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Encyclopedia > Succession to the British Throne

Succession to the British Throne is governed both by common law and statute. Under common law the crown is passed on by male-preference primogeniture.[1] In other words, an individual's male children are preferred over his or her female children, and an older child is preferred over a younger child of the same gender, with children representing their deceased ancestors. Succession in the United Kingdom is also governed by the Act of Union 1800, which restates the provisions of the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Bill of Rights (1689). These laws stipulate that those who are not legitimate descendants of Sophia, Electress of Hanover and those who have ever been Roman Catholics, or who have married Roman Catholics, are disbarred from succeeding to the Crown. The descendants of those who are disbarred for becoming or marrying Roman Catholics, however, may still be eligible to succeed.[2] (The succession was also regulated by His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936, which excluded the abdicated king Edward VIII and his descendants, if any, from the throne; this Act ceased to have any practical effect when Edward, then known as the Duke of Windsor, died without issue in 1972.) This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Primogeniture is the common law right of the first born son to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings. ... This article is about the Male sex. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Wales and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... The Bill of Rights 1689 is an English Act of Parliament with the long title An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown and known colloquially in the UK as the Bill of Rights. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Electress Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia, Countess Palatine of Simmern; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the youngest daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, of the House of Wittelsbach, the Winter King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth Stuart. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... His Majestys Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 was the Act of the British Parliament that allowed King Edward VIII to abdicate the throne, and passed succession to Prince Albert, Duke of York. ... King Edward VIII King of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, King of Ireland Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VIII, (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David), later His Royal Highness The Duke of Windsor (23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was the second British monarch of the...


The first four individuals (twenty-one years or older) in the line of succession, along with the Sovereign's consort, may be appointed Counsellors of State. Counsellors of State are individuals who perform some of the Sovereign's duties whilst he or she is outside the nation or temporarily incapacitated. Otherwise, individuals in the line of succession need not specifically have specific legal or official duties (though members of the Royal Family often do). In the United Kingdom, Counsellors of State are senior members of the British royal family to whom the Monarch, presently Queen Elizabeth II, delegates certain state functions and powers when she is abroad or unavailable for other reasons (such as short-term incapacity or sickness). ... Members of the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony The British Royal Family is shared between the Commonwealth Realms; this article focuses on the perspective of United Kingdom. ...


Under the arrangements by which the Monarchy is shared by the 16 Realms of the Commonwealth, the British line of succession is separate from, but symmetrical to, the lines of succession in the 15 other Realms, unless that Realm's constitution specifically defers succession rules to the UK. The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ...


The heir apparent to Elizabeth II, the present Sovereign, is her eldest son, HRH The Prince of Wales. Next in line is HRH Prince William of Wales, the Prince of Wales's eldest son. (For further individuals in the line of succession, see Line of succession to the British throne.) Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... “Prince Charles” redirects here. ... “Prince William” redirects here. ... HRH The Prince of Wales, the Heir Apparent. ...

Contents

Development

The current succession law in the United Kingdom evolved from succession law in both England and Scotland. Originally in both countries, there were no fixed rules governing succession to the Throne. The individual could have relied on inheritance, statute, election (by Parliament or by another body), nomination (by a reigning Sovereign in his or her will), conquest or prescription (de facto possession of the Crown). It was often unclear which of these bases should take precedence; often, the outcome depended not on the legal strength of the claims, but on the political power of the claimants. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... A body now called the English Parliament first arose during the thirteenth century, referred to variously as colloquium and parliamentum. It shared most of the powers typical of representative institutions in medieval and early modern Europe, and was arranged from the fourteenth century in a bicameral manner, with a House... In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ...


However, over time, the default rule in England and Scotland became male primogeniture: later monarchs coming to the throne by exception to this rule went to great lengths to explain and justify going against these rules, and to prove their rivals illegitimate. Eventually in both countries, Parliament took control of succession, and currently the Parliament of the United Kingdom controls succession to the throne of the United Kingdom. Primogeniture is inheritance by the first-born of the entirety of a parents wealth, estate or office. ...


England

House of Wessex

Upon the death of Beorhtric who had forced him into exile, Egbert returned to Wessex and took the throne. Overtaking Mercia as the dominant power in Britain, Egbert militarily expanded his realm to include Kent, Sussex, Surrey, some Mercian territory, and briefly all of Mercia; this gained him the title Bretwalda, or "ruler of Britain". Egbert's heirs have ruled England almost exclusively ever since; in the years since there have been only nine monarchs of the country who were not his descendants. Beorhtric (died 802) (Means Magnificent Ruler) was the King of Wessex from 786 until his death. ... Egbert (also Ecgbehrt or Ecgbert, means roughly The shining edge of a blade) (c. ... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the historic county in England. ... This article is about the English county. ... Bretwalda is an Anglo-Saxon term, the first record of which comes from the late ninth-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. ...


