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Encyclopedia > Submarine
DSV Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents.
DSV Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents.
German UC-1 class World War I submarine
German UC-1 class World War I submarine
Experimental sub with hydrofoils in Monterey Bay
Experimental sub with hydrofoils in Monterey Bay

A submarine is a watercraft that can operate independently underwater, as distinct from a submersible that has only limited underwater capability. The term submarine most commonly refers to large manned autonomous vessels, however historically or more casually, submarine can also refer to medium sized or smaller vessels, (midget submarines, wet subs), Remotely Operated Vehicles or robots. The word submarine was originally an adjective meaning "under the sea", and so consequently other uses such as 'submarine engineering' or 'submarine cable' may not actually refer to submarines at all. Submarine was shortened from the term 'submarine boat'. Look up submarine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Download high resolution version (930x1197, 99 KB)Alvin submersible Photo credit: NOAA Capture date: August 1978 Source: NOAA Photo Gallery > NURP Album > Image ID nur07549 Description: ALVIN in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ... Download high resolution version (930x1197, 99 KB)Alvin submersible Photo credit: NOAA Capture date: August 1978 Source: NOAA Photo Gallery > NURP Album > Image ID nur07549 Description: ALVIN in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ... Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ... A hydrothermal vent A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planets surface from which geothermally heated water issues. ... Image File history File links German_UC-1_class_submarine. ... Image File history File links German_UC-1_class_submarine. ... This article is about marine engineering. ... A view of Monterey Bay Monterey Bay is a bay of the Pacific Ocean, on the coast of California, south of San Francisco. ... A watercraft is a vehicle designed to float on and move across (or through) water for pleasure, physical exercise (in the case of many small boats), transporting people and/or goods, or military missions. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A midget submarine is a small submarine, typically with one or two crew and no on-board living accommodation. ... CGI image of two frogmen with Siebe Gorman CDBA rebreathers riding a human torpedo. ... Variety of ROVs: Work Class, General, Mini Remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) is the common accepted name for tethered underwater robots in the offshore industry. ... // An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is a robot which travels underwater. ... A submarine communications cable is a cable laid beneath the sea to carry telecommunications between countries. ...


Submarines are referred to as "boats" for historical reasons because vessels deployed from a ship are referred to as boats. The first submarines were launched in such a manner. The English term U-Boat for a German submarine comes from the German word for submarine, `U-Boot`, itself an abbreviation for Unterseeboot ('undersea boat'). For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... An abbreviation (from Latin brevis short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase. ...


Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century. Submarines were first widely used in World War I, and feature in many large navies. Military usage ranges from attacking enemy ships or submarines, aircraft carrier protection, blockade running, ballistic missile submarines as part of a nuclear strike force, reconnaissance and covert insertion of special forces. Civilian uses for submarines include marine science, salvage, exploration and facility inspection/maintenance. Submarines can also be specialised to a function such as search and rescue, or undersea cable repair. Submarines are also used in tourism and for academic research. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Naval redirects here. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... The Redoutable, a French SNLE (now a museum) A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine equipped to launch ballistic missiles (SLBMs), such as the Russian SS-N-18 or the American Trident. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... For other uses, see Special forces (disambiguation). ... Marine Science is a multidisciplinary field of study and research of ocean life and physics. ...


Submarines have one of the largest ranges in capabilities of any vessel, ranging from small autonomous or one- or two-man vessels operating for a few hours, to vessels which can remain submerged for 6 months such as the Russian Typhoon class. Submarines can work at greater depths than are survivable or practical for human divers. Modern deep diving submarines are derived from the bathyscaphe, which in turn was an evolution of the diving bell. // The Typhoon class submarine is a type of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine deployed by the Soviet Navy in the 1980s. ... 1. ... Typical internal arrangement A bathyscape, bathyscaphe, or bathyscaph is a free-diving self-propelled deep-sea diving submersible, consisting of a crew cabin similar to a bathysphere suspended below a float (rather than from a surface cable, as in the classic bathysphere design) Bathyscaphe Trieste, before dive into Marianas Trench... Diving bell A diving bell also known as a wet bell is a cable-suspended airtight chamber, open at the bottom like a moon pool structure, that is lowered underwater to operate as a base or a means of transport for a small number of divers. ...


Most large submarines comprise a cylindrical body with conical ends and a vertical structure, usually located amidships, which houses communications and sensing devices as well as periscopes. In modern submarines this structure is the "sail" in American usage ("fin" in European usage). A "conning tower" was a feature of earlier designs: a separate pressure hull above the main body of the boat that allowed the use of shorter periscopes. There is a propeller (or pump jet) at the rear and various hydrodynamic control fins as well as ballast tanks. Smaller, deep diving and specialty submarines may deviate significantly from this traditional layout. A conning tower was an armoured observation post on a warship from where the vessel was controlled during a battle. ...

Contents

Military usage

A model of Günther Prien's Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter
A model of Günther Prien's Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter

Until the development of the homing torpedo in World War Two, the primary role of the diesel/electric submarine was anti-ship warfare, inserting and removing covert agents and military forces, and intelligence-gathering and was generally not used against other submarines (although British developed an anti-submarine submarine in World War I, dubbed the "R1"). The impact-detonated torpedoes of the era were difficult to use against a submarine because they ran a fixed course at a fixed depth and were relatively easy for the small submarines to avoid with three dimensional maneuvers. Submarines were also used in limited roles for artillery support or raids, and rescuing aircrews during large-scale air attacks on islands, where the aircrewmen would be told of safe places to crash-land damaged aircraft so the submarine crew could rescue them. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2454x636, 440 KB) German WWII U-Boot (model) Photograph by Rama File links The following pages link to this file: Type VII U-boat ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2454x636, 440 KB) German WWII U-Boot (model) Photograph by Rama File links The following pages link to this file: Type VII U-boat ... Korvettenkapitän Günther Prien (16 January 1908 – 7 March 1941) was one of the outstanding German U-boat aces of the first part of the Second World War, and the first U-boat commander to win the Knights Cross. ... October 1939. ... Type VII U-boats were the workhorses of the German World War II U-boot-waffe, and appeared in several sub-types. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


