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Encyclopedia > Subud
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Subud
People
Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo

(called "Bapak")
Siti Rahayu Wiryohudoyo
(called "Ibu") Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo (1901-1987), known as Bapak or Pak Subuh to his followers, was a Javanese Muslim who founded the spiritual movement Subud in the period 1924 to 1933. ... Siti Rahayu Wiryohudoyo (dates)--often called simply Ibu (Mother) or Ibu Rahayu--is the daughter of Subud founder Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo. ...

Main Practice
Latihan
Institutions
World Subud Association

International Subud Council
Muhammad Subuh Foundation The Latihan (from Bahasa Indonesian latihan kejiwaan, meaning spiritual exercise) is the main practice of Subud. ... The World Subud Association (WSA) is a non-profit association registered in the state of Virginia, USA. Its members are the national Subud associations of around 80 countries world-wide. ... The Muhammad Subuh Foundation (MSF) is a charitable foundation named in honor of Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo (called Bapak), the founder of Subud. ...

Affiliations
Susila Dharma International Association

Subud International Cultural Association
Subud Enterprise Services
Subud Youth Association
Susila Dharma International Association (SDI) is a member-based association of 24 national organizations, 18 national contacts, and 60 projects from 29 countries who are engaged in a range of social and humanitarian activities. ... Subud International Cultural Association (SICA) is an independent organization funded largely by the World Subud Association. ... Subud Enterprise Services (S.E.S.) is one of the wings of the spiritual organization Subud. ... Subud Youth Association (S.Y.A.) is a branch within the World Subud Association, and one of four wings of Subud. ...

Special Places
Java ·

Kalimantan
Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Kalimantan is the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ...

See Also
Subud and religion

Javanese beliefs
Helper (Subud) // Subud literature rejects the suggestion that Subud is a religion, yet acknowledges that it is a spiritual movement. ... Javanese beliefs (Kebatinan or Kejawen) have principles embodying a search for inner self but at the core is the concept of Peace Of Mind. ... Within Subud, a helper (Bahasa Indonesia: pembantu pelatih, meaning“helping to train” or “assistant trainer) is a person who fills a certain support role. ...

Subud (pronounced IPA: [subud]) is an international spiritual association of people of all religions as well as people with no religious affiliation. Members report that through the practice of a spontaneous receiving – the latihan kejiwaan (Indonesian: "spiritual exercise") – they experience an awakening of their inner selves and a greater ability to find and fulfill their path in life. Many connect this experience directly with the divine (mostly described as God, with the most common variation being "the Great Life Force"). Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... The Latihan (from Bahasa Indonesian latihan kejiwaan, meaning spiritual exercise) is the main practice of Subud. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


The Subud movement was founded in the 1920s by Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo (1901-1987), who is called Bapak (Indonesian: "Father", or "Mister"; informal) by himself and members of Subud. The "Subuh" in Bapak Muhammad Subuh's name means "dawn" and has no relation to the word Subud. Since its introduction into the west in 1954 Subud began to spread with the help of Husein Rofé and others such as John G. Bennett and those affiliated with the Gurdjieff Foundation in the United Kingdom (from 1957 onwards). Subud has since spread to over 80 countries throughout the world, with a current worldwide membership of about 13,000. Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo (1901-1987), known as Bapak or Pak Subuh to his followers, was a Javanese Muslim who founded the spiritual movement Subud in the period 1924 to 1933. ...

Contents

The name "Subud"

The name "Subud" is an acronym that stands for three Javanese words of Sanskrit derivation, Susila Budhi Dharma. The Javanese language is the spoken language of the people in the central and eastern part of the island of Java, in Indonesia. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Susila Budhi Dharma is a book written by Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo, the founder of the World Subud Association at the historic city of Jogjakarta in 1952. ...


What these words mean depends on whether referring to 1) the original Sanskrit root word meaning, 2) definitions in a modern Indonesian language dictionary, or 3) the explanation and definition given by the founder of Subud in his talks to members. These three meanings are somewhat different from one another. The following is an exact quotation from The Basis and Aim of Subud , published by Subud Publications International since 1969, as an authorized translation of the words by the founder of Subud:


"Susila means: the good character of man in accordance with the Will of Almighty God..