Egbert was succeeded by his son Ethelwulf upon his death. Ethelwulf's second son Ethelbald was not as patient and forced his father to abdicate the throne. Dying without issue Ethelbald was followed by his brother Ethelbert who also left no children. The next brother, Ethelred did have two young sons, but still upon his death his younger brother Alfred the Great took the throne, which caused no resistance mostly due to domestic turmoil connected with Danish invasions. Alfred was succeeded on his death by his son Edward the Elder, but the latter's death caused a rougher transition. England was briefly split with various of Edward's children ruling Mercia, Wessex and Kent. In Wessex he was followed by Elfward who died only about two weeks later and was probably never crowned. Though he may have been followed by his brother Edwin, this too would have been very brief as Athelstan soon came to power over a reunited England. Ethelwulfs first tombstone, in the church porch at Steyning - the two incised crosses indicate a royal burial Ethelwulf, Old English: Æþelwulf, (c. ... King Ethelbald of Wessex or Æþelbald (Means roughly Noble Bold) was the eldest son of King Ethelwulf of Wessex and was born in about 831 or 834. ... King Ethelbert or Æþelberht of Wessex (Means Magnificent Noble) was a son of Ethelwulf of Wessex and was born in around 835 AD. He succeeded his brother, Ethelbald of Wessex, as King of Wessex in 860, but died without issue in about 865. ... Life King Ethelred I (Old English: Æþelræd) (c. ... For the 10th century Bishop of Sherborne, see Alfred (bishop). ... Edward the Elder (Old English: Ēadweard se Ieldra) (c. ... Ælfweard (died 2 August 924) was the second known son of Edward the Elder. ... Athelstan redirects here. ...


Athelstan had no children and was succeeded by his half-brother Edmund. Though Edmund had a son, his half-brother Edred took the throne upon his death. This only delayed Edmund's son Edwy's ascension to the throne, as Edred died without issue. Edwy also remained childless, however, so upon his death the crown went to his brother Edgar, who had already taken some of the realm by force. Edmund I (or Eadmund, 921 – May 26, 946), called the Elder, the Deed-Doer, or the Just, was King of England from 939 until his death. ... “Eadred” redirects here. ... Edwy All-Fair or Eadwig (941? – October 1, 959) was the King of England from 955 until his death. ... King Edgar or Eadgar I ( 942 – July 8, 975) was the younger son of King Edmund I of England. ...


Edgar died at the relatively young age of about 32 leaving an unclear succession. He left two sons, ostensibly one each to his two wives, but rumors circulated that the eldest son Edward who was initially crowned was actually born to a mistress. As Edward and his brother Ethelred were both quite young, they did not directly participate in the struggle, which was led on the one side by Ethelred's mother and on the other by the Archbishop of Canterbury. However, Edward's participation became quite direct when he was murdered three years into his reign by servants of his stepmother, allowing Ethelred to ascend the throne. Ethelred "the Unready" spent the bulk of his reign unsuccessfully defending the realm against Viking invaders. Sweyn I of Denmark conquered England and took the throne in 1013, only to die a few weeks later. This allowed Ethelred to retake the crown for the three final years of his life, but his son and successor Edmund Ironside lasted only seven months before being conquered by Sweyn's son Canute the Great. King Edward the Martyr or Eadweard II (c. ... Ethelred II (c. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... Sweyn I, or Sweyn Forkbeard, (Danish: Svend Tveskæg, originally Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg, Old Norse: Sveinn Tjúguskegg, Norwegian: Svein Tjugeskjegg), (??? – February 3, 1014), king of Denmark and England, a leading Viking warrior and the father of Canute the Great (Cnut I). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Canute II, or Canute the Great, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as Cnut (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den store, Danish: Knud den Store) (c. ...


House of Denmark

Sweyn and Canute then are the first two monarchs in a completely new succession, which was destined to be short-lived. Canute left two sons, the elder, illegitimate Harold Harefoot (who may not even have been his son) and the younger, legitimate Harthacanute who was supposed to be heir to the throne of all Canute's realms. However, Harthacanute could not travel to England due to threats of invasion in Denmark, so Harold took the throne. Harthacanute eventually began assembling a force to depose his half-brother, but Harold died before this could materialize and Harthacanute assumed power in England peacefully. Harthacanute left no sons, however, and since his mother, Emma, had been married to Ethelred the Unready (and borne him sons) before his death and Canute's ascension, the throne passed back to the original Anglo-Saxon line in the form of her son (Harthacanute's half-brother) Edward the Confessor. Harold I Harefoot (c. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ...


