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Encyclopedia > Sucrose
Sucrose
IUPAC name Sucrose
Other names Sugar, Saccharose
Identifiers
CAS number 57-50-1
RTECS number WN6500000
SMILES OC1C(OC(CO)C(O)C1O)
OC2(CO)OC(CO)C(O)C2O
Properties
Molar mass 342.29648 g/mol
Appearance white solid
Density 1.587 g/cm³, solid
Melting point

186 °C Image File history File links Saccharose. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1367x955, 162 KB) Summary 3D-model of a sucrose molecule. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...

Solubility in water 211.5 g/100 ml (20 °C)
Hazards
Main hazards Combustible
NFPA 704

Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ...

1
1
0
 
Flash point N/A
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references
Solubility of Pure Sucrose
Temperature(C) g Sucrose/g Water
50
2.59
55
2.73
60
2.89
65
3.06
70
3.25
75
3.46
80
3.69
85
3.94
90
4.20

Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. Its systematic name is α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-fructofuranose. It is best known for its role in human nutrition and is formed by plants but not by other organisms. For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Nutrition is interpreted as the study of the organic process by which an organism assimilates and uses food and liquids for normal functioning, growth and maintenance and to maintain the balance between health and disease. ... Life on Earth redirects here. ...

Contents

Physical and chemical properties

Granulated sucrose
Granulated sucrose

Pure sucrose is most often prepared as a fine, white, odorless crystalline powder with a pleasing, sweet taste; the common table sugar. Large crystals are sometimes precipitated from water solutions of sucrose onto a string (or other nucleation surface) to form rock candy, a confection. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3456x2304, 1476 KB) Summary The sugar was on a ruler, and the black marks are 1mm apart. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3456x2304, 1476 KB) Summary The sugar was on a ruler, and the black marks are 1mm apart. ... Bubbles in a soft drink each nucleate independently, responding to a decrease in pressure. ... Rock candy is a type of confectionery composed of relatively large sugar crystals. ... The term confectionery refers to food items rich in sugar. ...


Like other carbohydrates, sucrose has a hydrogen to oxygen ratio of 2:1. It consists of two monosaccharides, α-glucose and fructose, joined by a glycosidic bond between carbon atom 1 of the glucose unit and carbon atom 2 of the fructose unit. What is notable about sucrose is that unlike most polysaccharides, the glycosidic bond is formed between the reducing ends of both glucose and fructose, and not between the reducing end of one and the nonreducing end of the other. The effect of this inhibits further bonding to other saccharide units. Since it contains no free anomeric carbon atom, it is classified as a nonreducing sugar. Sucrose melts and decomposes at 186 °C to form caramel, and when combusted produces carbon, carbon dioxide, and water. Water breaks down sucrose by hydrolysis, however the process is so gradual that it could sit in solution for years with negligible change. If the enzyme sucrase is added however, the reaction will proceed rapidly. Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Monosaccharides are carbohydrates in the form of simple sugars. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... In chemistry, a glycosidic bond is a certain type of functional group that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to an alcohol, which may be another carbohydrate. ... A piece of caramel confectionery. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound reacts with water. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Headline text Sucrase (EC 3. ...


Reacting sucrose with sulfuric acid dehydrates the sucrose and forms elemental carbon, as demonstrated in the following equation: R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ...

C12H22O11 + H2SO4 catalyst → 12 C + 11 H2O

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ...

Commercial production and use

Main article: Sugar

Sucrose is the most common food sweetener, although it has been replaced in American industrial food production by other sweeteners such as fructose syrups or combinations of functional ingredients and high intensity sweeteners. This is due to the subsidization of corn in the United States, which has led to a vast surplus. Combined with sugar tariffs, this has driven the price of corn syrup far below that of sugar. This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sugar substitute. ... High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) refers to a group of corn syrups which have undergone enzymatic processing in order to increase their fructose content and are then mixed with pure corn syrup (100% glucose) to reach their final form. ...


Sucrose is the most important sugar in plants, and can be found in the phloem sap. It is generally extracted from sugar cane or sugar beet and then purified and crystallized. Other (minor) commercial sources are sweet sorghum and sugar maples. u fuck in ua ... In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that carries organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, a sugar, to all parts of the plant where needed. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... Binomial name Acer saccharum Marshall The Sugar Maple Acer saccharum is a prominent tree in the hardwood forests of eastern North America. ...


Sucrose is ubiquitous in food preparations due to both its sweetness and its functional properties; it is important to the structure of many foods including biscuits and cookies, candy canes, ice cream and sorbets, and also assists in the preservation of foods. As such it is common in many processed and so-called “junk foods.” For other uses, see Sweetness (disambiguation). ... Cheetos The Luther Burger, a bacon cheeseburger which employs a glazed donut in place of each bun. ...


Sugar as a macronutrient

In mammals, sucrose is very readily digested in the stomach into its component sugars, by acidic hydrolysis. This step is performed by a glycoside hydrolase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Glucose and fructose are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream in the small intestine. Undigested sucrose passing into the intestine is also broken down by sucrase or isomaltase glycoside hydrolases, which are located in the membrane of the microvilli lining the duodenum. These products are also transferred rapidly into the bloodstream. For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound reacts with water. ... Glycoside hydrolases (also called glycosidases) catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkage to generate two smaller sugars. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. ... Headline text Sucrase (EC 3. ... Glycoside hydrolases (also called glycosidases) catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkage to generate two smaller sugars. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Categories: Stub ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ...


