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Encyclopedia > Sudden Oak Death
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Sudden Oak Death
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Protista
Phylum: Heterokontophyta
Class: Oomycetes
Order: Pythiales
Family: Pythiaceae
Genus: Phytophthora
Species: P. ramorum
Binomial name
Phytophthora ramorum
Werres et al. 2001

Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum) is a water mould infection which afflicts some oak species and some other trees and shrubs, causing them to die rapidly. It also causes a non-fatal leaf disease in many other plants such as rhododendrons and California Bay Laurel. There is no known cure but new studies show that periodic wildfires help protect against the mould. Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Typical phyla Rhodophyta (red algae) Chromista Heterokontophyta (heterokonts) Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolates Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Excavates Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists are a heterogeneous group of living things, comprising those eukaryotes which are neither animals, plants, nor fungi. ... Typical classes Colored groups Chrysophyceae (golden algae) Synurophyceae Actinochrysophyceae (axodines) Pelagophyceae Phaeothamniophyceae Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) Raphidophyceae Eustigmatophyceae Xanthophyceae (yellow-green algae) Phaeophyceae (brown algae) Colorless groups Oomycetes (water moulds) Hypochytridiomycetes Bicosoecea Labyrinthulomycetes (slime nets) Opalinea Proteromonadea The heterokonts or stramenopiles are a major line of eukaryotes. ... Orders Lagenidiales Leptomitales Peronosporales Pythiales Rhipidiales Saprolegniales Sclerosporales Water moulds or Oomycetes are a group of filamentous protists, physically resembling fungi. ... Species Phytophthora cactorum Phytophthora cinnamomi Phytophthora infestans Phytophthora lateralis Phytophthora ramorum Phytophthora is a genus of water mould, and a pathogen of considerable economic importance. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is a standard convention used for naming species. ... Orders Lagenidiales Leptomitales Peronosporales Pythiales Rhipidiales Saprolegniales Sclerosporales Water moulds or Oomycetes are a group of filamentous protists, physically resembling fungi. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus, and some related genera, notably Lithocarpus. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth A tree can be defined as a large, perennial, woody plant. ... A willow shrub A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Subgenera Azaleastrum Candidastrum Hymenanthes Mumeazalea Pentanthera Rhododendron Therorhodion Tsutsusi Source: RBG, Edinburgh Rhododendron (from the Greek: rhodos, rose; dendron, tree) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae. ... Binomial name Umbellularia californica Umbellularia californica is an evergreen tree of the family Lauraceae. ... Cure can be: successful treatment of disease preserve (meat, for example), as by salting, smoking, or aging (see curing) prepare, preserve, or finish (a substance) by a chemical or physical process The Cure refers to more than one thing: The Cure are an English rock band. ...


It was first discovered in California in 1995 when large numbers of Tanoaks (Lithocarpus densiflorus) died mysteriously, and was described as a new species of Phytophthora in 2000. It has subsequently been found in many other areas including Britain, Germany, and some other US states, either accidentally introduced on nursery stock, or already present undetected. The origin of the disease remains unknown, although it was reported infecting European nursery rhodendrons and viburnum in 1993. State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Senators Dianne Feinstein (D) Barbara Boxer (D) Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Binomial name Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. ... Species Phytophthora cactorum Phytophthora cinnamomi Phytophthora infestans Phytophthora lateralis Phytophthora ramorum Phytophthora is a genus of water mould, and a pathogen of considerable economic importance. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: United States Wikinews has news related to this article: United States United States government CIA World Factbook Entry for United States House. ...


In tan oaks, the disease may be recognized by wilting newshoots, older leaves becoming pale green, and after a period of two to three weeks, foliage turns brown while clinging to the branches. Dark brown sap may stain the lower trunk's bark. Bark may split and exude gum, with visible discoloration. After the tree dies, suckers will sprout next year, but thier tips soon bend and die. Ambrosia beetles (Monarthrum scutellare) will most likely infest a dying tree during midsummer, producing piles of fine white dust near tiny holes. Later, bark beetles (Pseudopityophthorus pubipennis) produce fine red boring dust. Small black domes, the fruiting bodies of the Hypoxylon fungus may also be present on the bark. Leaf death may occur more than a year after the initial infectgion and months after the tree has been girdled by beetles.


In coast live oaks and black oaks, the first symptom is a burgundy-red to tar-black thick sap bleeding from the bark surface.


Promoting tree health may help prevent disease and insect infestations. Make certain roots and soil remain undisturbed, prune dead and dying branches out, and landscape below oaks with mulch or drought-tolerant plants. When a tree dies, experts recommend cutting it down and grinding down the stump. Firewood should be covered with 6 mil plastic, sealed at the edges with dirt or rocks, for six months to prevent beetle emergence.


In addition to oaks, any other forest species may be host for the disease, including rhodedndron, madrone(Arbutus menziesii), evergreen huckleberry (Vaccinium ovatum) California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), buckeye (Aesculus californica), big-leaf maple (Acer macrophyllum), toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia) and manzanita (Arctostaphylos spp.) Coastal redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziessi), coffeeberry (Rhamnus californica),and honeysuckle (Lonicera hispidula) and Shreve's oak (Quercus parvula v. shrevei) are also afflicted. Disease progression on these species is not well documented but hikers have observed dead Douglas firs with massive quantities of red frass surrounding their base. Redwoods exhibit needle discoloration andcankers on small branches, with purple lesions on sprouts that may lead to sprout mortality.


The disease is known to exist in California's coastal ranges bewteen Big Sur and southern Mendocino County and is confirmed in Alameda, Marin,Mendocino,Monterey, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara,Santa Cruz, Solano and Sonoma counties. It is reported in Orgeon as well as of 2002.


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