Anglo-Saxon Restoration

Starting with Edward the Confessor there was a brief reinstatement of the House of Wessex, but the power of the crown had diminished greatly and succession was basically controlled by the Witenagemot rather than strict primogeniture. As such Edward was succeeded by Harold Godwinson, who had little hereditary claim. Harold was killed in the Battle of Hastings, and was theoretically succeeded by Edgar Ætheling, who has not even been crowned when the Norman William the Conqueror marched on London and took the throne. Biblical pharaoh depicted as an Anglo-Saxon king with his witan (11th century) The Witenagemot (also called the Witan, more properly the title of its members) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated between approximately the 7th century and 11th century. ... Harold II of England (Harold Godwinson); c. ... Combatants Normans supported by: Bretons (one third of total), Flemings, French Anglo-Saxons, the Þingalið Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,000-8,000 7,000-8,000 Casualties Unknown, thought to be around 2,000 killed and wounded Unknown, thought to be around 4... Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. ...


Normans and Plantagenets

William I, the first Norman monarch of England, willed that his second son William—not his eldest son Robert—receive the Crown. (Robert instead inherited the Duchy of Normandy.) William II and Robert agreed that in the event of one dying without children the other would inherit their possessions (and realms), but Robert was away on the crusades when William II died, and their younger brother Henry claimed the throne instead. Robert's subsequent invasion of England was resolved diplomatically via the Treaty of Alton, in which he renounced his claim to the English throne for a stipend and other concessions. Women were not originally accepted as monarchs; William II's successor, Henry I, named his daughter Matilda as his heir, but his nephew Stephen took the Throne, eventually resulting in a period of civil war known as The Anarchy, during which Matilda ruled briefly. William I of England (c. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... William II (c. ... Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of Alton was an agreement signed in 1101 between Henry I of England and his older brother Robert, Duke of Normandy in which Robert agreed to recognize Henry as king of England in exchange for a yearly stipend and other concessions. ... Henry I (c. ... Empress Maud (1102 – September 10, 1167) is the title by which Matilda, daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England and his wife Maud of Scotland (herself daughter of Malcolm III Canmore and St. ... Stephen (c. ... The Anarchy in English history commonly names the period of civil war and unsettled government that occurred during the reign (1135–1154) of King Stephen of England. ...


As part of the settlement Stephen named as his successor Matilda's son Henry II, which was challenged by his own children. Henry II's son, Henry the Young King, was crowned king during his own father's lifetime, but he never actually ruled, and is not known by any ordinal. He predeceased his father, who was succeeded by Richard I. Richard designated his nephew Arthur as his heir, but his brother John assumed the Crown instead. The throne then passed directly from father to son four times, through Henry III and Edward I, II, and III. This straightforward succession was about to end, however; the proper rules of primogeniture would be followed once more with the ascension of 10-year-old Richard II, the son of Edward the Black Prince, the deceased eldest son of Edward III. Afterward, a long, violent conflict ensued between the descendants of Edward III's five legitimate sons. Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Henry, the Young King Henry the Young King (February 28, 1155–June 11, 1183) was the second of five sons of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... Arthur I, Duke of Brittany (1187 – 1203), was the posthumous son of Geoffrey Plantagenet and Constance, Duchess of Brittany, and designated heir to the throne of England, originally intended to succeed Richard I. While Richard was away on crusade, Constance took more independence for Brittany, and in 1194 had the... This article is about the King of England. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... Edward the Black Prince - illustration from Cassells History of England circa 1902 Effigy on the Black Princes tomb in Canterbury Cathedral Edward, Prince of Wales, known as the Black Prince (June 15, 1330 - June 8, 1376) was the eldest son of King Edward III of England. ...


Houses of Lancaster and York

According to the rules of primogeniture, Richard II's heir presumptive was the seven-year-old Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, grandson and heir of Lionel of Antwerp, the second surviving son of Edward III. However, in 1399 Henry Bolingbroke, son of John of Gaunt (third surviving son of Edward III), deposed his cousin and became Henry IV. Henry IV's House of Lancaster (John of Gaunt's descendants) was opposed by another branch of the royal family, the House of York (Lionel of Antwerp's descendants), which had a better claim by strict primogeniture. As both houses used roses in their family symbols the conflict is known as the War of the Roses. Henry IV passed the throne to his son Henry V, who likewise passed it to his son Henry VI. However in 1461, Henry VI was deposed by the Yorkist Edward IV. Henry VI returned to the Throne briefly in 1470, but Edward IV deposed him again in 1471; this second time Henry and his son Edward were murdered, destroying the main Lancaster line. Edward IV's son, Edward V, was proclaimed king on his father's death, but never crowned; instead his uncle locked him and his brother in the Tower of London never to be seen again and usurped the Throne to become Richard III, only to be deposed by the Lancastrian Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, (November 29, 1338 - October 7, 1368) was the third son of Edward III of England, and was so called because he was born at Antwerp, Belgium. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (June 24, 1340 - February 3, 1399), the third surviving son of King Edward III of England, gained his name because he was born at Ghent in 1340. ... The House of Lancaster is a dynasty of English kings. ... The House of York was a branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet, three of whom became English kings in the late 15th century. ... The War or Wars of the Roses may refer to, or have been referred to by: The historical Wars of the Roses, the civil war that took place in Mediæval Britain between the House of York and the House of Lancaster. ... Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) was one of the great English warrior kings of the Middle Ages. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ...