Sucrose is digested by the enzyme invertase in bacteria and some animals. Invertase (EC 3. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ...


Acidic hydrolysis can be used in laboratories to achieve the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose.


In human nutrition

Sucrose is an easily assimilated macronutrient that provides a quick source of energy to the body, provoking a rapid rise in blood glucose upon ingestion. However, pure sucrose is not normally part of a human diet balanced for good nutrition, although it may be included sparingly to make certain foods more palatable. In nutrition, macronutrients are those nutrients that together provide the vast majority of metabolic energy to an organism. ... In medicine, blood sugar is glucose in the blood. ...


Overconsumption of sucrose has been linked with some adverse health effects. The most common is dental caries or tooth decay, in which oral bacteria convert sugars (including sucrose) from food into acids that attack tooth enamel. Sucrose, as a pure carbohydrate, has an energy content of 4 kilocalories per gram (or 17 kilojoules per gram). When a large amount of foods that contain a high percentage of sucrose is consumed, beneficial nutrients can be displaced from the diet, which can contribute to an increased risk for chronic disease. It has been suggested that sucrose-containing drinks may be linked to the development of obesity and insulin resistance.[1] Health effects, health impacts or health risks are an important consideration in many areas, such as hygiene, pollution studies, workplace safety, nutrition and health sciences in general. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... A calorie refers to a unit of energy. ... A kilojoule (abbreviation: kJ) is a unit of energy equal to 1000 joules. ... Insulin resistance is the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells. ...


The rapidity with which sucrose raises blood glucose can cause problems for people suffering from defects in glucose metabolism, such as persons with hypoglycemia or diabetes mellitus. Sucrose can contribute to development of the metabolic syndrome.[2] In an experiment with rats that were fed a diet one-third of which was sucrose, the sucrose first elevated blood levels of triglycerides, which induced visceral fat and ultimately resulted in insulin resistance.[3] Another study found that rats fed sucrose-rich diets developed high triglycerides, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance.[4] Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia in British English) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Metabolic syndrome is a combination of medical disorders that increase ones risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. ... Example of an unsaturated fat triglyceride. ... A term often used in usability enginering or user interface design Often conected with the Emotional feelings in a product signifies the WOW feeling when seeing a new product. ... Insulin resistance is the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells. ... In medicine, hypertriglyceridemia (or Hypertriglyceridaemia) denotes high (hyper-) blood levels (-emia) of triglycerides, the most abundant fatty molecule in most organisms. ... Hyperglycemia or High Blood Sugar is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. ... Insulin resistance is the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells. ...


References

Notes

  1. ^ Ten, S. & Maclaren, N. (2004). Insulin resistance syndrome in children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun;89(6):2526-39.
  2. ^ Aguilera, A.A., et al. (2004). Effects of fish oil on hypertension, plasma lipids, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rats with sucrose-induced metabolic syndrome.. J Nutr Biochem. 2004 Jun;15(6):350-7.
  3. ^ Satoshi Fukuchi (2004). "Role of Fatty Acid Composition in the Development of Metabolic Disorders in Sucrose-Induced Obese Rats". Experimental Biology and Medicine 229 (6): 486–493. PMID 15169967. 
  4. ^ Lombardo, Y.B., et al. (1996). Long-term administration of a sucrose-rich diet to normal rats: relationship between metabolic and hormonal profiles and morphological changes in the endocrine pancreas. Metabolism. 1996 Dec;45(12):1527-32.

General references

  • Yudkin, J.; Edelman, J., Hough, L. (1973). Sugar - Chemical, Biological and Nutritional Aspects of Sucrose. The Butterworth Group. ISBN 0-408-70172-2. 

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sucrose, What is Sucrose? About its Science, Chemistry and Structure (271 words)
Sucrose, ordinary table sugar, is probably the single most abundant pure organic chemical in the world and the one most widely known to nonchemists.
Sucrose is a disaccharide that yields 1 equiv of glucose and 1 equiv of fructose on acidic hydrolysis.
This 1:1 mixture of glucose and fructose is often referred to as invert sugar, since the sign of optical rotation changes (inverts) during the hydrolysis from sucrose ([alpha]D = +66.5o) to a glucose fructose mixture ([alpha]D = -22.0o).
sucrose - Encyclopedia.com (1266 words)
sucrose, commonest of the sugars, a white, crystalline solid disaccharide (see carbohydrate) with a sweet taste, melting and decomposing at 186°C to form caramel.
Hydrolysis of sucrose yields D-glucose and D-fructose; the process is called inversion and the sugar mixture produced is known as invert sugar because, although sucrose itself rotates plane-polarized light to the right, the mixture "inverts" this light by rotating it to the left.
Sucrose is obtained from the "juice" of sugarcane or the sugar beet and from the sap of the sugar maple.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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