With the development of the homing torpedo, better sonar systems, and nuclear propulsion, submarines also became able to effectively hunt each other as well as surface ships. The development of submarine-launched nuclear missiles and submarine-launched cruise missiles gave submarines a substantial and long-ranged ability to attack both land and sea targets with a variety of weapons ranging from cluster bombs to nuclear weapons. This article is about underwater sound propagation. ... Nuclear navy, or nuclear powered navy consists of ships powered by relatively small onboard nuclear reactors known as naval reactors. ... French M45 SLBM and M51 SLBM Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... A US B-1 Lancer releasing its payload of cluster bombs Cluster Munitions or Cluster Bombs are air-dropped or ground-launched munitions that eject a number of smaller submunitions (bomblets). The most common types are intended to kill enemy personnel and destroy vehicles. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ...


Mine laying submarines were developed in the early part of the 20th century. The facility has been used in both World Wars. Such capabilities continue today.


The primary defensive power of a submarine lies in its ability to remain concealed in the depths of the ocean. Modern submarines are built with an emphasis on stealth. Advanced propeller designs, extensive sound-reducing insulation, and special machinery allow a submarine to be as quiet as ambient ocean noise, making them extremely difficult to detect. Such submarines can launch an attack on land targets, surface ships, and other submarines from seemingly nowhere, and require specialized equipment to find and attack in retaliation. Water is an excellent conductor of sound, and submarines have excellent sonars that can detect and track comparatively noisy surface ships from long distances. This allows an attacking sub, at its discretion, to quietly maneuver to and attack from the best possible position at the best possible time.


A concealed military submarine is a real threat and, because of its stealth, it can force an enemy navy to waste resources searching large areas of ocean and protecting all ships against possible attack, while in reality only threatening a small area. This advantage was vividly demonstrated in the 1982 Falklands War when the British SSN HMS Conqueror sank the Argentine cruiser General Belgrano. After the sinking the Argentine Navy realized that they were vulnerable to submarine attack, and that they had no defense from it. Thus the Argentinian surface fleet withdrew to port for the remainder of the war, though an Argentinian submarine remained at sea. Belligerents Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties and losses 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner... HMS Conqueror was a Churchill-class nuclear-powered submarine that served in the Royal Navy from 1971 to 1990. ... The Belgrano as she was in 1941 as the USS Phoenix passing Battleship row at Pearl Harbor The ARA General Belgrano was an Armada Republica Argentina cruiser sunk with significant loss of life in a controversial incident during the Falklands War. ...


During World War II some military submarines were used as supply vessels for U-boats.


Anti-submarine net

One of the defenses against submarines is an antisubmarine net that blocks the passage, e.g. at the entrance of a harbor. It can sometimes be lowered to let friendly ships pass. See antisubmarine nets at Pearl Harbor or net laying ship. More than a decades worth of events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred prior to the actual attack. ... AN-52: Ailanthus-class net laying vessel A Net laying ship, also known as a net layer or net tender, was a type of small auxiliary ship built for the US Navy during World War II. A net layers primary function was to lay and maintain steel anti-torpedo...


Civil uses

Although the majority of the world's submarines are military ones, there are some civil submarines. They have a variety of uses, including tourism, exploration, oil and gas platform inspections and pipeline surveys.


A semi-civilian use was the adaption of U-boats for cargo carrying during both the First and Second World Wars. Another is that of submarine crew rescue.


Technology

Submersion and trimming

Control surfaces
Submerged submarine seen from a plane
Submerged submarine seen from a plane

All surface ships, as well as surfaced submarines, are in a positively buoyant condition, weighing less than the volume of water they would displace if fully submerged. To submerge hydrostatically, a ship must have negative buoyancy, either by increasing its own weight or decreasing displacement of the water. To control their weight, submarines are equipped with ballast tanks, which can be filled with either outside water or pressurized air. Image File history File links Submarine_control_surfaces2. ... Image File history File links Submarine_control_surfaces2. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ...


For general submersion or surfacing, submarines use the forward and aft tanks, called Main Ballast Tanks or MBTs, which are opened and completely filled with water to submerge, or filled by pressurized air to surface. Under submerged conditions, MBTs generally always stay flooded, which simplifies their design, so on many submarines these tanks are simply a section of interhull space. For more precise and quick control of depth, submarines use smaller Depth Control Tanks or DCTs, also called hard tanks due to their ability to withstand higher pressure. The amount of water in depth control tanks can be controlled either to reflect changes in outside conditions or change submersion depth. Depth control tanks can be located either near the submarine's center of gravity, or separated along the submarine body to prevent affecting trim. This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The word trim can mean: Adjustment of sails on a ship or boat. ...


When submerged, the water pressure on submarine's hull can reach 4 MPa for steel submarines and up to 10 MPa for titanium submarines like Komsomolets, while the pressure inside stays the same. This difference results in hull compression, which decreases displacement. Water density also increases, as the salinity and pressure are higher, but this does not compensate for hull compression, so buoyancy falls with depth. A submerged submarine is in an unstable equilibrium, having a tendency to either fall down to the ocean floor or float up to the surface. Keeping a constant depth requires continual operation of either the depth control tanks or control surfaces.[1] For other uses, see Pascal. ... It has been proposed below that Soviet submarine K-278 be renamed and moved to Soviet submarine K-278 Komsomolets. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ...


