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Encyclopedia > Sudan
جمهورية السودان
Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān
Republic of Sudan
Flag of Sudan
Flag Coat of arms
Mottoالنصر لنا Al-Nasr Lana  (Arabic)
"Victory is Ours"
Anthemنحن جند لله جند الوطن  (Arabic)
We are the Army of God and of Our Land

Capital Khartoum
15°31′N 32°35′E / 15.517, 32.583
Largest city Omdurman
Official languages Arabic and English
Demonym Sudanese
Government Government of National Unity [1]
 -  President Omar Hassan al-Bashir
 -  First Vice President Salva Kiir
 -  Second Vice President Ali Osman Taha
Independence
 -  from The British Empire and the Kingdom of Egypt
January 1, 1956 
Area
 -  Total 2,505,813 km² (10th)
967,495 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 6
Population
 -  July 2007 estimate 39,379,358 (33rd)
 -  1993 census 24,940,683 
 -  Density 14/km² (194th)
36/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $107.8 billion (62nd)
 -  Per capita $2,522 9.6% (134th)
HDI (2007) 0.521 (medium) (148th)
Currency Sudanese pound (SDG)
Time zone East Africa Time (UTC+3)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .sd
Calling code +249

Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) (Arabic: السودان ‎as-Sūdān)[2] is the largest country in Africa[3] and tenth largest country in the world by area. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, Kenya and Uganda to the southeast, Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest. The country's name derives from the Arabic Bilad-al-sudan, literally "land of the blackened."[2] Sudan can mean: Sudan, a country in Northern Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... Coat of arms of Sudan. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 Former flag (1956-1970) The flag of Sudan was adopted on May 20, 1970, and consists of a red-white-black tricolor with a green triangle next to the hoist. ... The current coat of arms of Sudan was adopted in 1969. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Nahnu Jund Allah Jund Al-Watan (Arabic: نحن جند الله جند الوطن) is the national anthem of Sudan // نحن جند الله ج ان لم نخن ع ثمن الأ Ùˆ يحم We are doochebags of our land, We shall never fail when called to sacrifice. ... Image File history File links LocationSudan. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban 2. ... In Sudans 1981 census, the population was calculated at 21 million. ... Omdurman is in northern Sudan (upper center). ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... This page contains a list of presidents and other heads of state of Sudan. ... Omar al-Bashir Lieutenant General Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir (born January 1, 1944) is the president of Sudan. ... A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ... Salva Kiir Mayardit is the president of semi-autonomous Southern Sudan and the successor to the post of Vice President of Sudan, following the death of John Garang in a crash on 30 July 2005. ... A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ... External links Article about Taha from a Cairo news source August 2004 BBC interview Categories: People stubs | Sudanese people ... Anglo-Egyptian Sudan was the name of Sudan between 1899 and 1956, when it was a condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... The Sudanese pound (Arabic: ) is the currency of Sudan. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Africa: Striped colours indicate countries observing daylight saving East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .sd is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Sudan. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Arabic redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Countries by area. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...

Contents

History of Sudan

Statue of a Nubian king, Sudan.
Statue of a Nubian king, Sudan.
Main article: History of Sudan

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (720x1087, 134 KB) Description: Statue of a Nubian king, Sudan, Africa. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (720x1087, 134 KB) Description: Statue of a Nubian king, Sudan, Africa. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... Sudan combines the lands of several ancient kingdoms. ...

Early history of Sudan

Archaeological evidence has confirmed that the area in the North of Sudan was inhabited at least 60,000 years ago. A settled culture appeared in the area around 8000 BC, living in fortified villages, where they subsisted on hunting and fishing, as well as grain gathering and cattle herding. Aerial view of the Nubian pyramids at Meroe in 2001 This article details the early history of the Sudan region, from prehistoric times up until the coming of Islam shortly after the Prophet Muhammads death in 632. ...


The area was known to the Egyptians as Kush and had strong cultural and religious ties to Egypt. In the 8th century BC, however, Kush came under the rule of an aggressive line of monarchs, ruling from the capital city, Napata, who gradually extended their influence into Egypt. About 750 BC, a Kushite king called Kashta conquered Upper Egypt and became ruler of Thebes until approximately 740 BC. His successor, Piankhy, subdued the delta, reunited Egypt under the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, and founded a line of kings who ruled Kush and Thebes for about a hundred years. The dynasty's intervention in the area of modern Syria caused a confrontation between Egypt and Assyria. When the Assyrians in retaliation invaded Egypt, Taharqa (688-663 BC), the last Kushite pharaoh, withdrew and returned the dynasty to Napata, where it continued to rule Kush and extended its dominions to the south and east. This article is about the Nubian civilization. ... Piye (whose name once was transliterated as Piankhi) (died 716 BC) was a Kushite king. ... Taharqa (also spelled Tirhakah, Taharka, Manethos Tarakos) was king of Egypt, and a member of the Nubian or Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, whose reign is usually dated 690 BC to 664 BC. He was also the son of Piye, the Nubian king of Napata who had first conquered...


In 590 BC, an Egyptian army sacked Napata, compelling the Kushite court to move to Meroe near the 6th cataract. The Meroitic kingdom subsequently developed independently of Egypt, and during the height of its power in the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC, Meroe extended over a region from the 3rd cataract in the north to Sawba, near present-day Khartoum (the modern day capital of Sudan). Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban 2. ...


The pharaonic tradition persisted among Meroe's rulers, who raised stelae to record the achievements of their reigns and erected pyramids to contain their tombs. These objects and the ruins of palaces, temples and baths at Meroe attest to a centralized political system that employed artisans' skills and commanded the labour of a large work force. A well-managed irrigation system allowed the area to support a higher population density than was possible during later periods. By the 1st century BC, the use of hieroglyphs gave way to a Meroitic script that adapted the Egyptian writing system to an indigenous, Nubian-related language spoken later by the region's people. Ancient Egyptian funerary stela A stela (or stele) is a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected for funerary or commemorative purposes, most usually decorated with the names and titles of the deceased inscribed, carved in relief or painted onto the slab. ...


In the 5th century AD, the people known as the Nobatae occupied the Nile's west bank in northern Kush. Eventually they intermarried and established themselves among the Meroitic people as a military aristocracy. Until nearly the 5th century, Rome subsidized the Nobatae and used Meroe as a buffer between Egypt and the Blemmyes. About CE 350, an Axumite army from Abyssinia captured and destroyed Meroe city, ending the kingdom's independent existence. One of the Blemmyes, from a 1544 woodcut illustrating the Cosmographia by Sebastian Münster. ...


Christian kingdoms

By the 6th century, Ahmed Hassan took over Sudan, and three states had emerged as the political and cultural heirs of the Meroitic Kingdom. Nobatia in the North, also known as Ballanah, had its capital at Faras, in what is now Egypt; the central kingdom, Muqurra (Makuria), was centred at Dunqulah, about 150 kilometers south of modern Dunqulah; and Alawa (Alodia), in the heartland of old Meroe, which had its capital at Sawba (now a suburb of modern-day Khartoum). In all three kingdoms, warrior aristocracies ruled Meroitic populations from royal courts where functionaries bore Greek titles in emulation of the Byzantine court. Alodia is the least known of the Christian Nubian kingdoms. ...


A missionary sent by Byzantine empress Theodora arrived in Nobatia and started preaching the Gospel of Christ about 540 AD. The Nubian kings became Monophysite Christians. However, Makuria was of the Melkite Christian faith, unlike Nobatia and Alodia. For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Christian Nubia in the three states period. ... The term Melkite (also written Melchite) is used to refer to various Christian churches and their members originating in the Middle East. ... Nobatia was a kingdom in Christian Lower Nubia. ... Alodia is the least known of the Christian Nubian kingdoms. ...


The spread of Islam

After many attempts at military conquest failed, the Arab commander in Egypt concluded the first in a series of regularly renewed treaties known as AlBaqt (pactum) with the Nubians that governed relations between the two peoples for more than 678 years.


Islam progressed in the area over a long period of time through intermarriage and contacts with Arab merchants and settlers. In 1093, a Muslim prince of Nubian royal blood ascended the throne of Dunqulah as king.


The two most important Arabic-speaking groups to emerge in Nubia were the Jaali and the Juhayna. Both showed physical continuity with the indigenous pre-Islamic population. Today's northern Sudanese culture combines Nubian and Arabic elements.


Kingdom of Sinnar

During the 1600s, a people called the Funj, under a leader named Amara Dunqus, appeared in southern Nubia and supplanted the remnants of the old Christian kingdom of Alwa, establishing As-Saltana az-Zarqa (the Blue Sultanate)at Sinnar. The Blue Sultanate eventually became the keystone of the Funj Empire. By the mid-16th century, Sinnar controlled Al Jazirah and commanded the allegiance of vassal states and tribal districts north to the 3rd cataract and south to the rain forests. The government was substantially weakened by a series of succession arguments and coups within the royal family. In 1820 Muhammad Ali of Egypt sent 4,000 troops to invade Sudan. The pasha's forces accepted Sinnar's surrender from the last Funj sultan, Badi IV. The Funj were an ethnic group in present day Sudan their origins are not clearly known but they moved into Nubia from south of the swamplands in the early sixteenth century, fleeing pressure from the Shilluk. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Alodia or Alwa was a kingdom in Christian Nubia. ... Sennar is a town on the Blue Nile in Sudan that is the capital of the state of Sennar. ... Al Jazeera logo Al Jazeera (الجزيرة), meaning The Island or The (Arabian) Peninsula (whence also Algiers) is an television channel based in Qatar. ... This article is about the leader of Egypt. ... Pasha, pascha or bashaw (Turkish: paÅŸa) was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors and generals. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Badi IV, also known as Badi abu Shalukh (1724 - 1762) was a ruler of the Kingdom of Sennar. ...


Union with Egypt 1821-1885

Main article: History of Sudan under Muhammad Ali and his successors

In 1820, the Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali Pasha invaded and conquered northern Sudan. Though technically the Wāli of Egypt under the Ottoman Sultan, Muhammad Ali styled himself as Khedive of a virtually independent Egypt. Seeking to add Sudan to his domains, he sent his son Ibrahim Pasha to conquer the country, and subsequently incorporate it into Egypt. This policy was expanded and intensified by Ibrahim's son, Ismail I, under whose reign most of the remainder of modern-day Sudan was conquered. The Egyptian authorities made significant improvements to the Sudanese infrastructure (mainly in the north), especially with regard to irrigation and cotton production. The History of Sudan under Muhammad Ali and his successors traces the period from Muhammad Ali Pashas invasion of Sudan in 1820 until the fall of Khartoum to Muhammad Ahmad, the self-proclaimed Mahdi. ... This article is about the leader of Egypt. ... Wāli is an administrative title that was used during the Muslim Empire to designate governers of administrative divisions. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... For the HMS Khedive, see USS Cordova. ... Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt Ibrahim Pasha (Arabic: إبراهيم باشا) ‎ (1789 – November 10, 1848), a 19th century general of Egypt. ... Ismail Pasha, known as Ismail the Magnificent (December 31, 1830–March 2, 1895) was khedive of Egypt from 1863 until he was removed at the behest of the British in 1879. ...