"Budhi means: the force of the inner self within man.


"Dharma means: surrender, trust and sincerity towards Almighty God.


"This is the symbol of a person who has a calm and peaceful inner feeling and who is able to receive the contact with the Great Holy Life Force"


"As the spiritual training (latihan kedjiwaan) of Subud is free from the influence of the passions, desires and thinking, and is truly awakened by the Power of Almighty God, the aim of Subud is naturally toward perfection of character according to the Will of the One Who awakens it, namely: Almighty God."


"It is also necessary to explain that Subud is neither a kind of religion nor a teaching, but is a spiritual experience awakened by the Power of God leading to spiritual reality free from the influence of the passions, desires and thinking."


History

Bapak explained (in talks to Subud members given beginning in the 1940s) that in 1925 he was taking a late-night walk, when he had an unexpected and unusual experience. Suddenly he found himself enveloped in a brilliant light, and looked up to see what looked like the sun falling directly into his body. His whole body trembled, and he thought that he was having a heart attack. He went directly home, lay down on his bed, and prepared to die. He felt that if it was his time to die, he could not fight it, so he surrendered himself to God completely.


Instead of dying, however, he was moved from within - impelled - to stand up and perform movements similar to his normal Muslim prayer routine. This seemed very strange to him, because he was not moving entirely from his own volition; rather he was compelled or guided by what he interpreted as the power of God. He experienced a kind of "inner teaching" where he was given to understand a variety of things spontaneously. Bapak claims that this same kind of experience happened to him for a few hours each night over a period of approximately 1000 days. He slept little, but was able to continue working full-time and going to school.


As these experiences proceeded, Bapak gained insight into people and situations that he did not possess before. He was able to spontaneously "receive" or know things through this guidance. Around 1933, he reports that he received that if other people were physically near him while he was in a state of latihan, that this experience would begin in them also. (Today, such an initiation is usually called "the opening".) Although only a young man in his early 30's, Bapak's reputation as someone with spiritual insight spread, and many people came to him to be opened. These in turn could "open" others. This is how Subud eventually spread around Indonesia.

Husein Rofé in 1955 in Hong Kong
Husein Rofé in 1955 in Hong Kong

In Jakarta, Husein Rofé, an English linguist who had been living in Indonesia since 1950, met Bapak. Rofé had been searching for a spiritual path and became the first non-Indonesian to be opened to the latihan. Image File history File links Rofe3. ... Image File history File links Rofe3. ...

J.G.Bennett in the Netherlands in 1963

Subud moved outside of Indonesia when Rofé attended a religious congress in Japan in 1954. This was where Subud spread first, and then later to Hong Kong and Cyprus. In 1957, Rofé (who was now in London) suggested that Bapak be invited to Britain. Bapak accepted and came to visit the home of John G. Bennett in Coombe Springs. It was at this time that many UK followers of G. I. Gurdjieff were initiated into Subud (including Bennett himself, though he later felt Subud to be inadequate). Over the next 14 months Bapak visited many countries before returning to Indonesia. Image File history File links JGBennet. ... Image File history File links JGBennet. ...


Symbol

"Seven Circle" symbol of Subud

The Subud symbol was envisioned by Bapak in 1959 and is registered as property of the World Subud Association. Image File history File links SubudSymbol. ... Image File history File links SubudSymbol. ...


The design consists of seven concentric circles and seven spokes, which represent the seven levels of life forces as well as the great life forces that connect them. Each circle grows wider the further out from the center and each spoke narrows as it comes to the center. The space between the circles remains constant as the circles move out.


The symbol is often printed in black & white when color printing is not available. When colors are used, usually the circles and spokes are gold and the background is dark blue to black. However, the symbol is also sometimes shown as blue on white or white on blue.


Subud organizations have trademarked this design, as well as the name "Subud," in a number of countries.