Submarines in a neutral buoyancy condition are not intrinsically stable in trim. To sustain desired trim, submarines use specialized forward and aft trim tanks. Pumps can move water between these tanks, changing the weight distribution and therefore creating a moment to turn the sub upwards or downwards. A similar system is sometimes used to maintain stability.

Sail of the French nuclear submarine Casabianca; note the diving planes, camouflaged masts, periscope, electronic warfare masts, door and windows.
Sail of the French nuclear submarine Casabianca; note the diving planes, camouflaged masts, periscope, electronic warfare masts, door and windows.

The hydrostatic effect of variable ballast tanks is not the only way to control the submarine underwater. Hydrodynamic maneuvering is done by several surfaces, which can be turned to create corresponding hydrodynamic forces when a submarine moves at sufficient speed. The stern planes, located near the propeller and normally oriented horizontally, serve the same purpose as the trim tanks, controlling the trim, and are commonly used, while other control surfaces may not be present on many submarines. The fairwater planes on the sail and/or bow planes on the main body, both also horizontal, are located closer to the centre of gravity, and are used to control depth with less effect on the trim. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sail of the French nuclear submarine Casabianca; note the diving planes, camouflaged masts, periscope, electronic warfare masts, door and windows. ... The Casacianca is a first-generation nuclear attack submarines of the French Navy. ... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ...


When a submarine performs an emergency surfacing, all depth and trim methods are used simultaneously, together with propelling the boat upwards. Such surfacing is very quick, so the sub may even partially jump out of the water, but it inflicts serious damage on some submarine systems, primarily pipes.


Submarine hull

Main article: Submarine hull

The term light hull is used to describe the outer hull of a submarine, which houses the pressure hull, providing hydrodynamically efficient shape, but not holding pressure difference. ...

Overview

The Los Angeles class attack submarine USS Greeneville in dry dock, showing typical cigar-shaped hull.
The Los Angeles class attack submarine USS Greeneville in dry dock, showing typical cigar-shaped hull.

Modern submarines are usually cigar-shaped. This design, already visible on very early submarines (see below) is sometimes called a "teardrop hull". It significantly reduces the hydrodynamic drag on the sub when submerged, but decreases the sea-keeping capabilities and increases the drag while surfaced. Since the limitations of the propulsion systems of early military submarines forced them to operate on the surface most of the time, their hull designs were a compromise. Because of the slow submerged speeds of those subs, usually well below 10kt (18 km·h−1), the increased drag for underwater travel was considered acceptable. Only late in World War II, when technology allowed faster and longer submerged operations and increased surveillance by enemy aircraft forced submarines to stay submerged, did hull designs become teardrop shaped again, to reduce drag and noise. On modern military submarines the outer hull is covered with a thick layer of special sound-absorbing rubber, or anechoic plating, to make the submarine quieter. USS Greeneville (SSN 772) in Dry Dock This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... USS Greeneville (SSN 772) in Dry Dock This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... USS Greeneville (SSN-772), a Los Angeles-class submarine, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for Greeneville, Tennessee. ... Until the introduction of the teardrop hull on USS Albacore, most submarines (such as this German Type VIIc submarine, U-955) were designed with an emphasis on surface performance. ... An object moving through a gas or liquid experiences a force in direction opposite to its motion. ... A knot is a unit of speed abbreviated kt or kn. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Anechoic tiles are rubber or Sorbothane-like tiles containing thousands of tiny voids, applied to the outer hulls of military ships and submarines. ...


The human-occupied pressure hulls of extremely deep diving submarines such as DSV Alvin are spherical instead of the more traditional cylinder. This allows for a more even distribution of the stress at the great depths such subs operate at. A titanium frame is usually welded or bolted to the pressure hull to provide attachment points for ballast and trim systems, scientific instrumentation, battery packs, syntactic flotation foam, and lighting. Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ... Glass microspheres are spheres of glass technically manufactured with a diameter in the micrometer range (from 1 to 1000 (microns))[1], although the term is also used for a wider range of 100 nanometres to 5 millimetres. ...


A raised tower on top of a submarine accommodates the length of the periscope and electronics masts, which can include radio, radar, electronic warfare, and other systems including the snorkel mast. In many early classes of submarines (see history), the Control Room, or "Conn", was located inside this tower, which was known as the "conning tower". Since that time, however, the Conn has been located within the hull of the submarine, and the tower is more commonly called the "sail" today. The Conn should not be confused with the "bridge", which is a small, open platform set into the top of the sail used for visual observation while operating on the surface. Principle of the periscope. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... // Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ... A conning tower was an armoured observation post on a warship from where the vessel was controlled during a battle. ...


"Bathtubs" are related to conning towers but are only for smaller submarines. A bathtub, in the context of smaller submarines, is a metal cylinder attached to the hull which surrounds the hatch and prevents waves from breaking directly into the cabin. It is needed because submarines on the surface don't have a lot of freeboard, i.e., they lie very low in the water, and were waves to break into the cabin, are in serious danger of sinking. Freebord model X-80, bottom side Freebords are a recent modification of the skateboard. ...