Mahdist Revolt

Main article: Mahdist War

In 1879, the Great Powers forced the removal of Ismail and established his son Tewfik I in his place. Tewfik's corruption and mismanagement resulted in the Orabi Revolt, which threatened the Khedive's survival. Tewfik appealed for help to the British, who subsequently occupied Egypt and Sudan in 1882, ostensibly to guarantee the authority of the Khedive. In reality, however, the British largely took control of Egyptian and Sudanese affairs, fanning ever greater nationalist resentment. Combatants British Empire:  United Kingdom British India Australia[1]  Egypt Italy[2] Belgium[3] Mahdist Sudan Commanders Charles George Gordon â€  Herbert Kitchener Muhammad Ahmad Abdullah  The Mahdist War was a colonial war of the late 19th century. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... Tewfik Pasha Tewfik Pasha (Tawfiq of Egypt) (1852-1892) (Arabic: محمد توفيق باشا) was a khedive of Egypt. ... The Orabi Revolt was an uprising in Egypt in 1879-82 against the Khedive and European influence in the country. ...


Eventually, revolt broke out in Sudan, led by the Sudanese religious leader Muhammad ibn Abdalla, the self-proclaimed Mahdi (Guided One), who sought to purify Islam and end foreign domination in Sudan. His revolt culminated in the fall of Khartoum and the death of the British General Charles George Gordon (Gordon of Khartoum) in 1885. The Egyptian and British forces withdrew from Sudan leaving the Mahdi to form a short-lived theocratic state. Muhammad Ahmad ibn as Sayyid Abd Allah (1844 - June 22, 1885) was a Muslim religious leader, a faqir, in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Muhammad al-Mahdi. ... Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban 2. ... Chinese Gordon as Governor of Sudan Major-General Charles George Gordon, CB (28 January 1833 – 26 January 1885), known as Chinese Gordon, Gordon Pasha, and Gordon of Khartoum, was a British army officer and administrator. ...


Mahdist Rule: The Mahdiya

Main article: History of Sudan (1884-1898)

The Mahdiyah (Mahdist regime) imposed traditional Islamic laws. Sudan's new ruler also authorized the burning of lists of pedigrees and books of law and theology because of their association with the old order and because he believed that the former accentuated tribalism at the expense of religious unity. The Mahdist State, 1881-1898 Developments in Sudan during the late 19th century cannot be understood without reference to the British position in Egypt. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ...


The Mahdiyah has become known as the first genuine Sudanese nationalist government. The Mahdi maintained that his movement was not a religious order that could be accepted or rejected at will, but that it was a universal regime, which challenged man to join or to be destroyed. Originally, the Mahdiyah was a jihad state, run like a military camp. Sharia courts enforced Islamic law and the Mahdi's precepts, which had the force of law. Six months after the fall of Khartoum, the Mahdi died of typhus, and after a power struggle amongst his deputies, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, with the help primarily of the Baqqara Arabs of western Sudan, overcame the opposition of the others and emerged as unchallenged leader of the Mahdiyah. After consolidating his power, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad assumed the title of Khalifa (successor) of the Mahdi, instituted an administration, and appointed Ansar (who were usually Baqqara) as emirs over each of the several provinces. The Mahdist State, 1881-1898 Developments in Sudan during the late 19th century cannot be understood without reference to the British position in Egypt. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Abdullah Ibn-Mohammed or Abdullah et Taaisha ( 1846 – November 24, 1899), also known as The Khalifa was a Sudanese Dervish General and ruler. ... The Baggara or Baqqarah are a nomadic Bedouin people inhabiting the Darfur region of western Sudan and Chad. ... Omdurman, Sudan. ... Ansar (Arabic: الأنصار, meaning aiders, or patrons) refer to a class of warriors who are renouned for there arsenal of weapons and the speed and mobility of there arabian horse. ...


Regional relations remained tense throughout much of the Mahdiyah period, largely because of the Khalifa's commitment to using the jihad to extend his version of Islam throughout the world. In 1887, a 60,000-man Ansar army invaded Ethiopia, penetrating as far as Gondar. In March 1889, king Yohannes IV of Ethiopia, marched on Metemma; however, after Yohannes fell in battle, the Ethiopian forces withdrew. Abd ar Rahman an Nujumi, the Khalifa's best general, invaded Egypt in 1889, but British-led Egyptian troops defeated the Ansar at Tushkah. The failure of the Egyptian invasion broke the spell of the Ansar's invincibility. The Belgians prevented the Mahdi's men from conquering Equatoria, and in 1893, the Italians repulsed an Ansar attack at Akordat (in Eritrea) and forced the Ansar to withdraw from Ethiopia. Overview of the city with Fasilides castle in the center. ... Emperor Yohannes IV (c. ... Metemma is a village in western Ethiopia, on the border with Sudan. ... National motto: Dutch: Eendracht maakt macht; French: Lunion fait la force; German: Einigkeit macht stark (English: Strength lies in unity) Official language Dutch, French, German Capital Brussels Largest City Brussels King Albert II Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 148th 30,528 km² 6. ... Location of Equatoria province in Sudan Equatoria (Al-Istiwaiyah in Arabic) THE OTTOMAN - TURKEY GAVE THE NAME TO REPLACE LADO , began as a province of Egypt, located in the extreme south of present-day Sudan along the upper reaches of the White Nile. ...


Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1899-1956

In the 1890s, the British sought to re-establish their control over Sudan, once more officially in the name of the Egyptian Khedive, but in actuality treating the country as British imperial territory. By the early 1890s, British, French, and Belgian claims had converged at the Nile headwaters. Britain feared that the other imperial powers would take advantage of Sudan's instability to acquire territory previously annexed to Egypt. Apart from these political considerations, Britain wanted to establish control over the Nile to safeguard a planned irrigation dam at Aswan. For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ... Egypt: Site of Aswan (bottom). ...

"The War in the Soudan." A U.S. poster depicting British and Mahdist armies in battle, produced to advertise a Barnum & Bailey circus show titled "The Mahdi, or, For the Victoria Cross", 1897.
"The War in the Soudan." A U.S. poster depicting British and Mahdist armies in battle, produced to advertise a Barnum & Bailey circus show titled "The Mahdi, or, For the Victoria Cross", 1897.

Lord Kitchener led military campaigns from 1896 to 1898. Kitchener's campaigns culminated in the Battle of Omdurman. Following defeat of the Mahdists at Omdurman, an agreement was reached in 1899 establishing Anglo-Egyptian rule, under which Sudan was run by a governor-general appointed by Egypt with British consent. In reality, much to the revulsion of Egyptian and Sudanese nationalists, Sudan was effectively administered as a British colony. The British were keen to reverse the process, started under Muhammad Ali Pasha, of uniting the Nile Valley under Egyptian leadership, and sought to frustrate all efforts aimed at further uniting the two countries. Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener of Khartoum Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener of Khartoum PC, KBE, KCB, ADC ( June 24, 1850 - June 5, 1916) was a British Field Marshal and statesman. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  Egypt Mahdist Sudan Commanders Horatio Kitchener Abdullah al-Taashi Strength 8,200 British, 17,600 Sudanese and Egyptian soldiers 52,000 warriors Casualties 48 dead 434 wounded 9,700 killed 13,000 wounded 5,000 captured At the Battle of Omdurman (September 2, 1898) an army commanded... Muhammad Ahmad ibn as Sayyid Abd Allah (1844 - June 22, 1885) was a Muslim religious leader, a faqir, in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. ... Omdurman is in northern Sudan (upper center). ... Anglo-Egyptian Sudan was the name of Sudan between 1899 and 1956, when it was a condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... This article is about the leader of Egypt. ... ...


During World War II, Sudan was directly involved militarily in the East African Campaign. Formed in 1925, the Sudan Defence Force (SDF) played an active part in responding to the early incursions into the Sudan from Italian East Africa during 1940. In 1941, the SDF also played a part in the invasion of the Italian colony by British and Commonwealth forces. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants United Kingdom Anglo-Egyptian Sudan British Somaliland British East Africa British India Gold Coast Nigeria N. Rhodesia S. Rhodesia Union of S. Africa Belgium Belgian Congo Free France Ethiopian irregulars Italy Italian East Africa German Motorized Company Commanders Archibald Wavell William Platt Alan Cunningham Duke of Aosta Guglielmo Nasi... The Sudan Defence Force (SDF) was a Sudanese military unit formed in 1925 during the time of the Anglo-Egyptian co-dominium. ... Map of Italian East Africa Italian East Africa or Empire of Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was a short-lived (1936-1941) Italian colony in Africa consisting of Ethiopia (recently occupied after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War) and the colonies of Italian Somaliland and Eritrea. ...


From 1924 until independence in 1956, the British had a policy of running Sudan as two essentially separate territories, the north (Muslim) and south (Christian). The last British Governor-General was Sir Robert Howe. Howe was Governor-General from 1947 to 1955. Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Sir Robert George Howe GBE KCMG (born Derby, England, September 1893, died 22 June 1981) was a British diplomat who served as the last Governor-General of the Sudan from 1947 to 1955. ...


Independence January 1, 1956

The continued British occupation of Sudan fueled an increasingly strident nationalist backlash in Egypt, with Egyptian nationalist leaders determined to force Britain to recognise a single independent union of Egypt and Sudan. With the formal end of Ottoman rule in 1914, Husayn Kamil was declared Sultan of Egypt and Sudan, as was his brother Fuad I who succeeded him. The insistence of a single Egyptian-Sudanese state persisted when the Sultanate was re-titled the Kingdom of Egypt and Sudan, but the British continued to frustrate these efforts. Husayn Kamil, Sultan of Egypt from 1914 to 1917 His Highness Sultan Husayn Kamil (November 21, 1853 - October 9, 1917) (Arabic: سلطان حسين كامل) was the Sultan of Egypt and King of The Sudan from December 19, 1914 - October 9, 1917, during the British occupation which lasted from 1882-1922. ... Sultan of Egypt was the title used for the leader of a number of Muslim dynasties that ruled over Egypt. ... Categories: People stubs | 1868 births | 1936 deaths | Egyptian heads of state ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


The first real independence attempt was made in 1924 by a group of Sudanese military officers known as The White Flag Association. The group was led by first lieutenant Ali Abdullatif and first lieutenant Abdul Fadil Almaz. The latter led an insurrection of the military training academy, which ended in their defeat and the death of Almaz after the British army blew up the military hospital where he was garrisoned. This defeat was (allegedly) partially the result of the Egyptian garrison in Khartoum North not supporting the insurrection with artillery as was previously promised.