Practices

Latihan

Main article: Latihan

The central practice of Subud is the latihan. After a period of sitting peacefully, the group is asked by a "helper" to stand and relax. The helper says, "begin" and one is then to surrender to God, not making use of one’s mind, heart or desires. Someone not in Subud might be tempted to describe this as a ritual, yet it does not take on any of the rigidities inherent in a ritual. Most of those who have been opened say (to those who ask) that it represents a direct connection with God, or the Great Life Force. The Latihan (from Bahasa Indonesian latihan kejiwaan, meaning spiritual exercise) is the main practice of Subud. ...


In this spiritual exercise one does not expect anything in particular. One does not make any image or recite any mantra, but one may receive a feeling of vibration from within that many Subud members is a contact with God or the Great Life Force. In essence, many members say, what is received in the latihan is the 'holy spirit' or 'divine light' which is similar to the contact that members of world religions may have experienced in earlier times when humankind could feel closer to God.


What Subud members believe to be a divine power, which works from within oneself during the latihan will, they believe, bring to each person who is able to receive it, what is needed by that person to complete the reason why s/he was born at this time. Initially the spiritual exercise involves a purification, which makes room for deeper receiving. The latihan continues to work 24 hours a day -- not only when one is "doing" it. Through regularly doing one's latihan, a person may experience a personal change and development in every aspect of their daily life and being.


The idea of people not directing their own behavior in worship, and that it is God who does this, is, according to Muhammad Subuh, not exclusive to Subud. For example, he pointed to the original form of worship of the Quakers, at the time when they stood and freely moved and vocalized. However, he also cautioned that the rituals of various sects that might appear to the casual observer to be the same as the latihan are actually different.


Although the latihan can be practiced individually at home, all members are encouraged to practice it in a group if possible. In either case, men and women practice the latihan separately. Subud members have experienced that it is optimal to do the group latihan two times per week in the beginning. Later, when one can reliably receive the correct time to finish the latihan, it is considered beneficial to add a third weekly latihan at home.


Another distinctive aspect of the latihan is "testing," in which Subud members' awakened spiritual intuition is directed toward a particular question or decision. A question or request for clarification is put forth, and then the Subud member performs latihan so that s/he may receive guidance or direction. The original name for "testing" used by the founder of Subud was "terimah", which means "receiving". People who have been practicing the latihan for some time are able to recognize indications or direction from their inner feeling, showing the answer to the question they have put forward. Such indications might come in the form of visions, sounds, vibrations or spontaneous physical movements (similar but usually more intense then those in the latihan), but with an understanding that such indications (which may or may not come with the receiving) bear no relationship with mental activity or intellectual analysis. At times the receiving can be obscured or tainted by the emotional or intellectual attitude of the persons who ask the questions. Testing should be taken as a tool to clarify the spiritual complexity of the present and can lead to confusion if used as a fortune-telling device to gain insight into the future. It helps Subud members to find insight and harmony about their talents; it helps them to find the right attitude towards anything that might be a source of turmoil and trouble. A deeper understanding usually improves almost any problem, but it doesn't offer a magic or divine formula.


Testing is used to select "helpers" and committee members across the World Subud Association. Bapak's book "Susila Budhi Dharma" is full of examples of situations in which this "receiving" or "testing" could be very useful in the process of training one's self in putting the latihan into practice. Susila Budhi Dharma is a book written by Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo, the founder of the World Subud Association at the historic city of Jogjakarta in 1952. ...


(The first time "testing" was called by that name was in 1957 by John Bennett. Therefore all through the book "Susila Budhi Dharma", which was written in 1952, testing is always referred to as "feeling" or "receiving".) Susila Budhi Dharma is a book written by Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo, the founder of the World Subud Association at the historic city of Jogjakarta in 1952. ...


Prayer

Prayer can be an integral part of a Subud member's experience, but it depends on the individual and their relevant personal faith.


Fasting

Individual Subud members often voluntarily engage in fasting called prihatin (from the Javanese: prihatin) and either Ramadan or Lent, as Bapak recommended. Fasting includes both the reduction of outer pleasures such as food, smoking, sleep and sex as well as inner behavior such as gossip, criticism, anger and using your senses for the wrong reasons. The intent is to weaken your desires. The Javanese language is the spoken language of the people in the central and eastern part of the island of Java, in Indonesia. ... The fourth pillar of Islam, which is fasting, is practiced during the month of Ramadan. ... It has been suggested that Cuaresma be merged into this article or section. ...