Single / double hull

U-995, Type VIIC/41 U-Boat of WWII, showing the typical combination of ship-like non-watertight outer hull with bulky strong hull below
U-995, Type VIIC/41 U-Boat of WWII, showing the typical combination of ship-like non-watertight outer hull with bulky strong hull below
Type XXI U-Boat, late WWII, with pressure hull almost fully enclosed inside the light hull

Modern submarines and submersibles, as well as the oldest ones, often have a single hull. Large submarines generally have an additional hull or hull sections outside. This external hull, which actually forms the shape of submarine, is called the outer hull (casing in the Royal Navy) or light hull, as it does not have to withstand any pressure difference. Inside the outer hull there is a strong hull, or pressure hull, which withstands sea pressure and has normal atmospheric pressure inside. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x590, 222 KB) Beschreibung: U 995 Fotograf: Darkone, 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x590, 222 KB) Beschreibung: U 995 Fotograf: Darkone, 1. ... U-995 Type VIIC at the navy memorial Laboe Unterseeboot 995 was a Type VIIC/41 submarine of the Kriegsmarine. ... Image File history File links SRH025-p40. ... Image File history File links SRH025-p40. ... Type 21 can mean: Type 21 frigate or Amazon-class frigate Type XXI U-boat This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The term light hull is used to describe the outer hull of a submareine, which houses the pressure hull, providing hydrodynamically efficient shape, but not holding pressure difference. ... The term light hull is used to describe the outer hull of a submareine, which houses the pressure hull, providing hydrodynamically efficient shape, but not holding pressure difference. ...


As early as World War I, it was realized that the optimal shape for withstanding pressure conflicted with the optimal shape for seaworthiness and minimized water resistance, and construction difficulties further complicated the problem. This was solved either by a compromise shape, or by using two hulls; internal for holding pressure, and external for optimal shape. Until the end of World War II, most submarines had an additional partial cover on the top, bow and stern, built of thinner metal, which was flooded when submerged. Germany went further with the Type XXI, the general predecessor of modern submarines, in which the pressure hull was fully enclosed inside the light hull, but optimised for submerged navigation, unlike earlier designs that were optimised for surface operation. Type 21 can mean: Type 21 frigate or Amazon-class frigate Type XXI U-boat This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


After World War II, approaches split. The Soviet Union changed its designs, basing them on the latest German developments. All post-WWII heavy Soviet and Russian submarines are built with a double hull structure. American and most other Western submarines switched to a primarily single-hull approach. They still have light hull sections in the bow and stern, which house main ballast tanks and provide a hydrodynamically optimized shape, but the main cylindrical hull section has only a single plating layer. However, the double-hull approach is today being considered for future submarines in the United States as a means to improve payload capacity, stealth and operational reach.[2] A double hull is a ship hull design and construction method where the bottom and sides of the ship have two complete layers of watertight hull surface: one outer layer forming the normal hull of the ship, and a second inner hull which is somewhat further into the ship, perhaps...


Pressure hull

The pressure hull is generally constructed of thick high-strength steel with a complex structure and high strength reserve, and is separated with watertight bulkheads into several compartments. There are also examples of more than two hulls in a submarine, like the Typhoon class, which has two main pressure hulls and three smaller ones for control room, torpedoes and steering gear, while the missile launch system is located between the main hulls. A bulkhead is an upright wall within the hull of a ship. ... In structures, such as land-based buildings, traffic tunnels, ships, aerospace vehicles, or submarines, compartmentalization is the fundamental basis and aim of passive fire protection. ... // The Typhoon class submarine is a type of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine deployed by the Soviet Navy in the 1980s. ...


The dive depth cannot be increased easily. Simply making the hull thicker increases the weight and requires reduction of the weight of onboard equipment, ultimately resulting in a bathyscaphe. This is affordable for civilian research submersibles, but not military submarines, so their dive depth was always bound by current technology. A submarines depth ratings are a primary design parameter and measure of its ability. ... Typical internal arrangement A bathyscape, bathyscaphe, or bathyscaph is a free-diving self-propelled deep-sea diving submersible, consisting of a crew cabin similar to a bathysphere suspended below a float (rather than from a surface cable, as in the classic bathysphere design) Bathyscaphe Trieste, before dive into Marianas Trench...


WW1 submarines had their hulls built of carbon steel, and could not submerge below 100 meters. During World War Two, high-strength alloyed steel was introduced, allowing for dive depths of up to 200 meters. High-strength alloyed steel is still the main material for submarines today, with 250-400 meters depth limit, which cannot be exceeded on a military submarine without sacrificing other characteristics. To exceed that limit, a few submarines were built with titanium hulls. Titanium is almost as strong as steel, but lighter, and is also not ferromagnetic, which is important for stealth. Titanium submarines were favored by the Soviet Union, which developed specialized high-strength alloys and built an industry capable of producing titanium at an affordable cost. It has produced several types of titanium submarines. Titanium alloys allow a major increase in depth, but other systems need to be redesigned to cope, so test depth was limited to 1000 meters for K-278 Komsomolets, the deepest-diving combat submarine. An Alfa class submarine may have successfully operated at 1300 meters,[3] though continuous operation at such depths would be an excessive stress for many submarine systems. Titanium also does not flex as easily as steel, and may be come brittle over many cycles of diving and surfacing. Despite its benefits, the high cost of titanium construction led to the abandonment of titanium submarine construction as the Cold War ended. Carbon steel,is very fun 2 play with also called plain carbon steel, is a metal alloy, a combination of two elements, iron and carbon, where other elements are present in quantities too small to affect the properties. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery grey-white metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... Ferromagnetism is the phenomenon by which materials, such as iron, in an external magnetic field become magnetized and remain magnetized for a period after the material is no longer in the field. ... It has been proposed below that Soviet submarine K-278 be renamed and moved to Soviet submarine K-278 Komsomolets. ... Alfa class submarine at sea. ...


Deep diving civilian submarines have used thick glass pressure hulls.