Even when the British ended their occupation of Egypt in 1936 (with the exception of the Suez Canal Zone), Sudan remained under British occupation. The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 finally heralded the beginning of the march towards Sudanese independence. Having abolished the monarchy in 1953, Egypt's new leaders, Muhammad Naguib, whose mother was Sudanese, and Gamal Abdel-Nasser, believed the only way to end British domination in Sudan was for Egypt to officially abandon its sovereignty over Sudan. Since Britain's own claim to sovereignty in Sudan theoretically depended upon Egyptian sovereignty, the revolutionaries calculated that this tactic would leave Britain with no option but to withdraw. Their calculation proved to be correct, and in 1954 the governments of Egypt and Britain signed a treaty guaranteeing Sudanese independence on January 1, 1956. 1881 drawing of the Suez Canal The Suez Canal (Arabic, Qanā al-Suways), west of the Sinai Peninsula, forms a 163 km (118 miles) ship canal in Egypt between Port Said (Būr Saīd) on the Mediterranean and Suez (al-Suways) on the Red Sea. ... The 1952 Revolution (Arabic:ثورة 23 يوليو 1952), in Egypt also known as the July 23 Revolution, began with a military coup détat that took place on July 23, 1952 by a group of young army officers who named themselves The Free Officers Movement. The revolution was initially aimed at overthrowing... Template:Infobox President Muhammad Naguib (محمد نجيب in Arabic; 20 February 1901 – 29 August 1984) was the first President of the Republic of Egypt. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر) Gamal Abdel Nasser (January 15, 1918 - September 28, 1970) was the second President of Egypt after Muhammad Naguib and is considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Afterwards, the newly elected Sudanese government led by the first prime minister Ismail Al-Azhari, went ahead with the process of Sudanisation of the state's government, with the help and supervision of an international committee. Independence was duly granted and on January 1, 1956, in a special ceremony held at the People's Palace where the Egyptian and British flags were lowered and the new Sudanese flag, composed of green, blue and yellow stripes, was raised in their place.[4] is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


First Sudanese Civil War 1955 - 1972

In 1955, the year before independence, a civil war began between northern and southern Sudan. The southerners, anticipating independence, feared the new nation would be dominated by the north. The First Sudanese Civil War was a conflict from 1955 to 1972 between the northern part of Sudan and a south that demanded more regional autonomy. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... Southern Sudan is a region of Sudan. ...


Historically, the north of Sudan had closer ties with Egypt and was predominantly Arab and Muslim while the south was predominantly a mixture of Christianity and Animism. These divisions had been further emphasized by the British policy of ruling the north and south under separate administrations. From 1924, it was illegal for people living above the 10th parallel to go further south and for people below the 8th parallel to go further north. The law was ostensibly enacted to prevent the spread of malaria and other tropical diseases that had ravaged British troops, as well as to facilitate spreading Christianity among the predominantly Animist population while stopping the Arabic and Islamic influence from advancing south. The result was increased isolation between the already distinct north and south and arguably laid the seeds of conflict in the years to come. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Tropical diseases are infectious diseases that either occur uniquely in tropical and subtropical regions (which is rare) or, more commonly, are either more widespread in the tropics or more difficult to prevent or control. ...


The resulting conflict, known as the First Sudanese Civil War, lasted from 1955 to 1972. In 1972, a cessation of the north-south conflict was agreed upon under the terms of the Addis Ababa Agreement, following talks which were sponsored by the World Council of Churches. This led to a ten-year hiatus in the national conflict. The First Sudanese Civil War was a conflict from 1955 to 1972 between the northern part of Sudan and a south that demanded more regional autonomy. ... The Addis Ababa Accords were a series of compromises in 1972, aimed at appeasing the non-muslim leaders of the insurgency in southern Sudan after the first Sudanese Civil War proved costly to the muslim Sudanese government. ... The World Council of Churches (WCC) is an international Christian ecumenical organization. ...


Second Sudanese Civil War from 1983 - 2005

In 1983, the civil war was reignited following President Gaafar Nimeiri's decision to circumvent the Addis Ababa Agreement. President Gaafar Nimeiry attempted to create a federated Sudan including states in southern Sudan, which violated the Addis Ababa Agreement that had granted the south considerable autonomy. Combatants Sudanese Government (North Sudan) Sudan Peoples Liberation Army Commanders Gaafar Nimeiry Sadiq al-Mahdi Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir John Garang Casualties Not Released 1. ... Gaafar Muhammad an-Nimeiry (otherwise known as Jaafar Nimeiry, Gaafar Nimeiry or Gafar Muhammad an-Numayri; born 1 January 1930) (Arabic: جعفر محمد النميري) was the President of Sudan from 1971 to 1985. ... The Addis Ababa Accords were a series of compromises in 1972, aimed at appeasing the non-muslim leaders of the insurgency in southern Sudan after the first Sudanese Civil War proved costly to the muslim Sudanese government. ...


Southern Sudan

The Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), based in southern Sudan, was formed in May 1983. Finally, in June 1983, the Sudanese government under President Gaafar Nimeiry abrogated the Addis Ababa Peace Agreement (A.A.A.)[1]. The situation was exacerbated after President Gaafar Nimeiry went on to implement Sharia Law in September of the same year [2]. SPLA/M emblem Sudan Peoples Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) is a member of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), the main opposition group in Sudan. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ...


The war continued even after Numeiri was ousted and a democratic government was elected with Al Sadig Al Mahdi's Umma Party having the majority in the parliament. The leader of the SPLA John Garang refused to recognize the government and to negotiate with it as representative of Sudan but agreed to negotiate with government officials as representative of their political parties. Sadiq al Mahdi became Prime Minister of Sudan in 1986, when he formed a coalition government comprised of the Umma party (which he led); the National Islamic Front (led by his brother-in-law, Hassan al-Turabi); the Democratic Unionist Party; and four small Southern parties. ... The Umma Party is a political party in Sudan founded in 1945. ...


In 1989, a bloodless coup brought control of Khartoum into the hands of Omar al-Bashir and the National Islamic Front headed by Dr. Hassan al-Turabi. The new government was of Islamic orientation and later it formed the Popular Defence Forces (al Difaa al Shaabi) and began to use religious propaganda to recruit people, as the regular army was demoralised and under pressure from the SPLA rebels. This worsened the situation in the tribal south, as the fighting became more intense, causing casualties among the Christian and animist minority. Field Marshal Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir (Arabic: عمر حسن احمد البشير, born January 1, 1944) is a Sudanese military leader, politician, and current president of Sudan. ... Dr. Hassan Abd Allah al-Turabi (الدكتور حسن عبد الله الترابي in Arabic), commonly called Hassan al-Turabi (sometimes transliterated Hassan al-Tourabi) (حسن الترابي), is a religiopolitical leader in Sudan, who may have been instrumental in institutionalizing Islamic Sharia law in the northern part of the country. ...


The SPLA started as a Marxist movement, with support from the Soviet Union and the Ethiopian Marxist President Mengistu Haile Meriem. In time, however, it sought support in the West by using the northern Sudanese government's religious propaganda to portray the war as a campaign by the Arab Islamic government to impose Islam and the Arabic language on the Christian south. Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (Ityopiya, Amharic ኢትዮጵያ) is a country situated in the Horn of Africa. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Arabic redirects here. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


The war went on for more than 20 years, including the use of Russian-made combat helicopters and military cargo planes which were used as bombers to devastating effect on villages and tribal rebels alike. "Sudan's independent history has been dominated by chronic, exceptionally cruel warfare that has starkly divided the country on racial, religious, and regional grounds; displaced an estimated four million people (of a total estimated population of thirty-two million); and killed an estimated two million people."[5] It damaged Sudan's economy and led to food shortages, resulting in starvation and malnutrition. The lack of investment during this time, particularly in the south, meant a generation lost access to basic health services, education, and jobs. A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more large horizontal rotors (propellers). ...


Peace talks between the southern rebels and the government made substantial progress in 2003 and early 2004. The peace was consolidated with the official signing by both sides of the Nairobi Comprehensive Peace Agreement 9 January 2005, granting southern Sudan autonomy for six years, to be followed by a referendum about independence. It created a co-vice president position and allowed the north and south to split oil deposits equally, but also left both the north's and south's armies in place. John Garang, the south's peace agreement appointed co-vice president died in a helicopter crash on August 1, 2005, three weeks after being sworn in. This resulted in riots, but the peace was eventually able to continue. Location of Nairobi Coordinates: , Country Province HQ City Hall Founded 1899 Constituencies of Nairobi List Makadara Kamukunji Starehe Langata Dagoretti Westlands Kasarani Embakasi Government  - Mayor Geoffrey Majiwa Area  - City 684 km² (264. ... Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Southern Sudan is a region of Sudan. ... John Garang, August 2004 John Garang de Mabior (June 23, 1945 – July 30, 2005) was the vice president of Sudan and former leader of the rebel Sudan Peoples Liberation Army. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) was established under UN Security Council Resolution 1590 of March 24, 2005. Its mandate is to support implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, and to perform functions relating to humanitarian assistance, and protection and promotion of human rights. The United Nations Mission In Sudan or UNMIS was established by the United Nations under UN Security Council Resolution 1590 of the UN Security Council on March 24, 2005 in response to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the government of Sudan and the Sudan Peoples Liberation... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mandate can mean: An obligation handed down by an inter-governmental body; see mandate (international law) The power granted by an electorate; see mandate (politics) A League of Nations mandate To some Christians, an order from God; see mandate (theology) The decision of an appeals court; see mandate (law) The... Humanitarianism is the view that all people should be treated with the respect and dignity they deserve as human beings, and that advancing the well-being of humanity is a noble goal. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


In October 2007 the former southern rebel Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) withdrew from government in protest over slow implementation of a landmark 2005 peace deal which ended the civil war. Observers say the biggest obstacle to reconciliation is the unresolved status of the oil-rich region of Abyei, which is on the north-south border. Few weeks afterwards, leading Islamist opposition party leader Hassan al-Turabi affirmed that South Sudan could unilaterally split from the north because of a dispute over the region of Abyei.[6]


Darfur conflict 2003 - Present

Map of Northeast Africa highlighting the Darfur region of Sudan.
Map of Northeast Africa highlighting the Darfur region of Sudan.
Main article: Darfur conflict

Just as the long north-south civil war was reaching a resolution, some tribal clashes occurred in the western region of Darfur in the early 1970s between the pastoral tribes and the agricultural tribes after Africa's greatest famine. The rebels accused the central government of neglecting the Darfur region economically, although there is uncertainty regarding the objectives of the rebels and whether they merely seek an improved position for Darfur within Sudan or outright "secession." Both the government and the rebels have been accused of atrocities in this war, although most of the blame has fallen on Arab militias known as the Janjaweed, who are armed men appointed by the Al Saddiq Al Mahdi administration to stop the long standing chaotic disputes between Darfur tribes. According to declarations by numerous world governments, these militias have been engaging in genocide; the fighting has displaced hundreds of thousands of people, many of them seeking refuge in neighbouring Chad. The government claimed victory over the rebels after capturing a town on the border with Chad in early 1994. However, the fighting resumed in 2003. Image File history File links Darfur_map. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... Combatants JEM factions NRF alliance Janjaweed SLM (Minnawi)  Sudan African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Luke Aprezi Strength N/A N/A 7,000 The Darfur conflict is a crisis in the... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... A Janjaweed miltiaman mounted The Janjaweed (Arabic: جنجويد; variously transliterated Janjawid, Janjawed, Jingaweit, Jinjaweed, Janjawiid, Janjiwid, Janjaweit, etc. ... Sadiq al Mahdi became Prime Minister of Sudan in 1986, when he formed a coalition government comprised of the Umma party (which he led); the National Islamic Front (led by his brother-in-law, Hassan al-Turabi); the Democratic Unionist Party; and four small Southern parties. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ...


