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Encyclopedia > Sudden death

Sudden death is a way of providing a winner for a sports contest which would otherwise end in a tie. It provides a victor for the contest without a specific amount of time being required, usually by making the first team or participant scoring in the additional time of play the winner. Sudden death is often referred to as sudden victory in the official jargon of sports utilizing it to avoid the generally negative context of "death". For similar reasons, in football (soccer), the concept is referred to as the golden goal. The golden goal was a method used in football (soccer) to decide the result of games in elimination matches which end in a draw after the end of ordinary time (90 minutes). ...


North American professional sports using a sudden death method of settling a tied game include the National Football League, the National Hockey League and, in a modified sense, the Arena Football League and the PGA Tour (golf). Baseball uses a method of tie-breaking that is somewhat unique to it and incorporates elements of sudden death, but is not a sudden death-ending sport in the strictest sense. The National Football League (NFL) is the largest professional American football league, consisting of thirty-two teams from American cities and regions. ... The modernized NHL shield logo debuted in 2005, replacing the orange and black shield, which had been used since the leagues inception. ... The Arena Football League (AFL) was founded in 1987 as an American football indoor league. ... The PGA Tour is an organization headquartered in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida, USA that operates the USAs main professional golf tours for men. ... Golf (gowf in Scots) is a sport where individual players or teams hit a ball into a hole using various clubs, and is one of the few ball games that does not use a fixed standard playing area. ... A view of the playing field at Busch Stadium II St. ...

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Professional Hockey and NFL

The National Hockey League, American Hockey League, ECHL, and the National Football league use a modified sudden-death system in their regular seasons. The American Hockey League (AHL) is regarded as the top professional hockey league in North America outside the National Hockey League (NHL). ... The ECHL (formerly the East Coast Hockey League) is a professional ice hockey league based in Princeton, New Jersey with teams scattered across the United States and Canada, generally regarded as a tier below the American Hockey League. ...


Prior to 1974, an NFL game which was a tie in the regular season ended as a tie. Sudden-death overtime was used only in playoff games, with the 1958 NFL championship ending in overtime.


In 1974, however, the NFL adopted a 15-minute sudden death overtime period. The game ends and is recorded as a tie if neither team scores in the overtime. This rarely happens, since as soon as a team gets near the end zone, they will almost certainly attempt to kick a field goal. While most overtime games are won by field goals, it is also possible to win by scoring a touchdown on a play that began far enough away from the end zone to make a field goal difficult. A far more rare occurrence is for an overtime game to be won by a safety; indeed, this has only happened twice in NFL history. In recent years, game-winning touchdowns or field goals were referred to by sportscasters as "walk-off"s, meaning both teams walk off the field when one of the teams score in OT thus ending the game. The end zone is a term in both Canadian football and American football. ... A field goal (formerly goal from the field) is a general term used in some sports wherein a goal may be scored either during general play (from the field) or via some sort of free shot. ... A touchdown is the primary method of scoring in American and Canadian football, in which the ball carrier causes the football to break the plane of the end zone, or an eligible receiver catches a forward pass in the end zone, thus earning 6 points for his team (in both... In American football and Canadian football, safety can refer to: two positions in the most-common defensive backfield setup, the strong safety and the free safety, or a type of score, worth one or two points. ...


In ice hockey, a five minute sudden death overtime period is played.


In 2000, the AHL changed overtime by having the teams reduced to four players each during the five-minute overtime, and any two-man advantage will be awarded by having the team with the two-man advantage being able to play five-on-three during the two-man advantage. The ECHL and NHL both changed to the four-on-four overtime format in 2001.


If neither team scores during this period the teams will go to a penalty-shot shootout consisting of three players in the NHL or five players in the minor leagues (AHL, ECHL, UHL, Central) to determine the winner.