The task of building a pressure hull is very difficult, as it must withstand pressures up to that of its required diving depth. When the hull is perfectly round in cross-section, the pressure is evenly distributed, and causes only hull compression. If the shape is not perfect, the hull is bent, with several points heavily strained. Inevitable minor deviations are resisted by the stiffener rings, but even a one inch (25 mm) deviation from roundness results in over 30 percent decrease of maximal hydrostatic load and consequently dive depth.[4] The hull must therefore be constructed with very high precision. All hull parts must be welded without defects, and all joints are checked several times using different methods. This contributes to the very high cost of modern submarines. (For example, each Virginia-class attack submarine costs 2.6 billion dollars, over $200,000 per ton of displacement.) The Virginia class (or SSN-774 class) of attack submarines are the first U.S. subs to be designed for a broad spectrum of open-ocean and littoral missions around the world. ... A long ton is the name used in the US for the unit called the ton in the avoirdupois or Imperial system of measurements, as used (alongside the metric system) in the United Kingdom and to some extent in other Commonwealth countries. ...


Propulsion

HMCS Windsor, a Victoria-class diesel-electric hunter-killer submarine
HMCS Windsor, a Victoria-class diesel-electric hunter-killer submarine
German Type 212 submarine with AIP propulsion of the German Navy in dock at HDW/Kiel
German Type 212 submarine with AIP propulsion of the German Navy in dock at HDW/Kiel
German Type XXI submarines, also known as "Elektroboote", were the first submarines designed to operate entirely submerged
German Type XXI submarines, also known as "Elektroboote", were the first submarines designed to operate entirely submerged

Originally submarines were human propelled. The first mechanically driven submarine was the 1863 French Plongeur, which used compressed air for propulsion, and anaerobic propulsion was first employed by the Spanish Ictineo II in 1864. Ictineo's engine used a chemical mix containing a peroxide compound to generate heat for steam propulsion while also providing oxygen for the crew. The system was not employed again until 1940 when the German Navy tested a system employing the same principles, the Walter turbine, on the experimental V-80 submarine and later on the naval U-791 submarine. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2248x1500, 413 KB)HMCS Windsor (SSK 877) Dept. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2248x1500, 413 KB)HMCS Windsor (SSK 877) Dept. ... HMCS Windsor (SSK 877) is a long-range hunter-killer (SSK) submarine of the Canadian Navy, the second ship of the Victoria class. ... The Victoria class consists of four diesel-powered Canadian Navy submarines acquired from the Royal Navy (formerly known as the Upholder class) and replacing the old Oberon-class subs. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2009x825, 383 KB) Submarine Typ 212 in Docks at HDW/Kiel. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2009x825, 383 KB) Submarine Typ 212 in Docks at HDW/Kiel. ... The German Type 212 is a highly advanced design of non-nuclear submarine (U-Boat) developed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) for the German Navy. ... German frigate Karlsruhe rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia while participating in the international anti-terror operation ENDURING FREEDOM, April 2005 The Laboe Naval Memorial for sailors who lost their lives at sea during the World Wars and while on duty at sea and U 995 Modern air... Howaldtswerke is a German shipyard founded 1838 in Kiel. ... , For the city in the United States, see Kiel, Wisconsin. ... Type XXI U-boat U 3008, postwar photo Type XXI U-boats, also known as the Elektroboote, were the first submarines designed to operate entirely submerged, rather than as surface ships that could submerge as a temporary means to escape detection or launch an attack. ... The French submarine Plongeur, 1863 Plongeur (French for Diver) was a French submarine launched in 1863. ... Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol (September 28, 1819 - September 6, 1885) was the inventor of the mechanically driven submarine. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Hellmuth Walter (August 26, 1900 – December 16, 1980) was a German engineer who pioneered research into rocket engines and gas turbines. ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ...


Until the advent of nuclear marine propulsion, most 20th century submarines used batteries for running underwater and gasoline (petrol) or diesel engines on the surface and to recharge the batteries. Early submarines used gasoline, but this quickly gave way to paraffin, then diesel, because of reduced flammability. Diesel-electric became the standard means of propulsion. The diesel or gasoline engine and the electric motor, separated by clutches, were initially on the same shaft and drove the propeller. This allowed the engine to drive the electric motor as a generator to recharge the batteries and also propel the submarine if required. The clutch between the motor and the engine would be disengaged when the submarine dove so that the motor could be used to turn the propeller. The motor could have more than one armature on the shaft, and these could be electrically coupled in series for slow speed and in parallel for high speed. (These alternative connections were known as "group down" and "group up", respectively.) This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Petrol redirects here. ... This article is about the fuel. ... For other uses, see Paraffin (disambiguation). ...


The principle was modified for some submarine designs in the 1930s, particularly those of the U.S. Navy and the British U class submarines. The engine was no longer attached to the motor/propeller drive shaft, but drove a separate generator to drive the motors on the surface while recharging the batteries. This diesel-electric propulsion allowed much more flexibility; for example, the submarine could travel slowly while the engines were running at full power to recharge the batteries as quickly as possible, reducing time spent on the surface, or use its snorkel. It was then possible to insulate the noisy diesel engines from the pressure hull, making the submarine quieter. USN redirects here. ... The British U-Class submarines were a class of 49 small submarines built just before and during the Second World War. ... A number of vehicles use a diesel-electric powerplant for providing locomotion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Soundproofing is any means of to reducing the intensity of sound with respect to a specified source and receptor. ...


Other power sources were attempted. Oil-fired steam turbines powered the British "K" class submarines, built during the first World War and in the following years, with the intent of giving them the necessary surface speed to keep up with the British battle fleet. The "K" class subs were not very successful, however. (The design was also over-endowed with hatches, which proved troublesome in service.) German Type XXI submarines attempted the application of hydrogen peroxide to provide long-term, fast air-independent propulsion, but were ultimately built with very large batteries instead. The K class submarines were a class of steam-propelled submarines of the Royal Navy designed in 1913. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Type XXI U-boat U 3008, postwar photo Type XXI U-boats, also known as the Elektroboote, were the first submarines designed to operate entirely submerged, rather than as surface ships that could submerge as a temporary means to escape detection or launch an attack. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ...