On September 9, 2004, the United States Secretary of State Colin Powell termed the Darfur conflict a "genocide", claiming it as the worst humanitarian crisis of the 21st century.[7] There have been reports that the Janjaweed have been launching raids, bombings, and attacks on villages, killing civilians based on ethnicity, raping women, stealing land, goods, and herds of livestock.[8] So far, over 2.5 million civilians have been displaced and the death toll is variously estimated at 200,000[9] to 400,000 killed.[10] is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... Humanitarianism is the view that all people should be treated with the respect and dignity they deserve as human beings, and that advancing the well-being of humanity is a noble goal. ... A crisis (plural: crises) is a turning point or decisive moment in events. ...


On May 5, 2006, the Sudanese government and Darfur's largest rebel group the SLM (Sudan Liberation Movement) signed the Darfur Peace Agreement, which aimed at ending the three-year long conflict.[11] The agreement specified the disarmament of the Janjaweed and the disbandment of the rebel forces, and aimed at establishing a temporal government in which the rebels could take part.[12] The agreement, which was brokered by the African Union, however, was not signed by all of the rebel groups.[12] is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Working languages Arabic English Spanish French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman Jakaya Kikwete  -  Jean Ping Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st1...


Since the agreement was signed, however, there have been reports of wide-spread violence throughout the region. A new rebel group has emerged called the "National Redemption Front" (which is made up of the 4 main rebel groups who refused to sign the May peace agreement).[13] Recently, both the Sudanese government and government-sponsored Muslim militias have launched large offensives against the rebel groups, resulting in more deaths and more displacements. Clashes among the rebel groups have also contributed to the violence.[13] Recent fighting along the Chad border has left hundreds of soldiers and rebel forces dead and nearly a quarter of a million refugees cut from aid.[14] In addition, villages have been bombed and more civilians have been killed. UNICEF recently reported that around 80 infants die each day in Darfur as a result of malnutrition. UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ...


The people in Darfur are predominantly black Africans of Muslim beliefs, whereas the Janjaweed militia is made up of Black Arabs.[15] World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A Janjaweed miltiaman mounted The Janjaweed (Arabic: جنجويد; variously transliterated Janjawid, Janjawed, Jingaweit, Jinjaweed, Janjawiid, Janjiwid, Janjaweit, etc. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ...


The International Criminal Court has indicted State Minister for Humanitarian Affairs Ahmed Haroun and alleged Muslim Janjaweed militia leader Ali Mohammed Ali Mohammed Ali aka Ali Kosheib, in relation to the atrocities in the region. The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ...


Ahmed Haroun belongs to the Bargou tribe one of the non Arab tribes of Darfur and is alleged to have incited attacks on specific (non Arab) ethnic groups. Ahmed Mohammed Haroun (or Ahmad Harun) is one of two Sudanese men wanted by the International Criminal Court (ICC) for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur. ...


Ali Kosheib is an ex soldier and a leader of the popular defence forces and is alleged to be one of the key leaders responsible for attacks on villages in west Darfur.


Chad-Sudan conflict

Main article: Chad-Sudan conflict

The Chad-Sudan conflict officially started on December 23, 2005, when the government of Chad declared a state of war with Sudan and called for the citizens of Chad to mobilize themselves against the "common enemy",[16] which the Chadian government sees as the Rally for Democracy and Liberty (RDL) militants, Chadian rebels backed by the Sudanese government, and Sudanese militiamen. The militants attacked villages and towns in eastern Chad, stealing cattle, murdering citizens, and burning houses. Over 200,000 refugees from the Darfur region of northwestern Sudan currently claim asylum in eastern Chad. Chadian president Idriss Déby accuses Sudanese President Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir of trying to "destabilize our country, to drive our people into misery, to create disorder and export the war from Darfur to Chad." Combatants Sudan, United Front for Democratic Change rebel alliance Chad Commanders Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir (Sudan), Mohammed Nour (UFDC) Idriss Deby Strength ~120,000 est. ... Combatants Sudan, United Front for Democratic Change rebel alliance Chad Commanders Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir (Sudan), Mohammed Nour (UFDC) Idriss Deby Strength ~120,000 est. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A strong executive branch headed by President Deby dominates the Chadian political system. ... A Declaration of War is a formal declaration issued by a national government indicating that a state of war exists between that nation, and one or more others. ... The Rally for Democracy and Liberty is a Chadian rebel group that was formed in August of 2005 by former members of the Military of Chad. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... Lieutenant General Idriss Déby Itno (born in Fada in 1952) is the President of Chad and the head of the Patriotic Salvation Movement. ... Field Marshal Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir (Arabic: عمر حسن احمد البشير ; born 1 January 1944) is President of Sudan. ...


The incident prompting the declaration of war was an attack on the Chadian town of Adré near the Sudanese border that led to the deaths of either one hundred rebels (as most news sources reported) or three hundred rebels. The Sudanese government was blamed for the attack, which was the second in the region in three days,[17] but Sudanese foreign ministry spokesman Jamal Mohammed Ibrahim denied any Sudanese involvement, "We are not for any escalation with Chad. We technically deny involvement in Chadian internal affairs." The Adre attack led to the declaration of war by Chad and the alleged deployment of the Chadian air force into Sudanese airspace, which the Chadian government denies.[18] Adré is an administrative district in Chad. ... Jamal Mohammed Ibrahim is the foreign ministry spokesman for Sudan. ...


The leaders of Sudan and Chad signed an agreement in Saudi Arabia on May 3, 2007 to stop fighting from the Darfur conflict along their countries' 1,000-kilometre (600 mi) border.[19] is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Combatants JEM factions NRF alliance Janjaweed SLM (Minnawi)  Sudan African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Luke Aprezi Strength N/A N/A 7,000 The Darfur conflict is a crisis in the...


Eastern Front

Main article: Eastern Front (Sudan)

The Eastern Front is a coalition of rebel groups operating in eastern Sudan along the border with Eritrea, particularly the states of Red Sea and Kassala. The Eastern Front's Chairman is Musa Mohamed Ahmed. While the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) was the primary member of the Eastern Front, the SPLA was obliged to leave by the January 2005 agreement that ended the Second Sudanese Civil War. Their place was taken in February 2004 after the merger of the larger Beja Congress with the smaller Rashaida Free Lions, two tribal based groups of the Beja and Rashaida people, respectively. [20] The Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), a rebel group from Darfur in the west, then joined. The Eastern Front is a coalition of rebel groups operating in eastern Sudan along the border with Eritrea, particularly the states of Red Sea and Kassala. ... States as of 2000 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan had eight mudiriyas, or provinces, which were ambiguous when created but became well defined by the beginning of the Second World War. ... Red Sea Coast of Sudan Red Sea (Al Bahr al Ahmar) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Kassala is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Musa Mohamed Ahmed is the leader of Eastern Front a rebel group based in the East of Sudan. ... SPLA/M emblem Sudan Peoples Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) is a member of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), the main opposition group in Sudan. ... Combatants Sudanese Government (North Sudan) Sudan Peoples Liberation Army Commanders Gaafar Nimeiry Sadiq al-Mahdi Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir John Garang Casualties Not Released 1. ... The Beja Congress is a political group comprising sevral ethnic entities of the eastern region of Sudan. ... The Rashaida Free Lions (Arabic: al-usud al-hurra, الأسود الحُرة) are an armed group of the Rashaida people that was active in the eastern regions of Sudan. ... The Beja people are an ethnic group dwelling parts of North-Eastern and Eastern Africa including the area of the Horn of Africa. ... The Rashaida are a Bedouin people populating either side of the Red Sea, they come from a major tribe in mainland Arabia called Banu Abs, most of the Rashaida live in the Arabian Peninsula. ... The Justice and Equality Movement is a rebel group involved in the Darfur conflict. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ...


Both the Free Lions and the Beja Congress stated that government inequity in the distribution of oil profits was the cause of their rebellion. They demanded to have a greater say in the composition of the national government, which has been seen as a destabilizing influence on the agreement ending the conflict in Southern Sudan. Southern Sudan is a region of Sudan. ...


The Eastern Front had threatened to block the flow of crude oil, which travels from the oil fields of the south-central regions to outside markets through Port Sudan. A government plan to build a second oil refinery near Port Sudan was also threatened. The government was reported to have three times as many soldiers in the east to suppress the rebellion and protect vital infrastructure as in the more widely reported Darfur region. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ...


The Eritrean government in mid-2006 dramatically changed their position on the conflict. From being the main supporter of the Eastern Front they decided that bringing the Sudanese government around the negotiating table for a possible agreement with the rebels would be in their best interests. They were successful in their attempts and on the 19 June 2006, the two sides signed an agreement on declaration of principles.[21] This was the start of four months of Eritrean-mediated negotiations for a comprehensive peace agreement between the Sudanese government and the Eastern Front, which culminated in signing of a peace agreement on 14 October 2006, in Asmara. The agreement covers security issues, power sharing at a federal and regional level, and wealth sharing in regards to the three Eastern states Kassala, Red Sea and Al Qadarif. is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kassala is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Red Sea Coast of Sudan Red Sea (Al Bahr al Ahmar) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Al Qadarif (Gedarif) is the capital of the state of Al Qadarif in Sudan. ...


Humanitarian needs and 2007 floods

The humanitarian branch of the United Nations, consisting of several UN agencies coordinated by OCHA, works to bring life-saving relief to those in need. It is estimated by OCHA, that over 3.5 million people in Darfur (including 2.2 million IDPs) are heavily reliant on humanitarian aid for their survival.[22] By contrast, in 2007 OCHA, under the leadership of Eliane Duthoit, started to gradually phase out in Southern Sudan, where humanitarian needs are gradually diminishing, and are slowly but markedly leaving the place to recovery and development activities.[23] UN redirects here. ... The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), is a organisation under the United Nations which was formed in December 1991 with the General Assembly Resolution 46/182. ... The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), is a organisation under the United Nations which was formed in December 1991 with the General Assembly Resolution 46/182. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... Tailor in Labuje IDP camp in Uganda An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who has been forced to leave their home for reasons such as natural or man-made disasters, including religious or political persecution or war, but has not crossed an international border. ... Eliane Duthoit is a senior United Nations official working for the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). ... Southern Sudan is a region of Sudan. ...


In July 2007, many parts of the country were devastated by flooding, prompting an immediate humanitarian response by the United Nations and partners, under the leadership of acting United Nations Resident Coordinators David Gressly and Oluseyi Bajulaiye.[24] Over 400,000 people were directly affected, with over 3.5 million at risk of epidemics.[25] The United Nations have allocated US$ 13.5 million for the response from its pooled funds, but will launch an appeal to the international community to cover the gap.[26] On 03 July 2007, flash floods started to devastated many parts of Sudan, including some areas in conflict-battered Darfur and war-torn Southern Sudan. ... UN redirects here. ... UN redirects here. ... A United Nations Resident Coordinator is the highest United Nations official in a country (except when there is a mission of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations or similar, in which case the Special Representative of the Secretary-General is the highest official). ... David Gressly is a senior United Nations official. ... Oluseyi Bajulaiye, a national of Nigeria, is a senior United Nations official with a background in the United Nations Childrens Fund. ...