During championship playoffs, however, all games are played to a conclusion resulting in a victory for one team and a loss for the other. These are "true" sudden death games, which have gone on into a second additional period in football, and as many as six additional periods in ice hockey, which are full 20-minute periods with five players, instead of the five-minute period with four players. The practice has been widely criticized in the case of the NFL, as games often are decided when the team receiving the ball at the start of the sudden death overtime scores during that initial possession (often with a field goal) and the opponent loses without having ever had possession of the ball in overtime. Largely in answer to this criticism, the tiebreaking system adopted in college football involves baseball-style "innings" in which each team alternates possessions until one outscores the other during a corresponding "inning" rather than the sudden death system, and where a team must attempt a two-point conversion starting with the third overtime "inning". The criticism has tended to be different in hockey, where the prospects of a six- or seven, or even eight-period match seem to threaten the well-being of the players, coaches, officials, and even fans, and other ways of curtailing the matches and providing a victor, such as the penalty shot shootout. A penalty shot shootout is used in international hockey for knockout rounds if neither team scores after one 20-minute period of sudden death. (There is no overtime in round-robin games.) A field goal (formerly goal from the field) is a general term used in some sports wherein a goal may be scored either during general play (from the field) or via some sort of free shot. ... A college football game between Colorado State University and the Air Force Academy. ...


In January 2004, a Carolina Panthers at St. Louis Rams playoff game ended on the first play of the second overtime, on a long touchdown pass, the most recent second overtime in an NFL game.


The now-defunct United States Football League had a triple-overtime game in 1984, between the Los Angeles Express and Michigan Panthers, which ended with a walk-off touchdown 3:33 into the third overtime. It is to date the longest professional football game ever played in the United States. The United States Football League was a professional American football league that played three seasons between 1983 and 1985. ...


Arena Football

The Arena Football League uses a modified version of sudden death, in which each team is allowed one overtime possession and the team which has scored the most points at that juncture being declared the winner, with sudden death going into effect if the score is still tied at this point. During the regular season, time expires after one additional fifteen-minute quarter and the game results in a tie if neither team had scored. Arena football is a sport invented by Jim Foster, a former executive of the United States Football League and the National Football League. ...


The same system is used in the NFL Europe League.


(This has actually occurred only once since this format was adopted — on April 8, 2005, when a game between the Dallas Desperados and the Nashville Kats ended in a 41-41 tie.) April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Conference National Division Eastern Year founded 2002 Home arena American Airlines Center City, State Dallas, Texas Wild card titles 1: 2002 Division titles 1: 2003 Conference titles none ArenaBowl championships none The Dallas Desperados are an Arena Football League team that began play in 2002. ... This page is for the current Nashville Kats, which began play in the Arena Football League in 2005. ...


Golf

Traditionally, professional golf tournaments ending in a tie were played off the next day with an eighteen-hole match. Modern considerations such as television coverage and the tight travel schedule of most leading golfers have led to this practice being almost entirely abandoned, and in all but the most important tournaments, the champion is determined by sudden death. All players tied after the completion of regulation play are taken to a predetermined hole, and then play it and others in order as needed. If more than two players are tied, each player who scores higher on a hole than the other competitors is immediately eliminated, and those still tied continue play until one remaining player has a lower score for a hole than any of the others remaining, and that player is declared the winner.


Of the four men's major championships, only The Masters uses a sudden-death playoff format. The US Open still uses an 18-hole playoff at stroke play on the day after the main tournament, with sudden death if two (or more) contestants remain tied after 18 holes. The Open Championship and the PGA Championship use a three-hole total-stroke playoff, with sudden death used if a tie exists at the end of the scheduled playoff. The Major Championships, often referred to simply as the Majors are the four most prestigious annual tournaments in mens professional golf. ... The Masters is one of four major championships in mens golf and the first to take place each year. ... The United States Open Golf Tournament is an annual mens golf tournament staged by the United States Golf Association each June. ... 2005 Open Champion Tiger Woods holding the Claret Jug. ... // The PGA Championship is an annual golf tournament, conducted by the Professional Golfers Association of America as part of the PGA TOUR. The PGA Championship is one of the four Major Championships in mens golf, and it is the golf seasons final major, being played in August. ...


Baseball

Baseball is not truly a sudden death sport, but has important elements of the practice. Traditionally a baseball game cannot end until both teams have had an equal number of turns at bat. This means that if a baseball game is tied going into the last scheduled inning or an extra inning that it is essentially a sudden death situation while the home team, which always bats last, is at bat with the score tied. Regardless of the number of runs scored by the visiting team in an extra inning, the home team will receive an opportunity to equal or exceed this total prior to having three outs recorded against it during its turn at bat. An innings, or inning, is a segment of a game in any of a variety of sports – most notably baseball and cricket – during which a side takes its turn to bat. ...