At the end of the Second World War, the British and Russians experimented with hydrogen peroxide/kerosene (paraffin) engines which could be used both above and below the surface. The results were not encouraging enough for this technique to be adopted at the time, and although the Russians deployed a class of submarines with this engine type (codenamed Quebec by NATO), they were considered unsuccessful. Today several navies use air-independent propulsion. Notably Sweden uses Stirling technology on the Gotland class and Södermanland class series of submarines. The Stirling engine is heated by burning diesel fuel with liquid oxygen stored in cryogenic tanks. A newer development in air-independent propulsion is the use of hydrogen fuel cells, first applied in series on the German Type 212 submarine, with nine 34 kW or two 120-kilowatt cells. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ... The Quebec-class submarine was the NATO reporting name of the Soviet Project 615 submarine class, a small coastal attack submarine of the late 1950s. ... Air-Independent Propulsion (AIP), is a term that encompasses technologies which allow a submarine to operate without the need to surface or use a snorkel to access atmospheric oxygen. ... Cut away diagram of a Rhombic Drive Beta Stirling Engine Design Pink - Hot cylinder wall Dark Grey - Cold cylinder wall (with coolant inlet and outlet pipes in Yellow) Dark Green - Thermal insulation separating the two cylinder ends Light Green - Displacer piston Dark Blue - Power piston Light Blue - Flywheels Not Shown... The Gotland class submarines are one of the worlds most modern conventional submarines. ... The Swedish Södermanland class of diesel-electric submarines consist of the HMS Södermanland and HMS Östergötland. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cryogenics is the study of very low temperatures or the production of the same, and is often confused with cryobiology, the study of the effect of low temperatures on organisms, or the study of cryopreservation. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... The German Type 212 is a highly advanced design of non-nuclear submarine (U-Boat) developed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) for the German Navy. ...


Steam power was resurrected in the 1950s with the advent of the nuclear-powered steam turbine driving a generator. By removing the requirement for atmospheric oxygen, these submarines can remain submerged indefinitely. (Air is recycled and fresh water is distilled from seawater.) These vessels always have a small battery and diesel engine/generator installation for emergency use if the reactors have to be shut down. Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate...


Nuclear power is now used in all large submarines, but due to the high cost and large size of nuclear reactors, smaller submarines still use diesel-electric propulsion. The ratio of larger to smaller submarines depends on strategic needs; for instance, the US Navy and the Royal Navy operate only nuclear submarines,[5] which is usually explained by the need for overseas operations. Other major operators rely on a mix of nuclear submarines for strategic purposes and diesel-electric submarines for defensive needs. Most fleets have no nuclear submarines at all, due to the limited availability of nuclear power and submarine technology. Diesel-electric submarines also have a distinct advantage over their nuclear cousins in terms of stealth. Nuclear submarines are always generating noise from the coolant pumps and turbo-machinery needed to operate the reactor, even at low power levels. A conventional submarine operating on its batteries is almost completely silent, the only noise coming from the shaft bearings and flow noise around the hull, all of which stops when the sub hovers in mid water to listen. Commercial submarines usually rely only on batteries, as they are never expected to operate independently of a mother ship. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


Toward the end of the 20th century, some submarines, such as the British Vanguard class, began to be fitted with pump-jet propulsors instead of propellers. Although these are heavier, more expensive, and less efficient than a propeller, they are significantly quieter, giving an important tactical advantage. Categories: Marine propulsion | Stub ...


The magnetohydrodynamic drive, or "caterpillar drive", which has no moving parts was popularized as a submarine propulsion system by the movie version of The Hunt for Red October, written by Tom Clancy, which portrayed it as a virtually silent system. A Magnetohydrodynamic drive or MHD propulsor, is a method proposed for propelling seagoing vessels. ... This article contains a trivia section. ... For the member of the Irish folk band The Clancy Brothers, see Tom Clancy (singer) and for the American Celticist, see Thomas Owen Clancy. ...


Although experimental surface ships have been built with this propulsion system, speeds have not been as high as expected. In addition, the drive system can induce bubbles to form, compromising stealth, and the low efficiency leads to very high required reactor powers. These factors make it unlikely to be considered for any military purpose.


Armament

A sequence of photos showing the decommissioned Australian warship HMAS Torrens sinking after being used as a target for a submarine-launched torpedo.
A sequence of photos showing the decommissioned Australian warship HMAS Torrens sinking after being used as a target for a submarine-launched torpedo.
The forward torpedo tubes on HMS Ocelot
The forward torpedo tubes on HMS Ocelot

The success of the submarine is inextricably linked to the development of the torpedo, invented by the English engineer Robert Whitehead in 1866. His invention is essentially the same today as it was 100 years ago. Only with the arrival of self propelled torpedoes could the submarine make the leap from mechanical novelty into a weapon of war. Until the perfection of the guided torpedo, multiple torpedoes of the straight running kind were required to attack a target. With at most 20 to 25 torpedoes stored onboard, the number of attacks that could be made was limited. To increase combat endurance most submarines of the First World War functioned as submersible gunboats, using their deck guns against unarmed targets and diving to escape and engage enemy warships. The importance of guns encouraged the development of the unsuccessful Submarine Cruiser such as the French Surcouf and the Royal navy's X1 and M class submarines. With the arrival of ASW aircraft, guns became more of means of defence than of attack. A more practical method of increasing combat endurance was the external torpedo tube which could only be loaded in port. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1032, 508 KB) Mark 48 torpedo testing. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1032, 508 KB) Mark 48 torpedo testing. ... A Mark 48 torpedo fired by the Farncomb destroyed the Torrens in a test The second HMAS Torrens (DE-53) was a River class destroyer escort laid down by the Cockatoo Docks and Engineering Company Propriety Limited at Sydney in New South Wales on 18 August 1965, launched on 28... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... Robert Whitehead (January 3, 1823 - November 14, 1905), British engineer. ... An acoustic torpedo is a torpedo designed for medium-range use, often fired from a submarine. ... A type of artillery cannon mounted on the deck of a ship or submarine. ... Five ships of the French Navy have borne the name Surcouf, in honour of the 18th century Saint-Malo corsair Robert Surcouf: see French ship Surcouf for the list. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... for the midget submarine of the Second World War, see X class submarine HM Submarine X1 was, conceived and designed as a submersible commerce raider for the Royal Navy. ... The M class submarines were a small class of Diesel electric submarine used by the British Royal Navy during World War I. The main distinguishing feature of the M class was a 12_inch gun mounted in a turret forward of the conning tower. ... “A/S” redirects here. ...


