The subthalamus, or ventral thalamus, is part of the diencephalon. During development the subthalamus is continuous with the hypothalamus and the dorsal thalamus, but is then separated by white matter fibres, mainly from the internal capsule. The largest part of the subthalamus is the globus pallidus, which is close to the putamen in the adult brain. Other nuclei of the subthalamus are the zona incerta and Luys' body. The diencephalon is the region of the brain that includes the epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the hypothalamus is a region of the brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ... The globus pallidus is one of the major nuclei of the basal ganglia. ... The putamen is a structure in the middle of the brain, forming the striatum together with the caudate nucleus. ...
The subthalamus develops efferent connections to the caudate nucleus and the putamen in the telencephalon, to the dorsal thalamus (medial and lateral nuclear groups) in the diencephalon and to the red nucleus and substantia nigra in the mesencephalon. It receives afferent connections from the substantia nigra and striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen). The caudate nucleus is a telencephalic nucleus, one of the input nuclei of the basal ganglia; involved with control of voluntary movement in the brain. ... In anatomy of mammals, the telencephalon or cerebrum is a part of the brain. ... The red nucleus is a structure in the rostral midbrain involved in motor coordination. ... The substantia nigra (Latin for black substance) is a portion of the midbrain thought to be involved in certain aspects of movement and attention. ... In biological anatomy, the mesencephalon (or midbrain) is the middle of three vesicles that arise from the neural tube that forms the brain of developing animals. ...
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