Sudden death has been used to determine the outcome in some instances of other sports such as bowling, and at least proposed in some of the minor leagues of basketball as a tiebreaker after playing a specified number of fixed-time overtime periods, but has never been adopted in basketball at any championship level. Bowling ball and two pins Ten-pin bowling lane Bowling is a game in which players attempt to score points by rolling a ball along a flat surface to knock down objects called pins. ... Minor leagues in the sense intended in this article are professional sports leagues which are not regarded as the premier leagues in those sports. ... Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005 For other uses, see Basketball (disambiguation). ...


Football (soccer)

Sudden death has a controversial history in soccer, in which ties in important matches were traditionally resolved by replaying the entire match, which in the era of television and tight travel schedules is obviously impracticable, but esteemed by the sport's purists as the only equitable way to settle a tied match. Football is a ball game played between two teams of eleven players, each attempting to win by scoring more goals than their opponent. ...


For the most part, if the score is tied after the full 90 minutes, a draw results; however, if one team must be eliminated, some form of tie-breaking must occur. Originally, two 15-minute halves of extra time were held and if the teams remained equal at the end of the halves, kicks from the penalty mark were held, which is generally held in lower regard by purists and traditionalists than even sudden death. To try to decrease the chances of requiring kicks from the penalty mark, the IFAB, the world law making body of the sport, experimented with new rules. Extra time is an additional period played at the end of some games of football (soccer) if the score is tied after the two standard periods (halves) of play. ... Ricardo scores a decisive penalty in the quarterfinals of EURO 2004 Kicks from the penalty mark (commonly referred to as a penalty shootout) are sometimes used to decide which team progresses to the next stage of a tournament following a tied result in a game of association football (soccer). ... The International Football Association Board (IFAB) (a. ...


The golden goal rule, transformed the overtime periods into sudden death until the periods were over, where shootouts would occur. As this became unpopular, the silver goal rule was instituted, causing the game to end if the scores were not equal after the first 15 minute period as well as the second. The silver goal has also fallen into disrepute so Euro 2004 was the last event to use it; in the future the original tie-breaking methods will be used. The golden goal was a method used in football (soccer) to decide the result of games in elimination matches which end in a draw after the end of ordinary time (90 minutes). ... Silver goal was a method used in association football to decide the result of games in elimination matches which end in a draw after the end of the ordinary time. ... Euro 2004 Logo The 2004 UEFA European Football Championship, commonly called Euro 2004, was held in Portugal between 12 June and 4 July 2004. ...


The main criticism of sudden death is the quickness of ending the game, and the pressure on coaches and players. To the coaches, it does not seem appropriate once the goal is scored, the game is over and the opponent cannot attempt to answer the goal within the remaining time, creating a game where extra pressure is placed as to not create any mistakes.


In NCAA collegiate play in the United States, however, sudden death, adopted in 1999 for all championship play in addition to regular season play, remains. In 2005, the Division II Women's Championship game ended in sudden death as a goal was scored three minutes into the overtime to end the championship match. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often pronounced N-C-Double-A or N-C-Two-A) is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletics programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ...


Sudden death is also prevalent in youth play, for the safety of players.


http://www.ncaa.org/news/1999/19990301/active/3605n08.html http://www.soccertimes.com/ncaa/2005/wgames/dec03a.htm


Rugby league

Drawn National Rugby League and State of Origin games are subject to sudden death overtime after 80 minutes of play, called the golden point, in two five-minute sudden death overtimes. The teams swap ends between overtime periods. The logo of the National Rugby League. ... The Rugby League State of Origin is an annual series of three interstate rugby league matches between the Queensland Maroons and the New South Wales Blues. ... A recent innovation to the National Rugby League competition (in 2003), is sudden death overtime, referred in the NRL as the golden point - a term borrowed from soccers now defunct golden goal. ...


Any score (try, penalty goal, or field goal) in sudden death ends the game -- no conversion attempted if a try takes place in sudden death.


Tennis

The use of sudden death tiebreakers has even influenced sports such as tennis which have not strictly speaking adopted them. The requirement that a tennis set be won by a minimum margin of two games sometimes resulted in five-set matches lasting six hours or longer, which is an impossibility for television. In order to shorten matches somewhat, sets tied at six games each can now be broken by a tiebreaker which is most often the first player to score seven points in the tiebreaker, but these must be won by at least two points and thus can become quite lengthy in their own right. The Australian Rod Laver, a candidate for the greatest player of all time This article is about the sport. ...


