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Encyclopedia > Subotai

Subutai was the primary strategist and good friend of Genghis Khan and Ogedei Khan. He helped Genghis Khan with the military campaigns in Mongolia, northern China, and Central Asia. He was soon called back to the capital of the Mongol Empire after Genghis Khan began to fear his power. He also invaded the Crimea, Kiev, Volga Bulgaria, Russia, Bohemia, Turkey, and Hungary with Batu Khan. For the German pop band, see Dschinghis Khan Genghis Khan (Mongolian: Чингис Хаан, Jenghis Khan, Jinghis Khan, Chinghiz Khan, Jinghiz Khan, Chinggis Khan, Chingis Khan, etc. ... Ögedei, (also Ögädäi, Ögedäi, etc. ... Map of Central Asia outlined in orange showing one set of possible borders Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan in 1206. ... The Crimea (officially Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukrainian transliteration: Avtonomna Respublika Krym, Ukrainian: Автономна Республіка Крим, Russian: Автономная Республика Крым, pronounced cry-MEE-ah in English) is a peninsula and an autonomous republic of Ukraine on the northern coast of the Black Sea. ... Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... Bohemia Historical map of Bohemia Bohemia is also a place in the State of New York in the United States of America: see Bohemia, New York. ... Batu Khan (c. ...


The attack on Europe was planned and carried out by Subutai, who achieved perhaps his most lasting fame with his victories there. Having devastated the various Russian Principalities, he sent spies into Poland, Hungary, and as far as Austria, in preparation for an attack into the heartland of Europe. Having gotten a clear picture of the European Kingdoms, he brilliantly prepared an attack nominally commanded by Batu Khan and 2 other princes of the blood. Batu Khan, son of Jochi, was the overall leader, but Subutai was the actual commander in the field, and as such was present in both the northern and southern campaigns against Russia and Ukraine. He commanded the central column that moved against Hungary. While Kaidu's northern force won the battle of Leignitz and Kadan's army triumphed in Transylvania, Subutai was waiting for them on the Hungarian plain. The newly reunited army then withdrew to the Sajo river where they inflicted the tremendous defeat on King Bela IV at the Battle of Mohi. Subutai masterminded the operation, and it was to prove one of his greatest victories. Jochi or Jöchi (c. ...


The King of Hungary had summoned a council of war at Gran, a large and important settlement upriver from Buda and Pest. As Batu was advancing on Hungary from the north-east it was decided by the King to concentrate his strength at Pest and then head to the north to confront the Mongol army. When news of the Hungarian battle strategy reached the Mongol commanders they slowly withdrew, drawing their enemies on. This was classic Mongol strategy, perfected by Subutai. He prepared a battlefield and waited. It was a strong position, because woods prevented their ranks from being clearly scouted or seen, while across the river on the plain of Mohi, the Hungarian army was extremely exposed.


Only one day after the smaller army in Poland had won the battle of Leignitz, Subutai launched the Battle of Mohi during the night of April 10, 1241. At the Mohi, a single division crossed the river in secret to advance on the Hungarian camp from the southern flank. The main body began to cross the Sajo by the bridge at Mohi, and continued to attack the following day. This was met with fierce resistance, so catapults were used to clear the opposite bank. When the crossing was completed the other contingent attacked at the same time. The result was panic, and to ensure that the Hungarians did not fight desperately to the last man the Mongols left an obvious gap in their encirclement. This, along with the feigned retreat, was one of the Mongol's most prized strategies. Two military engagements are known as the Battle of Liegnitz after the town of Liegnitz, today Legnica, in south-western Poland: The Battle of Legnica (1241) was a battle in the Mongol invasion of Europe The Battle of Liegnitz (1760) was a battle in the Seven Years War This is... The Mongols invaded central Europe in three groups. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... Replica catapult at Château des Baux, France Catapults are siege engines using an arm to hurl a projectile a great distance. ...


As Subutai had planned, the fleeing Hungarians poured through this apparent hole in the lines, which led to a swampy area. When the Hungarian knights split up, the light Mongol archers picked them off at will and it was later noted that corpses littered the countryside for the space of a two day journey. Two archbishops and three bishops were killed at the Sajo, plus 40,000 fighting men, the pride of Hungary! By late 1241, Subutai was discussing plans to invade Austria, Italy and Germany, when the news came of the death of Ogodei Khan, and the Mongols withdrew, as the Princes of the blood, and Subutai, were recalled to Mongolia. As noted previously, only the death of the Great Khan prevented the conquering of the remainder of Europe.


Mongolian histories say by 1248 that Subutai, one of Genghis Khan's original "dogs of war," was dead. He is considered by military historians to be one of the most brilliant military minds in all of history. Certainly his winter Russian campaign, and his subsequent brilliant attacks on Hungry and Poland are virtually without match in history. (the closest probably are Germany's "lightning war" attacks during WWII) Subutai had planned further attacks on Europe, beginning with another winter assault that would have subjugated Austria and Germany, and led to invasion of Italy and France. Had the Great Khan given him even the forces used in the Russian campaigns, doubtless he would have conquered all of Europe.


External Links

  • Subedei the Warrior (http://www.coldsiberia.org/subedei.htm)

See Also

Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... For the German pop band, see Dschinghis Khan Genghis Khan (Mongolian: Чингис Хаан, Jenghis Khan, Jinghis Khan, Chinghiz Khan, Jinghiz Khan, Chinggis Khan, Chingis Khan, etc. ... The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan in 1206. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mongol invasion of Europe (3739 words)
Subotai had commanded divisions of the great khan's army in the campaigns against the Northern Sung of China and had helped in the destruction of the Khwarazmian empire of Persia.
Even while campaigning in Russia, Subotai had been sending spies westward into central Europe to determine the political, economic and social conditions, as well as the military capabilities, of the kingdoms and duchies in that adjacent region.
Although Batu and Subotai were aware of the divisive rivalries between the European kings and nobles, they also understood that the European rulers were closely related by blood and marriage, and would likely support each other if they thought an outside threat was serious enough.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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