There is no pressure to do the fast and each member must discover its inner benefits as s/he deems appropriate.


Names

Some members, after they are opened, change their names, although this is a matter of one's own conscience and there is no requirement to do so. Those that have changed their original name feel that every name has a meaning or other significance, and can have an influence on one’s development. Often an original name may not be suitable, in that if it is a wrong name it holds one's growth back in life, or, when it is a name with a very, very good meaning, the goodness of the name may not match one’s nature and be a burden to live up to. Therefore, a change to a more appropriate name is meant to bring harmony between one’s inner and outer nature.


Beliefs

Most Subud members believe in God and believe that God is the source of their experiences in the latihan. However, it is not necessary for people who wish to join Subud to believe in God.


Subud members share with each other their personal experiences of the latihan and its impact on their lives, and they do find commonalities, but the hallmark of the Subud experience is its adaptability to individuals of different cultures, races and religions. That is in essence the beliefs of Subud.


Rules

Subud has few if any rules. However, Bapak has provided extensive guidance that may provide direction to members as their latihan deepens. A couple of important practices that might be called ‘rules’ that relate to the latihan include: men and women do not do latihan together, and non-members may not attend the latihan meetings without being "opened" (i.e., receiving the contact).


A teaching or religion?

Main article: Subud and religion

Subud says it is neither a teaching nor a religion because there are no beliefs that a person should believe in order to receive the latihan. // Subud literature rejects the suggestion that Subud is a religion, yet acknowledges that it is a spiritual movement. ...


However, the meaning of the word "religion" or “spirituality” is sufficiently vague to make such statements about Subud problematic. The intent is to make clear that Subud welcomes adherents of all religions (without seeking to convert them away from those religions). Subud encourages its members to practice their religions and continue to enrich their traditional religious understanding. While the topic of spirituality certainly has many paradoxes; such ironies also exist in Subud, to name a few:

  • All are equal in Subud, yet none are the same.
  • A new member can sometimes receive better than an older member.
  • The faster you want the latihan to progress – the slower your progress.
  • The latihan is the simplest and the most difficult practice to follow.
  • The means to receive deeply is to put aside your desires of what you might receive.
  • The greater your desire to be close to God, the greater the distance you put between you and God.

But one should not allow apparent paradoxes to become obstacles to understanding. Paradoxes are purely mental phenomena. What appears contradictory at a lower level is usually resolved on a higher level of experience. So the truth should be sought from the only source which is beyond contradiction, and that source is beyond the mind.


Association

Members who wish to perform some type of organizational responsibility in Subud can function as a committee member or a helper. Each responsibility can be performed at the local, regional, national, and international level. Members often move from one responsibility to another, as needed.


The broadest organizational responsibility rests with the World Subud Association, which meets at a World Congress every four years and consists of the Subud World Council, Subud representatives from each country as well as members who wish to participate. The headquarters of the international organization moves to a different country every four years. The World Subud Association (WSA) is a non-profit association registered in the state of Virginia, USA. Its members are the national Subud associations of around 80 countries world-wide. ...


Helpers

Main article: Helper (Subud)

Each level of the association has a group of experienced members called "helpers", whose role is to serve members by coordinating the timing of the group latihans when necessary, witnessing the "opening" of new members and speaking to those interested in participating in the latihan. Within Subud, a helper (Bahasa Indonesia: pembantu pelatih, meaning“helping to train” or “assistant trainer) is a person who fills a certain support role. ...


Helpers are not meant to be perceived nor to regard themselves as more "spiritual" than anyone else.


Helpers exist at the local, regional (in some countries), national, and international levels. The geographical status of helpers is purely in regards to the regional or national supportive duties they are asked to provide – otherwise, there are no geographical restrictions on where a helper is considered to be a helper. If a local helper from London travels to Jakarta, he will be seen as a helper there, and can do testing or open new members in the same way as any Indonesian helper.