Tudors

Richmond, who became Henry VII, though a Lancastrian by descent, had hardly any hereditary claim on the throne, and relied neither on one nor on statute. Rather, he relied on mere possession. The Act of Parliament passed in 1485 which recognised Henry VII as the Sovereign did not assert that he was entitled to the Crown by inheritance; rather, it merely acknowledged the fact that Henry ruled over England. Year 1485 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ...


Henry VII was followed by his son, Henry VIII. Though his father was a Lancastrian, Henry VIII could also claim the Throne through the Yorkist line, as his mother Elizabeth was the sister and heiress of Edward V. Henry VIII redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Henry VIII's numerous marriages led to several complications over succession. Henry VIII was first married to Catherine of Aragon, by whom he had a daughter named Mary. His second marriage, to Anne Boleyn, resulted in a daughter named Elizabeth. Henry VIII had a son Edward by his third wife, Jane Seymour. An Act of Parliament passed in 1533 declared Mary illegitimate; another passed in 1536 did the same for Elizabeth. Though the two remained illegitimate, an Act of Parliament passed in 1544 allowed reinserting them, providing further "that the King should and might give, will, limit, assign, appoint or dispose the said imperial Crown and the other premises … by letters patent or last will in writing." Mary and Elizabeth, under Henry VIII's will, were to be followed by the descendants of the King's deceased sister Mary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk. This will also excluded from the succession the descendants of Henry's eldest sister Margaret Tudor, who were the rulers of Scotland. Katherine of Aragon (Alcalá de Henares, 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla, also known popularly after her time as Catherine of Aragon, was the first wife and Queen Consort of Henry VIII of England. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Anne Boleyn, Queen Consort of England, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke[1] (ca. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Edward I of Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ... For the actress, see Jane Seymour (actress). ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting an office, a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as... A sketch of Mary during her brief period as Queen of France Mary Tudor (March 18, 1496 – June 25, 1533) was the younger sister of Henry VIII of England and queen consort of France due to her marriage to Louis XII. Mary was the fifth child of Henry VII of... Margaret Tudor Margaret Tudor (29 November 1489 – October 1541) was the eldest of the two surviving daughters of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the elder sister of Henry VIII. In 1503 she married James IV, king of Scotland, thus becoming the mother of James V and... This article is about the country. ...

Elizabeth I (depicted) was the successor to Mary I.
Elizabeth I (depicted) was the successor to Mary I.

When Henry VIII died in 1547, the young Edward succeeded him, becoming Edward VI. Edward VI was the first Protestant Sovereign to succeed to the rule of England; he strongly opposed having the Catholic Mary be his heir. Therefore, he attempted to divert the course of succession in his will. He excluded Mary, Elizabeth and Frances Brandon, Duchess of Suffolk (daughter of Mary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk), the three individuals next in line under Henry's will, settling on the Duchess of Suffolk's daughter, the Lady Jane Grey. The Lady Jane was also originally excluded on the premise that no woman could reign over England. Nonetheless, the will, which originally referred to the Lady Jane's heirs-male, was amended to refer to the Lady Jane and her heirs-male. The Lady Jane was duly proclaimed the first reigning Queen of England upon Edward VI's death in 1553. She reigned for but nine days, as the popular Mary overthrew her and took the Throne; the Lady Jane's proclamation as Sovereign was revoked. Under the Act of Parliament passed in 1544, it was Henry VIII—not Edward VI—who had been granted authority to dispose of the Crown in his will. Edward's will, being unlawful, was ignored, and the provisions of Henry's will were followed. Download high resolution version (529x700, 80 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (529x700, 80 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Portrait by Hans Eworth. ... Lady Jane Grey, formally Jane of England (1537 — 12 February 1554), a grand-niece of Henry VIII of England, reigned as uncrowned Queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days[1] in July 1553. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ...


Mary I was succeeded by her half-sister Elizabeth. Elizabeth I broke with the precedents of many of her predecessors, and refused to name an heir. Whilst previous monarchs (including Henry VIII) had specifically been granted authority to settle uncertain successions in their wills, the Treasons Act 1571 asserted that Parliament had the right to settle disputes, and made it treason to deny Parliamentary authority. Wary of threats from other possible heirs, Parliament further passed the Act of Association 1584, which provided that any individual involved in attempts to murder the Sovereign would be disqualified from succeeding. (The Act was repealed in 1863.) The Treasons Act 1571 was a law passed by Queen Elizabeth I of England which superceded the Treasons Act 1534 passed by her father, Henry VIII of England. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Scotland

The House of Stewart (later Stuart) had ruled in Scotland since 1377. It had followed strict rules of primogeniture until the deposition and exile of Mary Queen of Scots in 1567; even then she was succeeded by her son, who became James VI of Scotland. The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ...