Politics

Map of Sudan showing Khartoum.
Map of Sudan showing Khartoum.
Main article: Politics of Sudan

Sudan has an authoritarian government in which all effective political power is in the hands of President Omar al-Bashir. Bashir and his party have controlled the government since he led the military coup on 30 June 1989. Image File history File links CIA map of Sudan File links The following pages link to this file: Khartoum Sudan Omdurman ... Image File history File links CIA map of Sudan File links The following pages link to this file: Khartoum Sudan Omdurman ... Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban 2. ... Politics of Sudan takes place in the framework of an authoritarian republic in which all effective political power is in the hands of President Omar Hassan al-Bashir. ... Field Marshal Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir (Arabic: عمر حسن احمد البشير, born January 1, 1944) is a Sudanese military leader, politician, and current president of Sudan. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


From 1983 to 1997, the country was divided into five regions in the north and three in the south, each headed by a military governor. After the military coup on April 6, 1985, regional assemblies were suspended. The RCC was abolished in 1993, and the ruling National Islamic Front changed its name to the National Congress Party. The new party included some non Muslim members; mainly Southern Sudanese Politicians, some of whom were appointed as ministers or state governors. After 1997, the structure of regional administration was replaced by the creation of twenty-six states. The executives, cabinets, and senior-level state officials are appointed by the president, and their limited budgets are determined by and dispensed from Khartoum. The states, as a result, remain economically dependent upon the central government. Khartoum state, comprising the capital and outlying districts, is administered by a governor. is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCC) was the authority by which the military government of Sudan under Lt. ... The National Islamic Front is the political organization that controls Sudan. ... The National Congress (Arabic: المؤتمر الوطني; transliterated: al-Motamar al-Watany) is the governing official political party of Sudan. ... Khartoum Khartoum (also Al Khartum) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ...


In December 1999, a power struggle climaxed between President al-Bashir and then-speaker of parliament Hassan al-Turabi, who was the NIF founder and an Islamic ideologue. Al-Turabi was stripped of his posts in the ruling party and the government, parliament was disbanded, the constitution was suspended, and a state of national emergency was declared by presidential decree. Parliament resumed in February 2001 after the December 2000 presidential and parliamentary elections, but the national emergency laws remained in effect. Al-Turabi was arrested in February 2001, and charged with being a threat to national security and the constitutional order for signing a memorandum of understanding with the SPLA. Since then his outspoken style has had him in prison or under house-arrest, his most recent stint beginning in March 2004 and ending in June 2005. During that time he was under house-arrest for his role in a failed coup attempt in September 2003, an allegation he has denied. According to some reports, the president had no choice but to release him, given that a coalition of National Democratic Union (NDA) members headquartered in both Cairo and Eritrea, composed of the political parties known as the SPLM/A, Umma Party, Mirghani Party, and Turabi's own National People's Congress, were calling for his release at a time when an interim government was preparing to take over in accordance with the Naivasha agreement and the Machokos Accord. It has been suggested that Speakers of the House be merged into this article or section. ... Dr. Hassan Abd Allah al-Turabi (الدكتور حسن عبد الله الترابي in Arabic), commonly called Hassan al-Turabi (sometimes transliterated Hassan al-Tourabi) (حسن الترابي), is a religiopolitical leader in Sudan, who may have been instrumental in institutionalizing Islamic Sharia law in the northern part of the country. ... The Sudan Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA) is a rebel group that was formed in 1983. ...

See also: List of Presidents of Sudan

This page contains a list of presidents and other heads of state of Sudan. ...

Foreign relations

Sudan has had a troubled relationship with many of its neighbors and much of the international community due to what is viewed as its aggressively Islamic stance. For much of the 1990s, Uganda, Kenya and Ethiopia formed an ad-hoc alliance called the "Front Line States" with support from the United States to check the influence of the National Islamic Front government. The Sudanese Government supported anti-Uganda rebel groups such as the Lord's Resistance Army. Beginning from the mid-1990s Sudan gradually began to moderate its positions as a result of increased US pressure following the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings and the new development of oil fields previously in rebel hands. Sudan also has a territorial dispute with Egypt over the Hala'ib Triangle. Since 2003, the foreign relations of Sudan have centered on the support for ending the Second Sudanese Civil War and condemnation of government support for militias in the Darfur conflict. Sudans administrative boundary with Kenya does not coincide with international boundary, and Egypt asserts its claim to the Halaib Triangle, a barren area of 20,580 km² under partial Sudanese administration that is defined by an administrative boundary which supersedes the treaty boundary of 1899. ... The National Islamic Front is the political organization that controls Sudan. ... LRA redirects here. ... Aftermath at the Nairobi embassy. ... The Halaib Triangle is an area of land measuring 20,580 km² located on the Red Seas African coast, between the borders of Egypt and Sudan. ... Combatants Sudanese Government (North Sudan) Sudan Peoples Liberation Army Commanders Gaafar Nimeiry Sadiq al-Mahdi Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir John Garang Casualties Not Released 1. ... Combatants JEM factions NRF alliance Janjaweed SLM (Minnawi)  Sudan African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Luke Aprezi Strength N/A N/A 7,000 The Darfur conflict is a crisis in the...


The United States has listed Sudan as a state sponsor of terrorism since 1993. [3] U.S. firms have been barred from doing business in Sudan since 1997.[4] In 1998, the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum was destroyed by a US cruise missile strike because of its alleged production of chemical weapons and links to al-Qaeda. For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...


On December 23, 2005, Chad, Sudan's neighbour to the west, declared war on Sudan and accused the country of being the "common enemy of the nation [Chad]." This happened after the December 18 attack on Adre, which left about 100 people dead. A statement issued by Chadian government on December 23, accused Sudanese militias of making daily incursions into Chad, stealing cattle, killing people and burning villages on the Chadian border. The statement went on to call for Chadians to form a patriotic front against Sudan.[5] The Organization of the Islamic Conference(OIC) have called on Sudan and Chad to exercise self-restraint to defuse growing tensions between the two countries.[6] On May 11, 2008 Sudan announced it was cutting diplomatic relations with Chad, claiming that it was helping rebels in Darfur to attack the Sudanese capital Khartoum [27] . is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Adre can refer to: Enochian angels Adre, Chad, the place of a massacre that happened on December 18, 2005 This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The flag of the Organ of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Membership in the OIC:  Member Members once temporarily suspended Withdrew Observer Attempted to join but blocked OIC redirects here. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban 2. ...


On December 27, 2005, Sudan became one of the few states to recognize Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara. [7] December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ...


On June 20, 2006 President Omar al-Bashir told reporters that he would not allow any UN peacekeeping force into Sudan. President al-Bashir denounced any such mission as "colonial forces." [8] is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 17, 2006, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan announced that "Sudan has agreed in principle to allow the establishment of a joint African Union and UN peacekeeping force in an effort to solve the crisis in Darfur" - but had stopped short of setting the number of troops involved. Annan speculated that this force could number 17,000.[28] Despite this claim, no additional troops have been deployed as of late December 2006. Violence continues in the region and on December 15, 2006, prosecutors at the International Criminal Court (ICC) stated they would be proceeding with cases of human rights violations against members of the Sudan government.[29] A Sudanese legislator was quoted as saying that Khartoum may permit UN peace keepers to patrol Darfur in exchange for immunity from prosecution for officials charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity. 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kofi Atta Annan GCMG (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ...


Legal system

The legal system in Sudan is based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20 January 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law in the northern states; Islamic law applies to all residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; however, the CPA establishes some protections for non-Muslims in Khartoum; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; the southern legal system is still developing under the CPA following the civil war; Islamic law will not apply to the southern states.


The judicial branch of the government consist of: Constitutional Court of nine justices; National Supreme Court; National Courts of Appeal; other national courts; National Judicial Service Commission will undertake overall management of the National Judiciary [30]. The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ...


Human rights

Main article: Human rights in Sudan

A letter dated August 14, 2006, from the Executive Director of Human Rights Watch found that the Sudanese government is both incapable and unwilling to protect its own citizens in Darfur and that its militias are guilty of crimes against humanity. The letter added that these human rights abuses have existed since 2004.[31] Some human rights organizations have documented a variety of abuses and atrocities carried out by the Sudanese government over the past several years. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Some reports attribute part of the violations to the rebels as well as the government and the Janjaweed. The US State Department's human rights report issued in March 2007 claims that "All parties to the conflagration committed serious abuses, including widespread killing of civilians, rape as a tool of war, systematic torture, robbery and recruitment of child soldiers"[32] A Janjaweed miltiaman mounted The Janjaweed (Arabic: جنجويد; variously transliterated Janjawid, Janjawed, Jingaweit, Jinjaweed, Janjawiid, Janjiwid, Janjaweit, etc. ...


Both government forces and militias allied with the government are known not only to attack civilians in Darfur, but also humanitarian workers. Sympathizers of rebel groups are arbitrarily detained, as are foreign journalists, human rights defenders, student activists, and displaced people in and around Khartoum, some of whom face torture. The rebel groups have also been accused in a report issued by the American government of attacking humanitarian workers and of killing innocent civilians.[9] Human rights defender is a term used to describe people who, individually or with others, act to promote or protect human rights. ...


States and districts

Political map of Sudan.
Political map of Sudan.

Sudan is divided into twenty-six states (wilayat, sing. wilayah) which in turn are subdivided into 133 districts. The states are: Download high resolution version (1050x1328, 209 KB)Political map of Sudan from 2000, from http://www. ... Download high resolution version (1050x1328, 209 KB)Political map of Sudan from 2000, from http://www. ... States as of 2000 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan had eight mudiriyas, or provinces, which were ambiguous when created but became well defined by the beginning of the Second World War. ... Districts of Sudan The States of Sudan are subdivided into 133 districts. ... States as of 2000 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan had eight mudiriyas, or provinces, which were ambiguous when created but became well defined by the beginning of the Second World War. ... A wilaya is an administrative subdivision of several countries, including Algeria, Morocco, Sudan, and Oman. ... For other uses of number, see number (disambiguation). ... A wilāyah (Arabic: ولاية) or vilayet (Turkish: vilâyet) or (ولایت in Persian) is an administrative division, usually translated as province. ... Districts of Sudan The States of Sudan are subdivided into 133 districts. ...

Al Jazirah is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Al-Qadarif Al Qadarif (Arabic: القضارف, Gadaref, Gadarif or Qadārif) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Blue Nile Blue Nile (An Nil al Azraq) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Central Equatoria Central Equatoria (Arabic: الاستوائية الوسطى al-Istiwāʾiyya al-Wusṭā) is one of the 26 states of Sudan, with an area of 22,956 km². It is in the south of Sudan. ... East Equatoria East Equatoria (Sharq al Istiwaiyah) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Junqali Jonglei (Arabic: جونقلي) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Kassala is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Khartoum Khartoum (also Al Khartum) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Lakes (Al Buhayrat) Lakes (Al Buhayrat) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... North Bahr al Ghazal North Bahr al Ghazal (Shamal Bahr al Ghazal) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... North Darfur North Darfur (Shamal Darfur) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... link title North Kurdufan North Kurdufan (Shamal Kurdufan) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Northern Northern (Ash Shamaliyah) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Red Sea Coast of Sudan Red Sea (Al Bahr al Ahmar) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... River Nile River Nile (Nahr an Nil) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Sennar Sennar is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... South Darfur South Darfur (Janub Darfur) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... South Kurdufan South Kurdufan (Janub Kurdufan) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Unity (Wahda) Unity (Al Wahdah) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Warab Warab is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... West Bahr al Ghazal West Bahr al Ghazal (Gharb Bahr al Ghazal) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... West Darfur West Darfur (Gharb Darfur) is one of the 26 states of Sudan, and one of three comprising the Darfur region. ... West Equatoria West Equatoria (Gharb al Istiwaiyah) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... West Kurdufan West Kurdufan (Gharb Kurdufan) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... White Nile White Nile (An Nil al Abyad) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ...

