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Encyclopedia > Succession to Muhammad

The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. Succession is the act or process of pooing or of following in order or sequence. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


Muhammad died in 632 CE. in Medina following a brief illness. After an initial period of confusion, command of the Muslim community passed to Abu Bakr, Muhammad's father-in-law and one of the Muslim leaders. In later centuries there was sharp disagreement as to how this transition came about and whether or not it was legitimate. This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ...


The Shi'a believe that Muhammad divinely ordained his cousin and son-in-law, Ali ibn Abi Talib, in accordance with God's command, making Ali and his descendants Muhammad's true successors. The largest denomination in Islam, the Sunnis, hold that Abu Bakr and all caliphs should be chosen by community consensus, that this method of choosing or electing leaders (Shura) is endorsed by the Qur'an. Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shura is an Arabic word for consultation. It is believed to be the method by which pre-Islamic Arabian tribes selected leaders and made major decisions. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

Contents

Problems with the historical record

There is no known contemporary written account of the events of 632. Instead, the events were communicated through collections of recorded oral traditions (see Hadith) for more than a century; the first written records date from a period long after the disputed succession. Indeed, they date from the beginning of the Abbasid line of caliphs in 750, who had overthrown the previous Umayyad line reportedly for their misdeeds, and claimed authority as descendants of Muhammad's uncle Abbas. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Al-Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib (c. ...


The histories were thus composed in a sectarian milieu, for intensely political purposes. They have since been interpreted and elaborated by several Islamic groups, including the various Sunni and Shi'a sects. For these reasons it is extremely difficult to present an accurate historical account of the succession without descending into the thick of partisan controversy. See also Historiography of early Islam and Historical Shi'a-Sunni relations. The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... // Origins of the schism Shias record the start of the schism with the death of Muhammad, and in their view, a violent coup détat against Ali in his first day as caliph, which they argue was automatic without recourse to an election or a formal investiture. ...


An overview of events

The matter of Muhammad's successor was probably a relatively minor consideration when Muhammad and his followers had been a small, persecuted community. Muhammad did not hold what may now be called civil authority, and had no significant estate to bequeath. He had proclaimed himself a prophet, but it was not at all clear that a prophet must always have a successor. However, after Muhammad and his followers emigrated from Mecca to Medina in the Hijra, and Muhammad emerged as the political leader of a community expanding rapidly in size and power, the succession issue became increasingly important. This article is about the event of hijra. ...


The debate and controversy as to what if any arrangements Muhammad made for a successor have continued to this day.


Similarly contentious are the various accounts of the events which immediately surrounded his death. Muhammad did not have a long illness; he died merely two weeks after falling ill. Following his death, there appears to have been a period of suspense or, according to some accounts, confusion. Umar, one of his lieutenants, is said to have been overcome with grief, denying that Muhammad could have died, and refusing to allow the burial of the body. Sunni and Shi'a Muslims debate whether this grief was genuine, or whether it may have been a play for time while succession was determined. For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Virtually all authorities agree that after Muhammad's death, previously dormant tensions between the Meccan immigrants, the Muhajirun, and the Medinan converts, the Ansar, threatened to break out and split the Ummah. The Ansar, the leaders of the tribes of Medinah, met in a hall or house called saqifah, to discuss whom they would support as their new leader. When Abu Bakr was informed of the meeting, he, Umar and a few others rushed to prevent the Ansar from making a premature decision. Accounts of this meeting vary greatly. All agree that during the meeting Umar declared that Abu Bakr should be the new leader, and declared his allegiance to Abu Bakr. Muhajirun (Arabic: المهاجرون; The Emigrants) are the early Muslims who followed Muhammad in the Migration from Mecca to Medina. ... Ansar (Arabic: الأنصار, meaning aiders, or patrons) refer to a class of warriors who are renouned for there arsenal of weapons and the speed and mobility of there arabian horse. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ansar (Arabic: الأنصار, meaning aiders, or patrons) refer to a class of warriors who are renouned for there arsenal of weapons and the speed and mobility of there arabian horse. ... Saqifah, also known as Saqifa Bani Saeda or Saqifat Bani Saida, was a roofed building used by the tribe, or banu, of Saida, of the faction of the Khazraj, of the city of Medina in the Hijaz, northwestern Arabia. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ...