After the union of the crowns

Stuarts

Elizabeth I of England was succeeded by King James VI of Scotland, her first cousin twice removed, who reigned in England as James I and in Scotland as James VI. This succession—like the Lady Jane Grey's—violated Henry VIII's will, which had been specifically authorised by statute. Under the will, Lady Anne Stanley, heiress of Mary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk, was supposed to succeed Elizabeth. Like Lady Jane, James asserted that hereditary right was superior to statutory provision. The only difference was in the outcome: Lady Jane had been overthrown and executed, while James had no serious opposition. Already a King in Scotland, he was powerful enough to deter any rival. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Lady Anne Stanley (May 1580 – c. ...


James I and VI's eldest surviving son and successor, Charles I was overthrown and beheaded in 1649. The monarchy itself was abolished. A few years later, it was replaced by the Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, effectively a monarch with the title of Lord Protector rather than King. Cromwell had the right to name his own successor, which he exercised on his deathbed by choosing his son, Richard Cromwell. Richard was ineffective, and was quickly forced to abdicate. Shortly after, the traditional monarchy was restored, with Charles II—Charles I's son and heir—as King. Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... Lord Protector is a particular English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ... Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...

After the death of her last child in 1700, the Princess Anne became the last individual left in the line of succession determined by the Bill of Rights.
After the death of her last child in 1700, the Princess Anne became the last individual left in the line of succession determined by the Bill of Rights.

James II & VII, a Catholic, followed his brother Charles II, despite efforts in the late 1670s to exclude him and pass the throne to his Protestant daughter Mary. James II & VII was the last British monarch to be deposed; his Protestant opponents forced him to flee from the country in 1688. Parliament then deemed that James II & VII had, by fleeing the realm, abdicated the Throne. Parliament offered the Crown not to James II & VII's infant son by his second, Catholic, wife, also named James, but to his Protestant daughter Mary and to her husband William, who as James' nephew was the first person in the succession not descended from him. The two became joint Sovereigns (a unique circumstance in British history) as William III of England (and II of Scotland) and Mary II of England and Scotland. William had insisted on this unique provision as a condition of his military leadership against James. Image File history File links Queen Anne. ... Image File history File links Queen Anne. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ... James II (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[1] became King of England, King of Scots,[2] and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685. ... The Exclusion Bill crisis ran from 1678 till 1681. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart, the Old Pretender, (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed King James II of England and VII of Scots, and as such laid claim to the English and Scottish thrones (as... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... William III of England, II of Scotland and III of Orange (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702) was a Dutch aristocrat, the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King...


The English Bill of Rights passed in 1689 determined succession to the English Throne. First in the line were the descendants of Mary II. Next came Mary's sister the Princess Anne and her descendants. Finally, the descendants of William III & II by any future marriage were added to the line of succession. Only Protestants were allowed to succeed to the Throne, and those who married Roman Catholics were excluded. A bill of rights is a list or summary of rights that are considered important and essential by a group of people. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ...


After Mary II died in 1694, her husband continued to reign alone until his own death in 1702. The line of succession provided for by the Bill of Rights was almost at an end; William and Mary never had any children, and the Princess Anne's children had all died. Therefore, Parliament passed the Act of Settlement 1701. The Act maintained the provision of the Bill of Rights whereby William III & II would be succeeded by the Princess Anne and her descendants, and thereafter by his own descendants from future marriages. The Act, however, declared that they would be followed by James I & VI's granddaughter Sophia, Electress and Dowager Duchess of Hanover (the daughter of James's daughter Elizabeth Stuart) and her heirs. As under the Bill of Rights, non-Protestants and those who married Roman Catholics were excluded. Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... Elisabeth, Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia (born Princess Elizabeth Stuart of Scotland; 19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was the eldest daughter to James VI of Scotland and his Queen consort Anne of Denmark. ...


Upon William III & II's death, Anne became Queen of England. Because the Parliament of England settled on Sophia, Electress of Hanover as Anne's heir without consulting Scottish leaders, the Estates of Scotland retaliated by passing the Scottish Act of Security. The Act provided that, upon the death of Anne, the Estates would meet to select an heir to the throne of Scotland, who could not be the same person as the English Sovereign unless numerous political and economic conditions were met. Anne originally withheld the Royal Assent, but was forced to grant it when the Estates refused to raise taxes and sought to withdraw troops from the Queen's army. England's Parliament responded by passing the Alien Act, which threatened to cripple Scotland's economy by cutting off trade with them. Thus, Scotland had little choice but to unite with England to form the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707; the Crown of the new nation was subject to the rules laid down by the English Act of Settlement. The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba in Gaelic, Scots Pairlament in Scots) is the national legislature of Scotland. ... The Scottish Act of Security was a response by the Scottish Parliament to the English Act of Settlement. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... For the US Alien Act of 1798, see Alien and Sedition Acts. ... For an explanation of terms such as Great Britain, British, United Kingdom, England, Scotland and Wales, see British Isles (terminology). ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ...