The ability of submarines to approach enemy harbors covertly led to their use as minelayers. Minelaying submarines of the First and Second World War were specially built for that purpose. Modern submarine-laid mines, such as the British Mark 6 Sea Urchin, are designed to be deployed by a submarine's torpedo tubes. A minelayer is a naval ship used for deploying sea mines. ... Polish wz. ...


After World War II, both the USA and the USSR experimented with submarine launched cruise missiles such as the SSM-N-8 Regulus and P-5 Pyatyorka however with such missiles the submarine had to surface to fire its missiles. Such missiles were the forerunners of modern submarine launched cruise missiles which can be fired from the torpedo tubes of submerged submarines e.g. the US BGM-109 Tomahawk and Russian RPK-2 Viyuga. Ballistic missiles can also be fired from a submarine's torpedo tubes, for example missiles such as the anti-submarine SUBROC, and versions of surface to surface anti-ship missiles such as the Exocet and Harpoon, encapsulated for submarine launch. With internal volume as limited as ever and the desire to carry heavier warloads, the idea of the external launch tube was revived, usually for the encapsulated missiles and such tubes being placed in the space between the internal pressure and outer streamlined hulls. A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. ... A Regulus I missile at the USS Bowfin museum ship at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii The SSM-N-8A Regulus cruise missile was the nuclear deterrent weapon employed by the United States Navy from 1955 to 1964. ... Whiskey Twin Cylinder submarine armed with P-5 missiles. ... The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile. ... The RPK-2 Viyuga (Russian: ; Viyuga is blizzard in English) cruise missile is a complex Russian submarine launched missile. ... A Subroc was a type of submarine launched rocket intended for use as an anti-submarine weapon. ... Image:RBS-15 missile launch. ... The Exocet is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, and airplanes. ... The Harpoon is an all-weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system, developed and manufactured by the McDonnell Douglas Corporation of the United States of America, with manufacturing now taken over by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, the new owner of its factory in Missouri. ...


The strategic mission of the SSM-N-8 and the P-5 were taken up by submarine-launched ballistic missile beginning with the US Navy's Polaris missile, then the Poseidon and Trident missiles. French M45 SLBM and M51 SLBM Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... Polaris A-3 on launch pad in Cape Canaveral The Polaris missile was a submarine-launched, two-stage solid-fuel nuclear-armed ballistic missile (SLBM) built during the Cold War by Lockheed for the United States Navy. ...


Sensors

A submarine will have a range of sensor types that depends on its purpose. Modern military submarines rely almost entirely on an extremely sensitive suite of passive and active sonars to find their prey. Active sonar relies on an audible "ping" to generate echoes revealing objects around the transmitting submarine. Active systems are rarely used, as the transmitting submarine will invariably reveal its own position to its target. Passive sonar is literally a set of extremely sensitive hydrophones set into the submarine's hull or trailed behind said submarine in a towed array, generally several hundred feet long, if not more. The towed array is the mainstay of NATO submarine detection systems, as it reduces the amount of flow noise that is heard by the operators. Hull mounted sonar is employed to back up the towed array, and in confined coastal waters where a towed array could be fouled by sea floor obstacles.


Submarines also carry radar equipment for detection of surface ships and aircraft. Again, sub captains are more likely to use radar detection gear rather than active radar to detect targets, as radar energy can be detected far beyond its own return range, revealing the transmitting submarine's position. Periscopes are hardly ever used except to take position fixes and to verify the identity of a contact.


Civilian submarines, such as Alvin or the Russian Mir submersibles, rely on small active sonar sets and viewing ports to navigate. Light does not penetrate beyond about 300 feet (91 m), so high intensity lights must be carried to illuminate the area around the submersible.


Navigation

Although early submarines had very little in the way of navigation aids, modern submarines have a variety of navigation systems. Modern military submarines use an inertial guidance system for navigation while submerged, but drift error unavoidably builds up over time. To counter this, the Global Positioning System will occasionally be used to obtain an accurate position. The periscope - a retractable tube with prisms allowing a view to the surface - is only used occasionally in modern submarines, since the range of visibility is short. The Virginia-class submarines and Astute Class submarines have "photonics masts" rather than hull-penetrating optical tube periscopes. These masts must still be hoisted above the surface, and employ electronic sensors for visible light, infrared, laser range-finding, and electromagnetic surveillance. An inertial guidance system consists of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) combined with a set of guidance algorithms and control mechanisms, allowing the path of a vehicle to be controlled according to the position determined by the inertial navigation system. ... GPS redirects here. ... Principle of the periscope. ... Look up Tube in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... If a shaft of light entering a prism is sufficiently narrow, a spectrum results. ... The Virginia class (or SSN-774 class) of attack submarines are the first U.S. subs to be designed for a broad spectrum of open-ocean and littoral missions around the world. ... The Astute class submarines are the next generation nuclear Fleet submarines of the Royal Navy. ...