After the meeting at Saqifah, the Muslims who were not present were asked to submit to Abu Bakr, to give their bay'ah. Most accounts agree that Ali ibn Abi Talib and his supporters initially refused to submit. After a period of time, whose duration is disputed, the dissidents gave their bay'ah. Whether or not the process involved violence and intimidation, and whether or not Ali willingly swore allegiance to Abu Bakr have remained enduring controversies. Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ...


The Sunni view of the succession

Sunni Muslims relate various hadith, or oral traditions, in which Muhammad is said to have recommended shura, elections or consultation, as the best method for making community decisions. In this view of the succession, he did not nominate a successor because he expected that the community themselves would choose the new leader — as was the custom in Arabia at the time. Some Sunnis argue that Muhammad had indicated his reliance upon Abu Bakr as second in command in many ways; he had called upon Abu Bakr to lead prayers and to make rulings in his (Muhammad's) absence. There are some hadiths asserting that Muhammad said that some would be desirous of power but he knew that God (and the Muslims) would make Abu Bakr the next leader (see Hadiths of Abu Bakr's succession). Sunnis point to the fact that the majority of the people accepted Abu-Bakr as their leader as proof that his selection was wise and just. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Shura is an Arabic word for consultation. It is believed to be the method by which pre-Islamic Arabian tribes selected leaders and made major decisions. ...


Ghadir Khumm

There is one hadith in the collection known as the Musnad which affirms that Muhammad made a speech at Ghadir Khumm, in which he said, "Of whomsoever I am the mawla, Ali is his mawla". The word mawla has many meanings in Arabic. In this case, say the Sunni scholars, Muhammad was merely saying that anyone who was his friend should also befriend Ali. This was a response to some soldiers who had complained about Ali [1]. A similar incident is described in Ibn Ishaq's Sirah; there Muhammad is reputed to have said, "Do not blame Ali, for he is too scrupulous in the things of God, or the way of God, to be blamed." (Guillaume p. 650) This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The word Hadith refers to a saying of the Prophet of Islam. ... The South Arabian alphabet branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


The Sunnis argue that it is a mistake to interpret an expression of friendship and support as the appointment of a successor. If Muhammad had wished to appoint Ali, surely he would have done so in Medina, in front of all the Muslim notables. The fact that there even was a dispute over the leadership after Muhammad's death is sufficient proof that no one had interpreted his words as a binding appointment.


Muhammad's last illness

Muhammad asked permission from his wives to be taken to Aisha's apartment to be nursed and died with his head in her lap. Aisha kept his relatives away from him, on the argument that they were tormenting him with useless remedies. Reportedly, before he died, Muhammad made a gesture of enormous trust in Abu Bakr by asking him to lead the prayers in the mosque as imam — a highly visible role virtually always undertaken, when possible, by Muhammad himself. Historically, the imam of a mosque has always been a leader in his local Muslim community; Sunni Muslims see Muhammad as recognizing Abu Bakr's leadership when he appointed Abu Bakr an imam. [2]


The events at Saqifah

The originally Medinan Muslims, the Ansar, held a meeting to discuss choosing a new leader among themselves, to rule their part of the community. When the news of the meeting spread, Abu Bakr, Umar, and Abu Ubayda rushed to the scene. Abu Bakr argued that if the Ansar chose a leader, to lead the Ansar only, the Muslim community would split. The new leader must come from the Quraysh, Muhammad's clan; any other choice would destroy the community. Sa'd agreed to this. Abu Bakr suggested to the gathering that the people should choose either Umar or Abu Ubayda, as both were capable men of the Quraysh. Umar immediately grabbed Abu Bakr's hand and gave him bay'ah (declared his allegiance; an Arabian custom) causing the rest of the men at the gathering to also give their bay'ah. Umar later described this process as a falta, a rushed and hasty decision. However, this decision would not have been binding upon there rest of the Muslims unless they themselves chose to give their bay'ah, which all save the supporters of Ali did. According to the Sunni, this is the proof that the decision was the right one.


Ali's attitude towards Abu Bakr and Umar

Ali was extremely distressed not only to have been passed over for the leadership, but not even to have been consulted. Most accounts, Sunni or Shi'a, say that Ali initially refused to give his bay'ah to Abu Bakr. Sunni accounts say that after a period during which he withdrew from public affairs, Ali eventually decided to cooperate with Abu Bakr and give his public submission. One version of the story is found in an oral tradition collected by Bukhari. [3] Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardiziyeh al-Bukhari محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه البخاري), was the author of a collection of traditions, compiled in Sahih Bukhari. ...