Hanoverians, Wettins and Windsors

Anne was predeceased by Sophia, Electress of Hanover, and was therefore succeeded by the latter's son, who became George I in 1714. The Crown descended thereafter without incident until 1936, when Edward VIII abdicated. Edward VIII had desired to marry Wallis Simpson, a divorcée, but the Church of England, of which the British Sovereign is Supreme Governor, prohibited divorcés and divorcées from remarrying. Therefore, Parliament passed His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936, by which Edward VIII ceased to be Sovereign. The Act provided that he and his descendants, if any, were not to have any "right, title or interest in or to the succession to the Throne." Edward VIII was succeeded by his brother George VI. George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on 20... Wallis, Duchess of Windsor and the Duke of Windsor on their wedding day Bessie Wallis Warfield, more widely known as Wallis Simpson and later The Duchess of Windsor (June 19, 1896–April 24, 1986) was the wife of Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor, the former King Edward VIII of the... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... His Majestys Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 was the Act of the British Parliament that allowed King Edward VIII to abdicate the throne, and passed succession to Prince Albert, Duke of York. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ...


Current rules

The Act of Settlement 1701 (restated by the Acts of Union) still governs succession to the Throne. (The Act does not abrogate several provisions of the Bill of Rights, which, therefore, still remain in effect.) His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936, which provided that Edward VIII and his descendants would have no claim to the Throne, is no longer applicable, as Edward died in 1972 without issue. Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Anyone ineligible to succeed is deemed "naturally dead". That individual's descendants are not also disqualified, unless they are personally ineligible.


Marriages

The Protestant "heir of the body" of Sophia, Electress of Hanover succeeds to the Throne. The term, under English law, applies the rules of male primogeniture to succession. Children born out of wedlock and adopted children, however, are not eligible to succeed. Illegitimate children whose parents marry are legitimated, but still remain incapable of inheriting the Crown.


In addition to the normal rules relating to marriage, the Royal Marriages Act 1772 applies to the descendants of George II. (The descendants of princesses who married into foreign royal families were excepted, as were, in 1936, any descendants of Edward VIII.) The Act provides that each individual bound by its provisions may not marry without the Sovereign's consent being signified under the Great Seal and being announced before the Privy Council. The Act provides, however, that if an individual older than twenty-five years notifies the Privy Council of his or her intention to marry without the consent of the Sovereign, then he or she may lawfully do so after one year, unless both houses of Parliament expressly disapprove of the marriage. Any marriage that contravenes the Royal Marriages Act is void, and the offspring thereof are illegitimate and ineligible to succeed to the Crown. Such a purported marriage, if made to a Roman Catholic, cannot by itself be cause for removal from the line of succession. Thus when the future George IV attempted to marry the Roman Catholic Maria Fitzherbert in 1785 without seeking permission from George III he did not disqualify himself from inheriting the throne in due course.[3] The Royal Marriages Act of 1772 made it illegal for any member of the British royal family (defined as all descendants of King George II, excluding descendants of princesses who marry foreigners) under the age of 25 to marry without the consent of the ruling monarch. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically in a monarchy. ... George IV (George Augustus Frederick) (12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Hanover from 29 January 1820 until his death. ... Maria Anne Fitzherbert, wife of King George IV Plaque at Maria Fitzherberts burial place in Brighton Maria Anne Fitzherbert, née Smythe (26 July 1756 – 27 March 1837), was the first woman with whom the future King George IV of the United Kingdom undertook a wedding ceremony, and his... George III redirects here. ...


The individuals closest to the throne who are disqualified from the succession on the grounds of being born out of wedlock are the Hon Benjamin Lascelles and the Hon Emily Lascelles, who would have otherwise ranked fortieth and forty-first in the line of succession respectively, after their father, Viscount Lascelles. Lord Lascelles subsequently legitimated them by marrying their mother, but they still remain ineligible to succeed to the Crown. Benjamin George Lascelles, born 23 November 1978, is the eldest son of David Henry George Lascelles, Viscount Lascelles, a British producer who is the eldest son of the 7th Earl of Harewood, a first cousin of Queen Elizabeth II. Benjamin Lascelles and his sister, Emily Lascelles, were born out of... David Henry George Lascelles, Viscount Lascelles (born 21 October 1950) is a British film producer and the eldest son of the 7th Earl of Harewood and his first wife, Marion Stein. ...