Autonomy, separation, conflicts

     North Sudan      Darfur      Eastern Front, area of operations July 2006      South Sudan       Boundary of Abyei at 10°22'30"N as decided by the Abyei Boundary Commission      Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile Abyei, is to hold a referendum in 2011 on whether to join South Sudan or not.
  • Southern Sudan is an autonomous region intermediate between the states and the national government. Southern Sudan is scheduled to have a referendum on independence in 2011.[33] As agreed in the peace agreement a new currency, the Sudan Pound was launched throughout the country on January 10, 2007, and will replace the Sudanese Dinar. The Southern Sudanese government tried to launch a new currency, but stopped after the central Sudanese government declared that such a move constituted a breach of the peace agreement.
  • Darfur, a region of three western states, is plagued by a violent conflict between the Sudanese government and a group of rebelling peoples of the region. (see Darfur conflict, Transitional Darfur Regional Authority).
  • There was also an insurgency in the east led by the Eastern Front. On October 14, 2006, both the Sudanese government and the Eastern Front signed a power-sharing agreement ending the insurgency.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... The Eastern Front is a coalition of rebel groups operating in eastern Sudan along the border with Eritrea, particularly the states of Red Sea and Kassala. ... Southern Sudan is a region of Sudan. ... Abyei is a district and region of West Kurdufan, Sudan that is considered a historical bridge between northern and Southern Sudan. ... Nuba Mountains The Nuba Mountains are a mountain range in Kordofan, a province in central Sudan, Africa. ... Blue Nile Blue Nile (Arabic: النيل الأزرق; transliterated: an-Nyl al-Azraq) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Southern Sudan is a region of Sudan. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... Combatants JEM factions NRF alliance Janjaweed SLM (Minnawi)  Sudan African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Luke Aprezi Strength N/A N/A 7,000 The Darfur conflict is a crisis in the... The Transitional Darfur Regional Authority (TDRA) is an interim authority for the Darfur region of Sudan. ... The Eastern Front is a coalition of rebel groups operating in eastern Sudan along the border with Eritrea, particularly the states of Red Sea and Kassala. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Geography

Main article: Geography of Sudan

Sudan is situated in northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea and it has a coastline of 853 km along the Red Sea.[34] With an area of 2,505,810 square kilometres (967,499 sq mi), it is the largest country in the continent and tenth largest in the world. It borders the countries of Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya and Uganda. It is dominated by the River Nile and its tributaries. Map of Sudan The Red Sea in Sudan Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea Geographic coordinates: 15°00′ N 30°00′ E Map references: Africa Area: total: 2,505,810 km² land: 2. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ...


The terrain is generally flat plains, broken by several mountain ranges; in the west the Jebel Marra is the highest range; in the south is the highest mountain Mount Kinyeti Imatong, near the border with Uganda; in the east are the Red Sea Hills.[35] Marrah Mountains (Arabic: Jebel Marra meaning bad mountain) is a range of volcanic peaks rising up to 3,000 m (10,100 ft), in the center of the Darfur region of Sudan. ...


The Blue and White Niles meet in Khartoum to form the River Nile, which flows northwards through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea. Blue Nile's course through Sudan is nearly 800 km long and is joined by the rivers Dinder and Rahad between Sennar and Khartoum. The White Nile within Sudan has no significant tributaries. For other uses, see Blue Nile (disambiguation). ... The White Nile is a river of Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile, the other being the Blue Nile. ... Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban 2. ... For alternative meanings of Nile, see Nile (disambiguation) The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The Nile (Arabic: النيل an... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other uses, see Blue Nile (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban 2. ... The White Nile is a river of Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile, the other being the Blue Nile. ...


The amount of rainfall increases towards the south. In the north there is the very dry Nubian Desert; in the south there are swamps and rain forest. Sudan’s rainy season lasts for about three months (July to September) in the north, and up to six months (June to November) in the south. The dry regions are plagued by sand storms, known as haboob, which can completely block out the sun. In the northern and western semi-desert areas, people rely on the scant rainfall for basic agriculture and many are nomadic, traveling with their herds of sheep and camels. Nearer the River Nile, there are well-irrigated farms growing cash crops.[36] Fragment of Nubian Desert seen from space The Nubian Desert, is in the eastern region of the Sahara Desert, it spans 407, 000 km2 or 157,000 square miles of northeastern Sudan between the Nile and the Red Sea, at . ... A sandstorm approaching Al Asad, Iraq, just before nightfall on April 27 2005. ... A haboob is a type of intense dust storm characteristic of very dry regions. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... For alternative meanings of Nile, see Nile (disambiguation) The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The Nile (Arabic: النيل an... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is sold for money. ...


There are several dams on the Blue and White Niles. Among them are the Sennar and Roseires on the Blue Nile, and Jebel Aulia dam on the White Nile. There is also Lake Nubia on the Sudan-Egyptian border. For other uses, see Blue Nile (disambiguation). ... The White Nile is a river of Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile, the other being the Blue Nile. ... For other uses, see Blue Nile (disambiguation). ... The White Nile is a river of Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile, the other being the Blue Nile. ... View of Lake Nasser from Abu Simbel Map showing the location of Lake Nasser Lake Nasser (Arabic: Buhayrat Nasir) is a vast artificial lake in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. ...


Rich mineral resources are available in Sudan including: petroleum, natural gas, gold, silver, chromite, asbestos, manganese, gypsum, mica, zinc, iron, lead, uranium, copper, kaolin, cobalt, granite, nickel and tin.[37] Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Chromite, iron magnesium chromium oxide: (Fe,Mg)Cr2O4, is an oxide mineral belonging to the spinel group. ... For other uses, see Asbestos (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... For other uses, see Gypsum (disambiguation). ... Rock with mica Mica sheet Mica flakes The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Kaolin Kaolinite (Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide) Kaolinite is a mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ...


Desertification is a serious problem in Sudan.[38] There is also concern over soil erosion. Agricultural expansion, both public and private, has proceeded without conservation measures. The consequences have manifested themselves in the form of deforestation, soil dessication, and the lowering of soil fertility and the water table.[39]Image:Focus SUDAN 15.jpg Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and so forth) by the agents of wind, water, ice, or movement in response to gravity. ... The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Fertile soil is soil that can support abundant plant life, in particular the term is used to describe agricultural and garden soil. ... Cross section showing the water table varying with surface topography as well as a perched water table The water table or phreatic surface is the surface where the water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. ...


The nation's wildlife is threatened by hunting. As of 2001, twenty-one mammal species and nine bird species are endangered, as well as two types of plants. Endangered species include: the waldrapp, northern white rhinoceros, tora hartebeest, slender-horned gazelle, and hawksbill turtle. The Sahara oryx has become extinct in the wild.[40] Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Binomial name Geronticus eremita (Linnaeus, 1758) The Northern Bald Ibis, Hermit Ibis, or Waldrapp, Geronticus eremita, is a large bird found in barren semi-desert or rocky habitats, often but not always close to running water. ... Binomial name Burchell, 1817 The White Rhinoceros original range (orange: Northern (C. s. ... Binomial name Alcelaphus buselaphus Pallas, 1766 The Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus) is a grassland antelope found in West Africa, East Africa and Southern Africa. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus, 1766 Range of the Hawksbill turtle subspecies Eretmochelys imbricata bissa (Rüppell, 1835) Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766) Synonyms Eretmochelys imbricata squamata junior synonym The hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) is a critically endangered sea turtle belonging to the family Cheloniidae. ... Species Oryx beisa Rüppell, 1835 Oryx dammah Cretzschmar, 1827 Oryx gazella (Linnaeus, 1758) Oryx leucoryx Pallas, 1766 An Oryx is one of three or four large antelope species of the genus Oryx, typically having long straight almost upright or swept back horns. ...


In May 2007, it was announced that hundreds of wild elephants have been located on a previously unknown, treeless island in the Sudd swampland region of southern Sudan. The exact location being kept secret to protect the animals from poachers.[41] Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Sudd Swamp from space, May 1993. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ...

See also: List of cities in Sudan

This is a list of cities in Sudan: Al Fashir Al Qadarif Al Ubayyid Atbara Babanusa Bentiu Bor Delgo Dongola Ed Damazin Ed Dueim Geneina Halaib Juba Kasala Khartoum Khartoum North Kusti (also Kosti) Malakal Malualkon New Halfa Nimule Nyala Omdurman Port Sudan Rabak Sennar Suakin Tonj Wad Madani...

Economy

Main article: Economy of Sudan

Despite new economic policies and infrastructure investments, Sudan still faces formidable economic problems as it must rise from a very low level of per capita output. Since 1997, Sudan has been implementing the macroeconomic reforms recommended by the IMF. In 1999, Sudan began exporting crude oil and in the last quarter of 1999 recorded its first trade surplus. Increased oil production (the current production is about 520,000 barrels per day (83,000 m³/d)) revived light industry, and expanded export processing zones helped sustain GDP growth at 6.1% in 2003. These gains, along with improvements to monetary policy, have stabilized the exchange rate. Currently oil is Sudan's main export, and the production is increasing dramatically. With rising oil revenues the Sudanese economy is booming at a growth rate of nearly 7% in 2005. Sudans primary resources are agricultural, but oil production and export are taking on greater importance since October 2000. ... IMF redirects here. ...


Rich mineral resources are available in Sudan including: petroleum, natural gas, gold, silver, chrome, asbestos, manganese, gypsum, mica, zinc, iron, lead, uranium, copper, kaolin, cobalt, granite, nickel and tin. [24]


Agriculture production remains Sudan's most important sector, employing 80% of the work force and contributing 39% of GDP, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to drought. Chronic instability — including the long-standing civil war between the Muslim north and the Christian/animist south, adverse weather, and weak world agricultural prices — ensure that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line for years.

See also: Communications in Sudan and Transport in Sudan

The Merowe Dam, also known as Merowe Multi-Purpose Hydro Project or Hamdab Dam, is a large construction project in northern Sudan, about 350 km north of the capital Khartoum. It is situated on the river Nile, close to the 4th Cataract where the river divides into multiple smaller branches with large islands in between. Merowe is a city about 40 km downstream from the construction site at Hamdab. The main purpose of the dam will be the generation of electricity. Its dimensions make it the largest contemporary hydro power project in Africa. The construction of the dam will be finished by mid 2008, supplying more than 90% of the population with electricity. Other gas powered electricity stations are under construction in Khartoum state, these are also due to be completed by 2008. Telephones - main lines in use: 90,000 (2003) Telephones - mobile cellular: 650,000 (2003) Telephone system: large, well-equipped system by regional standards, but barely adequate and poorly maintained by modern standards; cellular communications started in 1996 domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a... This article or section needs to be updated. ... The Merowe High Dam, also known as Merowe Multi-Purpose Hydro Project or Hamdab Dam, is a large construction project in northern Sudan, about 350km north of the capital Khartoum. ...