Sunni accounts say that after giving his oath, Ali supported and advised Abu Bakr, as he did for the two caliphs who succeeded Abu Bakr (Umar and Uthman). They reject Shi'a views stating that Ali never gave his submission, or gave it only unwillingly and thereafter retired from public affairs rather than help those he regarded as usurpers.


Other Sunni arguments against Ali

Sunni controversialists also claim that Ali's support stemmed only from his marriage to Fatima, Muhammad's daughter, and that he had alienated many of his supporters by seeking to marry Abu Jahl's daughter as a second wife. (See Sahih Bukhari 5:57:76.) Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Religion stubs ...


The Shi'a view of the succession

The Shi'a believe that just as a prophet is appointed by God alone, only God has the prerogative to appoint the successor to his prophet. They believe that God chose Ali to be the successor, infallible and divinely chosen. Thus, before he died, Muhammad, in accordance with God’s will, declared at various times, and in various ways, Ali as his successor.


Ali was a leader in battle, and often entrusted with command. He was left in charge of the community at Medina when Muhammad led a raid on Tabuk. Ali was also his cousin, and the husband of his daughter Fatima, and the father of his beloved grandchildren Hasan and Husayn. It is worthwhile noting that the terms "cousin" and "son-in-law" do not fully convey the closeness of the relationship between Muhammad and Ali. Ali's father was the late Abu Talib, Muhammad's uncle, foster father, and powerful protector. As a member of Abu Talib's family, Muhammad had in fact played the role of an elder brother and guardian to Ali — and Ali had, as a youth, been among the first to accept Islam. He was now a charismatic defender of the faith in his own right, and it was perhaps inevitable that some in the Muslim community assumed that Ali would claim a leadership position following Muhammad's death. In the end, however, it was Abu Bakr who assumed control of the Muslim community. Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib (d. ...


The Shia refer to these verses from the Qu'ran to make their argument on Qur'anic grounds: (5:55), (5:3), (5:67). They say that the verses refer to Ali, and the last two verses were revealed at Ghadir Khumm. [4]


Ghadir Khumm

In 632 CE, Muhammad made his last pilgrimage to the Kaaba. Some early accounts say that after finishing his pilgrimage, on his return to Medina, he and his followers stopped at a spring and waypoint called Ghadir Khumm. Here Muhammad delivered a speech to his assembled followers, in the course of which the Shia interpret some of the words said as; This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The word Hadith refers to a saying of the Prophet of Islam. ...

"...for whoever I am his master, Ali is his master..."

According to the Shi'a, this hadith, Hadith-i ghadir, indicates the intent of Muhammad. The Shi'a say that there were 120,000 witnesses to this declaration, including Umar ibn al-Khattāb and Abu Bakr. Sunnis agree that something like this event occurred but differ as to its interpretation. Hadith-i ghadir is a famous Hadith in Islam. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ...


Muhammad's last illness

Soon after returning from this pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill. He was nursed in the apartment of his wife Aisha, the daughter of Abu Bakr.


The Shi'a claim that most of the prominent men among the Muslims, expecting Muhammad's death and an ensuing struggle for power, disobeyed his orders to join a military expedition bound for Syria. They stayed in Medina, waiting for Muhammad's death and their chance to seize power.


According to Ali's relative and partisan, Ibn al-Abbas, the dying Muhammad said that he wished to write a letter — or wished to have a letter written — detailing his wishes for his community. According to Sahih Muslim Ibn Abbas narrated that:

When Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) was about to leave this world, there were persons (around him) in his house, 'Umar b. al-Kbattab being one of them. Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Come, I may write for you a document; you would not go astray after that. Thereupon Umar said: Verily Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) is deeply afflicted with pain. You have the Qur'an with you. The Book of Allah is sufficient for us. Those who were present in the house differed. Some of them said: Bring him (the writing material) so that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) may write a document for you and you would never go astray after him And some among them said what 'Umar had (already) said. When they indulged in nonsense and began to dispute in the presence of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), he said: Get up (and go away) 'Ubaidullah said: Ibn Abbas used to say: There was a heavy loss, indeed a heavy loss, that, due to their dispute and noise. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) could not write (or dictate) the document for them.Sahih Muslim 13:4016 Writing material refers to the materials that provide the surfaces on which humans use writing instruments to inscribe writings. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ...

