooley "Ethnic Cleansing in 20th Century Europe" pp. 239-254) p. 243
  8. ^ Wheeler, Charles (2002-12-03). Czechs' hidden revenge against Germans (HTML, Blog). BBC News. Retrieved on 2006-09-26.

BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

The most intractable nationality problem in the interwar period - one that played a major role in the destruction of democratic Czechoslovakia - was that of the Sudeten Germans living mostly in Sudetenland. ... The Munich Agreement and the first Vienna Award After the Austrian Anschluss, Czechoslovakia was to become Hitlers next target. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... The pursuit of Nazi collaborators refers to the post-WWII pursuit and apprehension of individuals who were not citizens of the Third Reich at the outbreak of World War II and collaborated with the Nazi regime during the war. ...

Sources and references


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sudetenland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1434 words)
Sudetenland (German: Sudetenland; Czech: Sudety, Polish: Sudety) was the name used in the first half of the 20th century for the regions inhabited mostly by Germans in the various places of Bohemia, Moravia, and parts of Silesia.
Sudetenland is a 20th century name and not a historical region and it is thus difficult to describe a distinct consistent history of the Sudetenland.
For centuries Bohemia and with it Sudetenland was part of the Austrian empire until the modern concepts of nation and nationalism gained power in the 19th century and conflicts between Czech nationalists and Germans emerged (for instance the Revolution of 1848).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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