Religion

Rules relating to eligibility established by the Bill of Rights are retained under the Act of Settlement. The preamble to the Act of Settlement notes that the Bill of Rights provides "that all and every person and persons that then [at the time of the Bill of Right's passage] were, or afterwards should be reconciled to, or shall hold communion with the see or Church of Rome, or should profess the popish religion, or marry a papist, should be excluded." The Act of Settlement continues, providing "that all and every Person and Persons who shall … is, are or shall be reconciled to or shall hold Communion with the See or Church of Rome or shall profess the Popish religion or shall marry a papist shall be subject to such Incapacities" as the Bill of Rights established. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... While all episcopal sees can be referred to as holy, the expression the Holy See (without further specification) is normally used in international relations (as well as in the canon law of the Catholic Church)[1] to refer to the central government of the Catholic Church, headed by the Bishop...


The precise meaning of the aforementioned clauses is subject to contention. Under one interpretation, the religion of an individual at the precise moment of succession is relevant. Under another interpretation, anyone who has been a Roman Catholic at any time since 1689 ("then … or afterwards") is forever ineligible to succeed. The former interpretation allows a Roman Catholic to convert to Protestantism and succeed to the Throne just before his predecessor dies; the latter does not. In either case, however, other religions are not affected; it is clear that any non-Catholic may convert to Protestantism and succeed to the Throne.


The Act of Settlement further provides that anyone who marries a Roman Catholic at any time would be forever ineligible to succeed to the Throne. (Some suggest that the religion of one's spouse at the precise time of succession is all that matters. This interpretation, however, is not borne out by a literal reading of the Act, which uses the phrase "shall marry," not "shall be married.") The Act does not require that the spouse be Protestant; it only bars those who marry Roman Catholics. Furthermore, an individual is not barred because his or her spouse converts to Roman Catholicism after marriage.


The highest individual ineligible to succeed because he or she married a Roman Catholic is the Earl of St Andrews, who would have otherwise ranked twenty-third in the line of succession. The highest individual ineligible to succeed because he or she is not a Protestant is Lord Downpatrick (Lord St Andrews' son), who would have otherwise ranked twenty-fourth. George Philip Nicholas Windsor, Earl of St Andrews (b. ... Edward Edmund Maximilian George Windsor, Baron Downpatrick (b. ...


Changes

Any changes made to the succession law in the United Kingdom would not have effect in the other Commonwealth Realms, unless specifically enacted by the Parliaments thereof. The Commonwealth Realms, of which the United Kingdom is one, are independent nations, all under a single monarch. The rules of succession are now the same in all of these Realms, but it is possible for a Realm to adopt rules of succession independently of other Realms. The Statute of Westminster 1931 provides, "it would be in accord with the established constitutional position of all the members of the Commonwealth in relation to one another that any alteration in the law touching the Succession to the Throne or the Royal Style and Titles shall hereafter require the assent as well of the Parliaments of all the Dominions (now Commonwealth Realms) as of the Parliament of the United Kingdom." This provision, however, is a part of the Preamble of the Act. Since it does not follow an enacting clause, it has no legal force. Therefore, each Commonwealth Realm is permitted to amend its own succession laws, insofar as it applies to that Realm, with the convention set out in the preamble only applying as a guideline, though one central to the symmetrical relationship of the Realms under the Crown. The prospect of creating different succession laws in the United Kingdom and the Realms is widely regarded as an obstacle to making any change to the laws of succession in any one Realm. The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ...


Several calls have been made to change the law of succession. Most commonly, individuals have asserted that granting precedence to male children or excluding non-Protestants is discriminatory. In 1998, The Guardian challenged the succession law in court, purporting that it violated the European Convention on Human Rights, which provides, "The enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or other status." The Convention, however, nowhere lists the right to succeed to the Crown as a human right; therefore, the challenge was rejected. Most recently, in December 2004, a Private Member's Bill, the Succession to the Crown Bill, was introduced in the Lords. Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... “ECHR” redirects here. ... ← - 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in December • 30 Artie Shaw • 29 Julius Axelrod • 28 Jacques Dupuis • 28 Jerry Orbach • 28 Susan Sontag • 26 Reggie White • 26 Sir Angus Ogilvy • 23 P. V. Narasimha Rao • 23 Doug Ault • 19 Renata Tebaldi • 16... The Succession to the Crown Bill was a British Private Members Bill aimed at reforming the manner of succession to the British Monarchy published in the House of Lords by Labour peer Lord Dubs on December 9, 2004, and withdrawn by him on January 14, 2005, after the Government...


The Blair government blocked all attempts to revise the succession laws, claiming it would raise too many constitutional issues (i.e., necessity for concurrent legislation in the Commonwealth Realms), and it is unnecessary at this time, since the first four people in the line of succession are male. This could change rapidly, however, once princes William and Harry get married and have children. The birth of a daughter, particularly to William, would add great urgency to the debate, and it would become awkward if she were followed by a son. The issue has not yet arisen under the Brown government.