Umar reportedly admitted to Ibn Abass during the former's reign, that the motive behind his refusal to allow Muhammad to dictate his will was to prevent him from reproclaiming Ali as his heir[1].


When Muhammad died, Umar denied his death stating rather that he would return back, and threatening to behead anyone who accede to his death. Abu Bakr, upon his returned to Medina, spoke to Umar and only then Umar did admit that Muhammad had died, this all was perceived by the Shiite as a ploy on Umar's part to delay the funeral and thus give Abu Bakr (who was outside the city) time to return to Medina.


The events at Saqifah

When Muhammad died, his closest relatives, Ali and Fatima, took charge of the body. While they were engaged in washing the body and preparing it for burial, say the Shi'a, Abu Bakr and Umar invaded a meeting at Saqifah, proposed Abu Bakr as the new leader, and pressured those assembled to submit, manhandling one of the Medinan elders who opposed them. Ali was not told of the meeting. Saqifah, also known as Saqifa Bani Saeda or Saqifat Bani Saida, was a roofed building used by the tribe, or banu, of Saida, of the faction of the Khazraj, of the city of Medina in the Hijaz, northwestern Arabia. ...


Persecution of the Shi'at Ali

Many of the Muslims of Medina refused to give their allegiance, their bay'ah, to Abu Bakr — as did Ali. They were known as the Shi'at Ali, the party of Ali. The Shi'a say that it took six months of threat and pressure to force the refusers to submit to Abu Bakr. "In Medina, Umar took charge of securing the pledge of allegiance of all residents. He dominated the streets with the help first of the Aslam and then the Abd Al-Ashhal of Aws who in contrast to the majority of Khazraj, quickly became vigorous champions of the new regime. The sources mention the actual use of force only with respect to Companion Al- Zubayr who had been together with some others of the Muhajirun in the house of Fatima.


Supposedly, Umar threatened to set the house on fire unless they came out and swore allegiance to Abu Bakr"(Tabari, I p 1818 op. cit. Wilferd Madelung, The Succession To Muhammad, p 43) Ali refused; Umar pushed his way into the house; Fatima, who was pregnant, was crushed behind the door. She miscarried her unborn son, whom the Shi'a mourn as Al Muhsin. She had been injured by Umar and soon died. Ali buried her at night, secretly, as he did not wish Abu Bakr or Umar, whom he blamed for her death, to attend her funeral. The Shi'a thus blame Abu Bakr and Umar for the death of Muhammad's daughter and grandson.Shi'ite Encyclopedia, Chapter 4 Al Muhsin or Mohsin, in Shia belief, was the unborn child of Fatima Al Zahra, the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and wife of Ali ibn Abu Talib. ...


Ali submits for the sake of his followers

Some Shi'a believe that Ali took pity upon the sufferings of his devoted followers and gave his submission, his bay'ah, to Abu Bakr,which can be still held doubtful as Fatima, Ali's wife and daughter of Muhammed was outraged with Abu Bakr [2] when he refused to give her right to inheritance of garden of Fadak and neither was Ali in view of his right of succession being taken away [3]. It may be because of the sake of unity that he might have helped them in matters of jurisprudence and administration but could never admit his obedience to them. Other Shi'a say that Ali did not give his allegiance, but only refrained from pressing his claims. Whatever happened, superficial unity was restored.


The role of hadith

The Shi'a point to a number of hadith that, they believe, show that Muhammad had left specific instructions as to his successor. These hadiths have been given names: Ghadir Khumm, Safinah, Thaqalayn, Haqq, Manzilah, Hadith-i da'wat-i 'ashirah, and others. Hadith-i ghadir is a famous Hadith in Islam. ... The Hadith of Thaqalayn is a famous Hadith attributed to Muhammad, prophet of Islam. ...


Many of these oral traditions are also accepted by Sunni Muslims. However, the Sunni do not accept the Shi'a interpretation of these hadith.


Western academic views

Western academics have, until recently, taken their cues from the Sunni versions of Islamic history. Until the 1950s and 1960s, many scholars tended to translate and expound on Sunni texts as if these were the only Islamic texts worth studying, and generally tended to treat them as reliable[citation needed]. Then followed the age of doubt, when historians like Wansbrough and Crone took an independent, agnostic line, throwing doubt on the Sunni consensus and proposing daring theories about the Qur'an [citation needed]. Of late, the pendulum has swung somewhat the other way[citation needed].