Despite the American sanctions, the Sudanese economy is the one of the fastest growing in the world according to a New York Times report of October 2006.[42]


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Sudan

In Sudan's 1993 census, the population was recorded to be 25 million. No comprehensive census has been carried out since then due to the continuation of the civil war. A 2006 United Nations estimate put the population at about 37 million. The population of metropolitan Khartoum (including Khartoum, Omdurman, and Khartoum North) is growing rapidly and is estimated at about 5 to 7 million, including around 2 million displaced persons from the southern war zone as well as western and eastern drought-affected areas. In Sudans 1981 census, the population was calculated at 21 million. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... UN redirects here. ... Omdurman is in northern Sudan (upper center). ... Khartoum North is a city close to, but distinct from, Khartoum in central Sudan. ...


Sudan has 597 tribes that speak over 400 different languages dialects, [43] but there are two distinct major cultures – Arabs with Nubian roots and non-Arab Africans – consisting of hundreds of ethnic and tribal divisions and language groups. The northern states cover most of Sudan and include most of the urban centers. Most of the 22 million Sudanese who live in this region are Arabic-speaking Muslims, though the majority also use a traditional non-Arabic mother tongue (e.g. Nubian, Beja, Fur, Nuban, Ingessana, etc) as education is in Arabic language. Among these are several distinct tribal groups: the camel-raising Kababish of northern Kordofan; the Dongolawiyin (الدنقلاويين); the Ga’aliyin (الجعلين); the Rubatab (الرباطاب); the Manasir (المناصير); the Shaiqiyah (الشايقيّة); the Bideiria ; the semi-nomadic Baggara of Kurdufan and Darfur; the Beja in the Red Sea area and who extend into Eritrea; and the Nubians of the northern Nile areas, some of whom have been resettled on the Atbara River. Shokrya in the Butana land, Bataheen bordering the Ga’alin and Shokrya in the south west of Butana. Rufaa, Halaween, Fulani (فولاني) and many other tribes have settled in the Gazeera region and on the banks of the Blue Nile, Damazine and the Dindir region. The Nuba of southern Kurdufan and Fur in the western reaches of the country. For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... The Manasir people (المناصير) constitute one of many riverain tribes of Northern Sudan. ... Location of Kurdufan in Sudan Kurdufan (sometimes Kordofan) is a former province of central Sudan. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... The Beja people are an ethnic group dwelling parts of North-Eastern and Eastern Africa including the area of the Horn of Africa. ... Butana is a region in Sudan. ... Butana is a region in Sudan. ... For other uses, see Blue Nile (disambiguation). ...


It is important to distinguish the Sudanese Arab from other Arabs of the Middle East. Sudanese Arabs are descended primarily from the ancient Nubians. In terms of racial origin, it is not clear what specific racial or ethnic group the Nubians originated from. Over a period of centuries, Arab immigration into the Sudan, intermarriage among Nubians and Arabs, and the introduction of Islam and the Arabic language, Arabised the Nubians into the Sudanese Arab of today. In appearance, the Nubians are similar to some Ethiopians and Eritreans; at one point, they shared a common history with the latter (See ancient Kush, and Axum). This process of Arabisation was repeated throughout North Africa and the Middle East, i.e., in Libya, where the indigenous Berbers and conquering Arabs merged to form the modern Libyan Arab, as distinguished from the Persians of Iran, who accepted Islam, but rejected Arabic, and an Arab identity. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (Ityopiya, Amharic ኢትዮጵያ) is a country situated in the Horn of Africa. ... National motto: None Official languages Tigrigna, Arabic and English Capital Asmara President Isaias Afewerki Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 96th 121,320 km² Negligible Population  - Total (2002)  - Density Ranked 118th 4,298,269 37/km² Independence  - Limited  - Fully From Ethiopia  May 29, 1991  May 24, 1993 Currency Nakfa Time zone UTC... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ...

Henna painting hands and Jabana (coffee can)
Henna painting hands and Jabana (coffee can)

The Southern region has a population of around 6 million and a predominantly rural, subsistence economy. This region has been affected by war for all but 10 years since independence in 1956, resulting in serious neglect, lack of infrastructure development, and major destruction and displacement. More than 2 million people have died, and more than 4 million are internally displaced or have become refugees as a result of the civil war and war-related impacts. Here a majority of the population practices traditional indigenous beliefs, although some practice Christianity, a result of Christian missionary efforts. The south also contains many tribal groups and many more languages are used than in the north. The Dinka, whose population is estimated at more than 1 million, are the largest of the many black African tribes of Sudan. Along with the Shilluk and the Nuer they are Nilotic tribes. The Azande, Bor, and Jo Luo are “Sudanic” tribes in the west, and the Acholi and Lotuhu live in the extreme south, extending into Uganda. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1074x720, 84 KB) de: Frau mit Henna-Bemalung im Sudan mit einer Jabana (eine Kaffee-Kanne, häufig im Sudan und in Äthiopien anzutreffen) en: Woman with Henna painting in Sudan with a Jabana (a coffee can, often use in Sudan... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1074x720, 84 KB) de: Frau mit Henna-Bemalung im Sudan mit einer Jabana (eine Kaffee-Kanne, häufig im Sudan und in Äthiopien anzutreffen) en: Woman with Henna painting in Sudan with a Jabana (a coffee can, often use in Sudan... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ethnic group for the language see Dinka language The Dinka are a group of tribes of south Sudan, inhabiting the swamplands of the Bahr el Ghazal region of the Nile basin, Jonglei and parts of southern Kordufan and Upper Nile regions. ... Shilluk portrait circa 1914 The Shilluk are a major Nilotic ethnic group of southern Sudan, living on the west bank of the Nile around the city of Malakal. ... The Nuer are a confederation of tribes located in Southern Sudan and western Ethiopia. ... Nilotic people or Nilotes, in its contamporary usage, refers to some ethnic groups mainly in southern Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, and northern Tanzania, who speak Nilotic languages, a large sub-group of Nilo-Saharan languages. ... The Azande (plural, Zande in singular) are a tribe of north central Africa. ... Bor can refer to: Bor is an alternative name of the russian maffia Bor is a character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... THE JUR-CHOL (JO LUO) Demography and geographic location Numbering between sixty to seventy thousand, the Jo-Luo are found in Wau, Tonj and Aweil districts in Sudan. ... Acholiland, Uganda Acholi (also Acoli) are the people of the districts of Gulu, Kitgum Pader (known as Acholiland) in northern Uganda, and Magwe County in southern Sudan. ...


The "lingua franca" in Southern Sudan is a variant of Arabic called "Juba Arabic"; the English language is used by the educated elite. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Some western African tribes like the Fallata, also known as Fulani and Hausa, have migrated to Sudan long times ago and have settled in various regions of Sudan, mainly in the north, and most of them speak Arabic as well as their original languages. Categories: Africa-related stubs | Burkina Faso | Cameroon | Ethnic groups of Africa | Fulani Empire | Mali | Nigeria ... The Hausa are a people of northern Nigeria and south-eastern Niger. ...


Peoples of Sudan

People Location
Acholi east
Pari east
Anuak south central
The Bari Juba
Didinga east
Fula (Fulani) Blue Nile, East and Tulus
Kakwa southwest
Lotuko east
Madi
Shilluk
Toposa

The Ababda (or Ababde) (the Gebadei of Pliny, possibly the Troglodytes of classical writers), are a nomad tribe of African Bedouins, a subgroup of the Beja people; some still speak the Cushitic Beja language, while others speak Arabic. ... The Azande (plural, Zande in singular) are a tribe of north central Africa. ... The Baggara or Baqqarah (Arabic: البقارة) are a nomadic Bedouin people inhabiting Africa from between Lake Chad and the Nile, in the states of Sudan (particularly Darfur), Niger, Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria, and the Central African Republic. ... The Beja people are an ethnic group dwelling parts of North-Eastern and Eastern Africa including the area of the Horn of Africa. ... The Dinka are a people of southern Sudan, inhabiting the swamplands of the Bahr el Ghazal region of the Nile basin. ... Categories: Africa-related stubs | Burkina Faso | Cameroon | Ethnic groups of Africa | Fulani Empire | Mali | Nigeria ... Flag of the Fur national movement The Fur (fòòrà in Fur, فور in Arabic) are a people of the western Sudan, numbering about 0. ... The Hausa are a people of northern Nigeria and south-eastern Niger. ... For the Arabic language dialect see: Hassaniya Hasania (or Hassania) are members of a Muslim tribe of Arabic origin. ... The Lwo (also Lwoo or Luo) are a family of linguistically-related ethnic groups (tribes) which live in an area that stretches from the south of Sudan, through Northern Uganda and Eastern Congo (DRC), into Western Kenya, and ending in the upper tip of Tanzania. ... Mahas The Mahas is a tribe which is located mainly in Norther Sudan which speek the Nobiin language. ... The Manasir people (المناصير) constitute one of many riverain tribes of Northern Sudan. ... The Masalit (masara in Masalit; Arabic ماساليت) are a people of Darfur in western Sudan and Wadai in eastern Chad. ... Nuba (not to be confused with Nubia, a region extending from southern Egypt to northern Sudan) is a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa. ... The Nuer are one of the largest ethnic groups in southern Sudan and western Ethiopia. ... The Rashaida are a Bedouin people populating either side of the Red Sea, they come from a major tribe in mainland Arabia called Banu Abs, most of the Rashaida live in the Arabian Peninsula. ... The Shaigiya are a tribe of Semitic origin living on both banks of the Nile from Korti to the Third Cataract, and in portions of the Bayuda Desert. ... Note: Zande is also a variant spelling of Azande, the name of a people of north central Africa, and of their language. ... Zaghawa is an African ethnic group, mainly living in eastern Chad and western Sudan, including the Darfur province of Sudan. ... Acholiland, Uganda Acholi (also Acoli) are the people of the districts of Gulu, Kitgum Pader (known as Acholiland) in northern Uganda, and Magwe County in southern Sudan. ... Doctor Who character, see Peri Brown. ... The Anuak are a river people whose villages are scattered along the banks and rivers of southeastern Sudan and western Ethiopia, in the region of Gambela. ... This article is about the Bari ethnic groups of Sudan. ... Juba (or Iuba) was a Roman cognomen, originally used by kings of Numidia. ... The Didinga are an ethnic group of about 100,000 people who inhabit the Didinga Hills region in East Equatoria in the southeastern corner of Sudan. ... The Fulbhe (singular Pullo) or Fulani is an ethnic group of people spread over many countries in West Africa,Central Africa and as far as East Africa. ... The Kakwa are a tribe situated in northwestern Uganda, southern Sudan, and northeastern Zaire, from Nilotic origin. ... Lotuko is an ethnic minority in Sudan. ... The Madi are an African group of over 150,000 people living along both banks of the Nile River in the Sudan and northwestern Uganda. ... Shilluk portrait circa 1914 The Shilluk are a major Nilotic ethnic group of southern Sudan, living on the west bank of the Nile around the city of Malakal. ... Toposa is an ethnic group in Sudan. ...

Official languages

See also: Languages of Sudan

According to the 2005 constitution, Sudan's official languages are Arabic and English:[44] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Article 8:

  1. All indigenous languages of Sudan are national languages and shall be respected, developed and promoted.
  2. Arabic is a widely-spoken national language in Sudan.
  3. Arabic, as a major language at the national level and English shall be the official working languages of the national government and the languages of instruction for higher education.
  4. In addition to Arabic and English, the legislature of any sub-national level of government may adopt any other national language as an additional official working language at its level.
  5. There shall be no discrimination against the use of either Arabic or English at any level of government or stage of education.