Changing the succession to absolute primogeniture would result in HRH The Princess Royal (Anne) being fourth in line, followed by her son and daughter, taking the place of HRH The Duke of York (Andrew) and his two daughters. The Princess Anne, Princess Royal (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise; born 15 August 1950), is a member of the British Royal Family and the only daughter of Elizabeth II. She is the seventh holder of the title Princess Royal, and is currently ninth in the line of succession to the British... The Prince Andrew, The Duke of York (Andrew Albert Christian Edward; born 19 February 1960) is a member of the British Royal Family, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Duke of York since 1986. ...


Accession

Accession Councils normally meet in St. James's Palace.
Accession Councils normally meet in St. James's Palace.

Upon the death of a Sovereign, his or her heir immediately and automatically succeeds, without any need for confirmation or further ceremony.[4] Nevertheless, it is customary for the accession of the Sovereign to be publicly proclaimed. Main gate of St Jamess Palace, London Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Main gate of St Jamess Palace, London Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ...


Formerly, the new Sovereign proclaimed his or her own succession. After Elizabeth I died, however, an Accession Council proclaimed the succession of James I, who was in Scotland at the time, to the throne of England (he was already King James VI of Scotland at the time). This precedent has been followed in each case since; now, the Accession Council normally meets in St. James's Palace. Proclamations since James I's have usually been made in the name of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, the Privy Council, the Lord Mayor, Aldermen and citizens of the City of London and "other principal Gentlemen of quality," though there have been variations in some proclamations. Elizabeth II's proclamation was the first to also make mention of representatives of members of the Commonwealth. In the United Kingdom, the Accession Council proclaims a new monarch upon the death of a previous monarch. ... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ... The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, consist of the 26 clergymen of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal. ... For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... Former Lord Mayor of London John Stuttard during the parade on November 11, 2006 Michael Berry Savory, Lord Mayor 2004–2005 The Right Honourable Lord Mayor of London is the Mayor of the City of London and head of the Corporation of London. ... An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... For other uses, see Gentleman (disambiguation). ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...


After an appropriate period of mourning has passed, the Sovereign is also crowned. Coronations are held in Westminster Abbey. The Archbishop of Canterbury normally officiates, though the Sovereign may designate any other bishop of the Church of England. A coronation is not necessary for a Sovereign to rule; for example, Edward VIII was never crowned, yet was the undoubted king during his short reign. British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...


See also

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... HRH The Prince of Wales, the Heir Apparent. ... A history of the British line of succession, showing its state immediately prior to the death of each monarch. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... This is the British monarchs family tree, from James I of England (and Scotland) to Elizabeth, the present queen. ... // This is a list of the monarchs of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed in the British Isles, namely: The Kingdom of Scotland, from 843 up to 1707; The Kingdom of... The Treason Act 1702 (1 Anne stat. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Bogdanor, p. 42
  2. ^ Bogdanor, p. 55
  3. ^ Bodganor, p. 55
  4. ^ Letter from Tony Newton as Lord President of the Council to Tony Benn indicated this was the effect of the Act of Settlement after Benn had indicated he inteded to block the next accession at the Privy Council. Quoted by Peter Hennessy, and by Vernon Bogdanor in The Monarchy and the Constitution p.45

Anthony Harold Newton, Baron Newton of Braintree, OBE PC, known as Tony Newton, (born August 29, 1937), is a British Conservative politician and former Cabinet member. ... The Office of Lord President of the Council is a British cabinet position, the holder of which acts as presiding officer of the Privy Council. ... Anthony Tony Neil Wedgwood Benn (born 3 April 1925), formerly 2nd Viscount Stansgate, is a British socialist politician. ... Peter Hennessy is an English historian of government. ... Vernon Bogdanor (born 1943) is professor of government at Oxford University and a vice-principal of Brasenose College. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Succession to the British Throne - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3436 words)
Succession in the United Kingdom is governed now by the Act of Union 1800, which restates the provisions of the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Bill of Rights (1689).
In 1461, the Lancastrian Henry VI was deposed by the Yorkist Edward IV.
The individuals closest to the throne to be disqualified from succeeding to due to being born out of wedlock are the Hon Benjamin Lascelles and the Hon Emily Lascelles, who would have otherwise ranked fortieth and forty-first in the line of succession respectively, after their father, Viscount Lascelles.
British monarchy: Information from Answers.com (8974 words)
The British monarch or Sovereign is the head of state of the United Kingdom and in the British overseas territories.
Thus, as the modern British monarchy is a constitutional one, the Sovereign's role is in practice limited to non-partisan functions (such as being the fount of honour).
Succession is governed by several enactments, the most important of which are the Bill of Rights 1689 and Act of Settlement 1701.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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