Many contemporary scholars who have sifted through the early Muslim historical writings are proposing narratives that are closer to the received versions. In most cases, this has meant a swing back towards the Sunni version of events. However, one recent publication, The Succession to Muhammad by Wilferd Madelung, Laudian Professor of Arabic at Oxford, examines the course of events from 632, and the death of Muhammad, through the rise of the Umayyads — and rehabilitates some of the Shi'a narratives. On the right of Muhammad's household to succeed him, for instance, Madelung observes that: Wilferd Madelung is the Laudian Professor of Arabic at the University of Oxford. ...

In the Qur’an, the descendants and close kin of the prophets are their heirs also in respect to kingship(mulk), rule (hukm), wisdom (hikma), the book and the imamate. The Sunnite concept of the true caliphate itself defines it as a succession of the prophet in every respect except his prophethood. Why should Muhammad not be succeeded in it by any of his family like the earlier prophets? If God really wanted to indicate that he should not be succeeded by any of them why did He not let his grandsons and other kin die like his sons? There is thus a good reason to doubt that Muhammad failed to appoint a successor because he realized that the divine design excluded hereditary succession of his family and that he wanted the Muslims to choose their head by Shura. The Qur’an advises the faithful to settle some matters by consultation, but not the succession to prophets. That, according to the Qur’an, is settled by divine election, God usually chooses their successors, whether they become prophets or not from their own kin

(The Succession to Muhammad, Wilferd Madelung, p 17) The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al Karīm or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


Madelong writes on the basis of hadith of the pond of Khumm Ali later insisted on his religious authority superior to that of Abu Bakr and Umar.[4] This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The word Hadith refers to a saying of the Prophet of Islam. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ...


Notes

It could be easily argued against the concept of succession as Muhammed was the last prophet. As per the Quran Islam is the perfect religion and Mohammed the last prophet. Suggesting that the succession would be through the last prophets heirs could be fallacious as there was no need of 'prophetical succession' any more only spiritual guidance which could be done by any one.

  1. ^ Sharh Nahaj al-Balagha, Ibn Abi Hadid, III, p 114
  2. ^ http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/bukhari/053.sbt.html#004.053.325
  3. ^ http://www.nahjulbalagha.org/SermonDetail.php?Sermon=3
  4. ^ Madelong, 1997 p.253

References

Academic books

  • Guillaume, A., The Life of Muhammad, Oxford University Press, 1955
  • Madelung, W., The Succession to Muhammad, Cambridge University Press, 1997
  • Nasr, S. H., Muhammad: Man of God, 1995.
  • Nasr, S. H., Expectation of the Millennium: Shi'Ism in History, State University of New York Press, 1989.

Professor Seyyed Hossein Nasr, who recently won the Templeton Award for teaching the best course in Islam in America. ... Professor Seyyed Hossein Nasr, who recently won the Templeton Award for teaching the best course in Islam in America. ...

Shi'a books

Shia Islam is an important text on the history and thought of Shia Islam. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... Not to be confused with University of the State of New York. ... Peshawar Nights is a Shia book depicting a imaginary argument between a Shia and a Sunni Muslim. ... Sultanul-Waizin Shirazi is the Shia scholar portrayed in the book Peshawar Nights [1] (Prince of Preachers from Shiraz) [2]. According to the book, he participiated in a a public debate between Shia Muslims and Sunni Muslims. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Dr. Muhammad al-Tijani al-Samawi was a famous Tunisian Islamic scholar that was Sunni wahabi, but after years of studying he became Shia twelver and wrote books that caused mass-conversion to Shia Islam. ... To Be With The Truthful is one of the four books by well known Sunni turned Shia scholar Muhammad al-Tijani. ... Dr. Muhammad al-Tijani al-Samawi was a famous Tunisian Islamic scholar that was Sunni wahabi, but after years of studying he became Shia twelver and wrote books that caused mass-conversion to Shia Islam. ... Imamate and Leadership: Lessons on Islamic Doctrine is a book by Islamic scholar Mujtaba Musavi Lari [1]. // English version translated by Hamid Algar [1] 1996, Foundation of Islamic Cultural Propagation in the World. ... Mujtaba Musavi Lari is a Shia Twelver Islamic scholar. ...

Sunni books

  • The Sealed Nectar by Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, 2002, Darussalam Publications.
  • Sahih Al-Bukhari Translated by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, 1997, Darussalam Publications

External links

Shi'a perspective

Sunni perspective


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