There are (at this time) 18 international helpers - nine men and nine women. Three men and three women are assigned to each of the three areas in Subud:

  • Area I covers Zones 1 & 2 (Australasia and Asia)
  • Area II covers Zones 3, 4, 5, and 6 (Europe and Africa)
  • Area III covers Zones 7, 8 & 9 (the Americas)

The international helpers are members of the World Subud Council. They serve a four year term from World Congress to World Congress.


There is not meant to be any distinction in "rank" between local, national, or international helpers. Being a helper is not seen as a talent but as a capacity. A helper is given an inflated balloon of grace from the Creator to perform the tasks locally or internationally. Harmony is the hope and intention.


Ibu Rahayu

Ibu Siti Rahayu Wiryohudoyo - Bapak's eldest daughter - has no formal position within Subud, but is accorded special respect by many members. Despite her frequent statements to the effect that fewer requests should be made of her, Subud members hold her in very high regard, and many will refer or listen to what she has to say with a respect and reverence one shows to a noble and spiritually able person. She is often asked to receive for members new names (members often given simply the first letter), although she encourages members to receive these for themselves. Siti Rahayu Wiryohudoyo (dates)--often called simply Ibu (Mother) or Ibu Rahayu--is the daughter of Subud founder Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo. ...


Committees

Each Subud group is governed by a committee including a chairperson, vice-chair, treasurer, etc. This committee is tasked with making sure there is a place to do group latihan, communications, budgeting, and supporting the mutual efforts of members at the local group. A similar structure functions at the regional (in certain countries), national and international level.


The international executive team is the International Subud Committee (ISC). Apart from ensuring international communication, publishing, budgeting, archives, support of affiliates, etc., it organizes a World Congress every four years. The chairperson of ISC sits on the World Subud Council.


For purposes of a practical organizational structure, the Subud association is divided into nine multinational zones, more or less as follows:

  • Zones 1 & 2 -- Australasia and Asia
  • Zone 3 -- includes 8 countries of western Europe
  • Zone 4 -- central and eastern European countries
  • Zones 5 & 6 -- Francophone and Anglophone African countries, respectively
  • Zone 7 -- USA, Canada, Mexico, Cuba, Jamaica, Surinam, and the Caribbean
  • Zone 8 -- the upper part of South America
  • Zone 9 -- the lower part of South America

Each Zone has its own four representatives that are the voting members on the World Subud Council. They also serve a four year term like helpers. They are selected at Zone Meetings.


A chairperson for the World Subud Association serves a four-year term from one World Congress to the next, and is also the chairperson of the World Subud Council. The World Subud Council is responsible to ensuring that decisions made at World Congress are carried through.


Affiliations

Subud affiliations (sometimes called ‘Wings’) are technically independent but have overlapping boards of trustees. These are subsidiary organizations that focus on specific projects, often at a national or international level and include activities such as the:

Some chairpersons of these affiliations also sit on the World Subud Council and serve a four-year term. Susila Dharma International Association (SDI) is a member-based association of 24 national organizations, 18 national contacts, and 60 projects from 29 countries who are engaged in a range of social and humanitarian activities. ... Subud International Cultural Association (SICA) is an independent organization funded largely by the World Subud Association. ... Subud Enterprise Services (S.E.S.) is one of the wings of the spiritual organization Subud. ... Subud Youth Association (S.Y.A.) is a branch within the World Subud Association, and one of four wings of Subud. ...


In addition to the above affiliations, a foundation has been set up to preserve Bapak's legacy, with a primary emphasis on helping groups acquire their own latihan premises. It is the

Its chairperson reports to the World Subud Council. The Muhammad Subuh Foundation (MSF) is a charitable foundation named in honor of Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo (called Bapak), the founder of Subud. ...


Enterprises

Frequently Subud members find a common interest or share compatible talents and join together to form an enterprise. The size of an enterprise or company can vary greatly. There are several national enterprises as well as international enterprises. Bapak always encouraged members to put into practice what they learned in their latihan and to create enterprises that could provide an avenue where members could work in harmony. Many enterprises donate a portion of their after tax profits to the Subud Association at different levels.