Culture

According to estimates, Sudan is predominantly Muslim. Approximately 70% of the population adheres to Islam, while approximately 20-25% of the population subscribe to animist or indigenous beliefs. The remaining 5-10% of the population (concentrated largely in the south) are Christian. Sudan's largest Christian denominations are the following: the Roman Catholic Church, the Episcopal Church of the Sudan, the Presbyterian Church in the Sudan, and the Coptic Orthodox Church. Woman with Henna painting in Sudan with a Jabana (coffee can). ... Sudan has a rich and unique musical culture that has been through chronic instability and repression during the modern history of Sudan. ... Sufi ritual being performed in Sudan Sudan is a religiously mixed country, although Muslims have dominated national government institutions since independence in 1956. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is in need of attention. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Episcopal Church of the Sudan is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion in Sudan. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ...


Sudanese writers, artists and singers

This is a list of prominent Sudanese authors. ... This is a list of singers and musician from Sudan. ...

Education

Main article: Education in Sudan

Institutions of higher education in Sudan include: // The public and private education systems inherited by the government of Sudan after independence were designed to provide civil servants and professionals to serve the colonial administration, rather than to educate the Sudanese. ...

The Academy of Medical Sciences and Technology (AMST) is a mainly medical oriented college in Khartoum, Sudan. ... Ahfad University for Women is a private womens university in Omdurman, Sudan, and was originally founded as a girls school by Babiker Badri in 1905 and was awarded the status of university in 1966. ... Omdurman Ahlia University (OAU) is the first community non-profit university in Sudan opened in 1986 by Dr Mohammed Omer Bashir. ... Omdurman Islamic University,built on an area of size about 500 Acres in Omdurman. ... University of Gazeera, or UofG, is located in Wadmadni, Sudan. ... Juba University was established in 1977, with syllabis and objectives that made it more close to its community compared to its alikes in the African continent. ... The University of Khartoum (U of K) is a public co-educational university located in and near Khartoum, Sudan. ... The Mycetoma Research Centre is located in Khartoum, Sudan. ... Sudan University of Science and Technology, or SUST, is one of the main universities in Khartoum, Sudan. ...

See also

This is a list of topics related to Sudan. ... This is a list of cities in Sudan: Al Fashir Al Qadarif Al Ubayyid Atbara Babanusa Bentiu Bor Delgo Dongola Ed Damazin Ed Dueim Geneina Halaib Juba Kasala Khartoum Khartoum North Kusti (also Kosti) Malakal Malualkon New Halfa Nimule Nyala Omdurman Port Sudan Rabak Sennar Suakin Tonj Wad Madani... Butana is a region in Sudan. ... Combatants JEM factions NRF alliance Janjaweed SLM (Minnawi)  Sudan African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Luke Aprezi Strength N/A N/A 7,000 The Darfur conflict is a crisis in the... // The public and private education systems inherited by the government of Sudan after independence were designed to provide civil servants and professionals to serve the colonial administration, rather than to educate the Sudanese. ... Facing Sudan is a documentary film released in 2007. ... Human rights organizations have documented a variety of abuses and atrocities carried out by the Sudanese government over the past several years. ... Saint Josephine Bakhita (1869 – February 8, 1947) is a Roman Catholic saint. ... This article is about the Nubian civilization. ... Lost Boys of Sudan is the name given by aid organizations to refer to the more than 27,000 boys who were displaced and/or orphaned during the Second Sudanese Civil War (1984-2005, about 2. ... The Merowe High Dam, also known as Merowe Multi-Purpose Hydro Project or Hamdab Dam, is a large construction project in northern Sudan, about 350km north of the capital Khartoum. ... The Sudan Peoples Armed Forces is a 60,000-member army supported by a small air force and navy. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... List of heads of government of The Sudan (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Political affiliations NUP - National Unionist Party SSU - Sudanese Socialist Union UMMA - Umma Party Mil - Military n-p - Non-partisan See also: List of Presidents of Sudan, lists of incumbents Categories: Sudan | Lists of... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sudan. ... Membership badge of the Sudan Boy Scouts Association The Sudan Boy Scouts Association, the national Scouting organization of Sudan, was founded in 1935, and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1956. ... There are tens of thousands of Sudanese refugees in Egypt, most of them seeking refuge from ongoing military conflicts in their home country of Sudan. ... The Sudanese teddy bear blasphemy case concerns the arrest, conviction and subsequent release of a British schoolteacher working at Unity High School in Sudan. ... The United Nations Mission In Sudan or UNMIS was established by the United Nations under UN Security Council Resolution 1590 of the UN Security Council on March 24, 2005 in response to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the government of Sudan and the Sudan Peoples Liberation...

Books

  • "Sudan: Race, Religion and Violence" by Jok Madut Jok Oneworld Publications ISBN 1851683666
  • "Sudan: The Bradt Travel Guide" by Paul Clammer ISBN 1841621145

Notes and references

  1. ^ Sudan News - Breaking World Sudan News - The New York Times
  2. ^ a b Online Etymology Dictionary
  3. ^ Embassy of Sudan in South Africa - Official Documents | Agriculture in Sudan
  4. ^ Sudan Embassy - History2
  5. ^ Morrison, J. Stephen and Alex de Waal. "Can Sudan Escape its Intractability?" Grasping the Nettle: Analyzing Cases of Intractable Conflict. Eds. Crocker, Chester A., Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamel Aall. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 2005, p. 162
  6. ^ Reuters AlertNet
  7. ^ USATODAY.com - Powell accuses Sudan of genocide
  8. ^ Nicholas D. Kristof | The Secret Genocide Archive
  9. ^ BBC NEWS | World | Africa | Q&A: Sudan's Darfur conflict
  10. ^ The Genocide in Darfur - Briefing Paper |Save Darfur
  11. ^ Darfur Peace Agreement
  12. ^ a b BBC NEWS | Africa | Main parties sign Darfur accord
  13. ^ a b Khartoum struggles to defeat new alliance | World news | The Guardian
  14. ^ Heavy Fighting Breaks Out, strategypage.com, October 11, 2006, <http://www.strategypage.com/qnd/sudan/articles/20061011.aspx>. Retrieved on 7 May 2008 
  15. ^ "Talk of Arabs killing Blacks is a lie,” said Pres. Bashir in what may have been the first inter-active video conference between an African head of state with a Black group in this country. “The government of Sudan is a government of Blacks, with all different ethnic backgrounds,” he continued. “We’re all Africans. We’re all Black."
  16. ^ BBC NEWS | World | Africa | Chad in 'state of war' with Sudan
  17. ^ BBC NEWS | World | Africa | Chad fightback 'kills 300 rebels'
  18. ^ Restraint plea to Sudan and Chad, aljazeera.net, December 27, 2005, <http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/AB24F0A9-8145-4E1E-96C7-3D8FC9641CC6.htm>. Retrieved on 7 May 2008 
  19. ^ Sudan, Chad agree to stop fighting
  20. ^ "UNMIS Media Monitoring Report, 04 January, 2006 (By Public Information Office)," United Nations Mission in Sudan
  21. ^ Sudanese government and East Sudan Front sign document on action program regarding the signing of security and military agreement. Eritrean Ministry of Information (2006-07-03). Retrieved on 2006-10-15.
  22. ^ 2007 Work Plan of the United Nations and partners.
  23. ^ Comments to IRIN by UN Spokesperson Maurizio Giuliano.
  24. ^ IHT: United Nations concerned that floods emergency may worsen.
  25. ^ Press Relase by United Nations, 06 August 2007..
  26. ^ Press Release by United Nations, 16 August 2007.
  27. ^ Sudan cuts Chad ties over attack
  28. ^ Guardian (UK), November 17, 2006 - Sudan agrees to allow UN troops in Darfur
  29. ^ - Guardian (UK), December 15, 2006 - Prosecutors move closer to Darfur trial
  30. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Field Listing - Legal system
  31. ^ Human Rights Watch letter
  32. ^ Darfur tops U.S. list of worst human rights abuses - USATODAY.com
  33. ^ Sudan CPA Provisions
  34. ^ ISS Sudan geography
  35. ^ Country Studies
  36. ^ Oxfam
  37. ^ Sudan embassy website
  38. ^ University of Khartoum
  39. ^ Dept of Forestry, University of Khartoum
  40. ^ Nations Encyclopedia
  41. ^ Elephant herds found on isolated south Sudan island, CNN, May 28, 2007, <http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/africa/05/28/sudan.elephants.reut/index.html> [dead link – history]
  42. ^ War in Sudan? Not Where the Oil Wealth Flows - New York Times
  43. ^ Peter K. Bechtold, `More Turbulence in Sudan` in Sudan: State and Society in Crisis, ed. John Voll (Boulder, Westview, 1991) p.1
  44. ^ text of the 2005 constitution in EnglishPDF (492 KiB)
  • Short History Of Sudan, iUniverse (April 30, 2004), ISBN-13: 978-0595314256.
  • The Problem of Dar Fur iUniverse, Inc. (July 21, 2005), ISBN-13: 978-0595365029
  • UN Intervention in Dar Fur, iUniverse, Inc. (February 9, 2007), ISBN-13: 978-0595429790
  • Quo Vadis bilad as-Sudan? The Contemporary Framework for a National Interim Constitution, in: Law in Africa Vol. 8, (Cologne 2005), pp.63-82. ISSN 1435-0963
  • The River War, Winston Churchill. An account of the Anglo-Egyptian reconquest of the Sudan in which he participated.
  • Karari:The Sudanese Account of the Battle of Omdurman, 'Ismat Hasan Zulfo, translated by Peter Clark, Frederick Warne, London 1980
  • The Medieval Kingdoms of Nubia, D. A. Welsby, The British Muuseum Press, 2002
  • Kingdoms of the Sudan, R. S. O'Fahey and J. L. Spauling, Methuen, London 1974. Covers Sinnar and Dar Fur.
  • Darfur; The Ambiguous Genocide, Gérard Prunier, Cornell University Press, New York 2007.
  • Slavery in Mauritania and Sudan: The State Against Blacks in The Modern African State: Quest for Transformation, Godfrey Mwakikagile, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Huntington, New York, 2001.

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External links

Find more about Sudan on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
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Learning resources
  • Government of Sudan official homepage (in Arabic)
  • Sudan.Net
  • Sudan Photographic Exhibition - Documentary photographer's images of Sudan's displaced
  • The Juba Post - South Sudan's Independent Newspaper
  • Al Rai el am- Biggest Sudan newspaper-Arabic
  • IRIN humanitarian news and analysis - Sudan
  • Photos of industrial and military production - Sudan
  • Sudan Organisation Against Torture
  • Africa Floods Appeal
  • SudanList Classified Advertising
  • Sudanese Online News (in Arabic)

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SudanTribune : plural news and views information source on Sudan... (0 words)
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BBC - Weather Centre - World Weather - Country Guides - Sudan (569 words)
The Sudan is the largest country in Africa with an area of nearly 2.5 million sq km/1 million sq mi.
During the rainy season in the south and centre of the Sudan, southerly and southwesterly winds replace the northeasterlies.
The tables for Khartoum and Port Sudan are representative of the northern desert regions of the Sudan.
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