Tiebreakers are not used in major tournaments in the third or fifth set, respectively, with the exception of the US Open. The United States Open tennis championships, commonly refered to as the U.S. Open (or as simply the Open in the U.S. only), is the fourth and final event of the Grand Slam tennis tournaments. ...


Fencing

An individual fencing bout lasts for five touches in a poule match, or 15 touches in a direct elimination (DE) match. In épée and foil, matches are also timed (three minutes for a poule match, and three periods of three minutes for a DE). If neither fencer has reached five or 15 points within the time limit, the leading fencer is deemed the winner. However, if the fencers are tied after the allotted time, one minute of extra time is added. Russian Ivan Tourchine and American Weston Kelsey fence in the second round of the Olympic Mens Individual Épée event at the Helliniko Fencing Hall on Aug. ...


Before resuming the bout, one fencer is randomly awarded "priority". The first fencer to score a valid hit within extra time wins the match; if no valid hits are scored within the time, that fencer with priority is declared the victor.


In the normal course of a match, there is a de facto sudden death situation if both fencers are tied at four (or 14) touches each. The final hit is called "la belle". The fencers may salute each other before playing for the final point.


Computer gaming

Sudden death also occurs in computer gaming when both teams have the same score and a method of breaking a tie is needed. For example, in a Capture the Flag area for Quake III Arena, when neither team has gotten a score, or if no team leads, a sudden death match will decide who will be the victor. All the teams have to do is get the flag and deliver it to the base one time only in order to win automatically. Capture the flag is a traditional outdoor game often played by children where two teams each have a flag and the objective is to capture the other teams flag, located at the teams base, and bring it back to their own base. ... Quake III Arena or Quake 3, abbreviated as Q3A or Q3, is a multiplayer first-person shooter released on December 2, 1999. ...


Board games

In board games such as chess where there is a time limit, "sudden death" refers to a requirement that all the remaining moves, rather than a fixed number of moves, be played within the remaining time alotted. This ensures an upper limit for how long games can last. Some games are played with an immediate sudden death time control, others have one or more regular time controls before the sudden death control. Chess is an abstract strategy board game for two players. ... A time control is imposed on the tournament play of almost all two-player board games to ensure that neither player delays the game or gains an unfair advantage by thinking for an unduly long time. ...


Wrestling

Sudden death in wrestling is most commonly seen in RCW tournament matches, in which a victor must be decided. This happens in the case of a double knockout or double countout. Sudden death is also used in Ironman matches. An example is the WWE Ironman match between Shawn Michaels and Kurt Angle. That match ended 2-2, but Angle turned down the offer for Sudden Death. Michael Shawn Hickenbottom, (born on July 22, 1965 at Williams Air Force Base, now part of Chandler, Arizona) is an American professional wrestler, better known by his ring name, Shawn Michaels. ... Kurt Steven Angle (born December 9, 1968 in the Pittsburgh suburb of Mount Lebanon, Pennsylvania) is an American 1996 Olympic gold medalist in freestyle wrestling and a professional wrestler. ...


Future

Sudden death endings for sporting events have been roundly criticized ever since they were first proposed as both untraditional and unfair, but seem likely to become more rather than less widespread in the future given the exigencies of television coverage and stringent travel schedules for both individual athletes and sports teams.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sudden Cardiac Death (681 words)
Sudden death from cardiac arrest is a major health problem that's received much less publicity than heart attack.
Sudden cardiac death (also called sudden arrest) is death resulting from an abrupt loss of heart function (cardiac arrest).
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Sudden death - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2325 words)
Sudden death has been used to determine the outcome in some instances of other sports such as bowling, and at least proposed in some of the minor leagues of basketball as a tiebreaker after playing a specified number of fixed-time overtime periods, but has never been adopted in basketball at any championship level.
Sudden death has a controversial history in soccer, in which ties in important matches were traditionally resolved by replaying the entire match, which in the era of television and tight travel schedules is obviously impracticable, but esteemed by the sport's purists as the only equitable way to settle a tied match.
Sudden death endings for sporting events have been roundly criticized ever since they were first proposed as both untraditional and unfair, but seem likely to become more rather than less widespread in the future given the exigencies of television coverage and stringent travel schedules for both individual athletes and sports teams.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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