Becoming a member

Anyone over the age of 17 may join Subud, regardless of religious affiliation or belief system. Except in unusual circumstances, there is a three-month waiting period between first declaring the intention to join, and being "opened". This waiting period is for the benefit of the applicant to ensure that s/he has a clear understanding of the basis and aims of Subud.


In the opening, a helper restates the purpose of the latihan and asks the applicant to simply relax and surrender. The applicant then joins the latihan of the helpers in attendance who begin their own latihan. If the applicant does not have a convincing experience, the latihan is immediately resumed, or in a subsequent latihan with the helpers.


There is never a fee to be “opened”. There are expenses used to rent, purchase and maintain meeting facilities to do the latihan, for the maintenance of national and international offices that provide material to individuals seeking information, for archives, websites, and other routine organizational activities. Donations for these activities are needed, welcome, and voluntary.


Subud had experienced some rate of turnover. While it has never conducted studies to find out why members leave, anecdotal feedback often cites unfulfilled expectations as a frequent response. This is despite the fact that applicants during the three-month waiting period are advised to dispense with expectations of any kind in order for the receiving to work most effectively. Once opened one’s receiving is unique and based on one’s inner capacity known only by God.


Controversies

Schisms

While no major splits within Subud have occurred, some former members and several groups of former members practice the latihan apart from the Subud association.[citation needed]


Criticisms

As the latihan is uniquely different for each individual, everyone's beliefs and awareness will be different in content and nature. Therefore the points mentioned below will not be able to represent Subud as a whole, but will only apply to members' personal opinions regarding the subjects at hand, because as mentioned above, Subud represents the individual self of the person, where their aim is to have the qualities of Susila Budhi and Dharma.


Therefore some members may see Subud:

  • as having an undefined nebulous concept of submission to God's will, such that an individual member can project their own selfish thoughts into their experience and regard them as divinely guided inspiration or revelation, which is a reliable basis for action,[citation needed]
  • as being simplistic in that they suggest that the latihan is all any member needs and can resolve deep seated psychological issues,[citation needed]
  • that the Subud organization has characteristics of a charismatic cult or religion, and Bapak has been looked upon as its Guru, with his pronouncements given the status of divine revelation,[citation needed]
  • because Bapak was part of Javanese high aristocracy and practiced Islam as his religion that his ethnic and class attitudes and Muslim background permeate the association, and[citation needed]
  • that some members are frequently observed being negative, unsupportive, hostile, critical, engaged in mutual destructive gossip and backbiting, and otherwise in conflict with each other.[citation needed]

Organization Problems

Other issues focus on organizational mismanagement and inertia, financial irregularities[citation needed], including some criminally prosecuted frauds[citation needed] and embezzlements[citation needed], and frequent and recurring interpersonal conflicts. These historically have dealt with conflicts with the association adopting non-discrimination policies, failure of international enterprises, and conflict with “helpers” who allegedly become excessively controlling and/or too rigid when following Bapak’s guidance.


References

  • Geels, Antoon Subud and the Javanese mystical tradition Richmond, Surrey : Curzon Press, 1997 (about Sumohadiwidjojo, Muhammad-Subuh, 1901-1987) ISBN 0700706232
  • Mulder, Niels Mysticism & everyday life in contemporary Java : cultural persistence and change Singapore : Singapore University Press, c1978
  • Sumohadiwidjojo, M. S. "Autobiography" ISBN 1869822072, Subud Publications International (March 1990)
  • The International Helpers, "On the Subud Way" ISBN 0975749706, (c) The World Subud Association (WSA) 2005

External links

  • Official site

  Results from FactBites:
 
Subud - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3638 words)
Subud members share with each other their personal experiences of the latihan and its impact on their lives, and they do find commonalities, but the hallmark of the Subud experience is its adaptability to individuals of different cultures, races and religions.
Subud is not "content-free mysticism" but like all 'movements' has the tendency to accept certain beliefs regarding homosexuality, pre-marital sex, or abortion that come from religions or value systems of its members.
Subud, like any organisation, takes on a 'general culture' which to some extent reflects the spirituality and culture of Java on one hand, and certain aspects of the Western counterculture on the other; yet it claims universality.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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