Communication

Military submarines have several systems for communicating with distant command centers or other ships. One is the VLF radio, which can reach a submarine either on the surface or submerged up to a fairly shallow depth, usually less than 250 feet (76 m) or so. ELF frequencies can reach a submarine at much greater depths, but has a very low bandwidth and is generally only used to call a submerged sub to a shallower depth where VLF signals can reach. A submarine also has the option of floating a long, buoyant wire to a shallower depth, allowing VLF transmissions to be made by even a deeply submerged boat.


By extending a radio mast, a submarine can also use a "burst transmission" technique. A burst transmission takes only a fraction of a second, minimizing a submarine's risk of detection. To communicate with other submarines, a system known as Gertrude is used. Gertrude is basically a sonar telephone. Voice communication from one submarine is transmitted by low power speakers into the water, where it is detected by passive sonars on the receiving submarine. The range of this system is probably very short, and using it radiates sound into the water, which can be heard by enemy submarines, surface ships and aircraft.


Civilian submarines can use similar, albeit less powerful systems to communicate with support ships or other submersibles in the area.


Command and control

All submarines need facilities to control their motion. Military submarines also need facilities to operate their sensors and weapons.


Crew

Overview

With nuclear power, submarines can remain submerged for months at a time. Diesel submarines must periodically resurface or snorkel to recharge their batteries. Most modern military submarines are able to generate oxygen for their crew by electrolysis of water. Atmosphere control equipment includes a CO2 scrubber, which uses an amine absorbent to remove the gas from air and diffuse it into waste pumped overboard. A machine that uses a catalyst to convert carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide (removed by the CO2 scrubber) and bonds hydrogen produced from the ship's storage battery with oxygen in the atmosphere to produce water, also found its use. An atmosphere monitoring system samples the air from different areas of the ship for nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, R12 and R114 refrigerant, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and others. Poisonous gases are removed, and oxygen is replenished by use of an oxygen bank located in a main ballast tank. Some heavier submarines have two oxygen bleed stations (forward and aft). The oxygen in the air is sometimes kept a few percent less than atmospheric concentration to reduce fire danger. Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ...


Fresh water is produced by either an evaporator or a reverse osmosis unit. It is used for showers, sinks, cooking and cleaning. Seawater is used to flush toilets, and the resulting "black water" is stored in a sanitary tank until it is blown overboard using pressurised air or pumped overboard by using a special sanitary pump. The method for blowing sanitaries overboard is difficult to operate, and the German Type VIIC boat U-1206 was lost with casualties because of a mistake with the toilet. Water from showers and sinks is stored separately in "gray water" tanks, which are pumped overboard using the drain pump. Reverse osmosis (RO) is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solution through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. ... Type VII U-boats were the workhorses of the German World War II U-boot-waffe, and appeared in several sub-types. ...


Trash on modern large submarines is usually disposed of using a tube called a Trash Disposal Unit (TDU), where it is compacted into a galvanised steel can. At the bottom of the TDU is a large ball valve. An ice plug is set on top of the ball valve to protect it, the cans on top of the ice plug. The top breech door is shut, and the TDU is flooded and equalised with sea pressure, the ball valve is opened and the cans fall out to the ocean floor assisted by scrap iron weights inside the cans.


A typical nuclear submarine has a crew of over 80; non-nuclear boats typically have fewer than half as many. The conditions on a submarine can be difficult because crewmembers must work in isolation for long periods of time, without contact with their families. Submarines normally maintain radio silence to avoid detection. Operating a submarine is dangerous, even in peacetime, and many submarines have been lost in accidents. In telecommunications, radio silence is a status maintained where all fixed or mobile radio stations in an area stop transmitting. ...


Women as part of crew

Norway opened up every function in the armed forces to women in 1985, making the Royal Norwegian Navy the first navy to allow female crewmen. The Royal Danish Navy conducted trials with mixed gender crews in 1985 and 1987, making no alterations to the sub, and allowed for female submariners in 1988.[6] Sweden followed after in 1989.[7] The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) began to allow female personnel in 1998 and thereafter Royal Canadian Navy in 2002. Germany, Spain and Portugal also allows for females on all military functions, including submarines.[6] Ranks Norwegian military ranks The Royal Norwegian Navy (often abbreviated as RNoN) is the branch of the Norwegian Defence Force responsible for naval operations. ... The Royal Danish Navy (or Kongelige Danske Marine in Danish) is the sea-based branch of The Danish Defence force. ... The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... For history after 1968, see Canadian Forces Maritime Command The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) was the navy of Canada from 1911 until 1968 when the three Canadian armed services were unified to form the Canadian Forces. ... The Spanish Navy (in Spanish, Armada Española) is the maritime arm of the Spanish Military. ...


In 1995, Solveig Krey of the Royal Norwegian Navy became the first female officer to assume command on a submarine, the HNoMS Kobben.[8] Solveig Krey (born 1963) is the first female commanding officer of a submarine in the world. ... Ranks Norwegian military ranks The Royal Norwegian Navy (often abbreviated as RNoN) is the branch of the Norwegian Defence Force responsible for naval operations. ... The Kobben class (also known as the Type 207) is a modernized version of the German Type 205 submarine. ...


The usual reasons for barring women is primness, given the lack of privacy and "hot bunking" or "hot racking", a common practice on submarines where three sailors share two bunks on a rotating basis to save space. The US Navy argues it would cost $300,000 per bunk to permit women to serve on submarines versus $4,000 per bunk to allow women to serve on aircraft carriers. However, this calculation is based on the assumption of semi segregation of the female crew, possibly to the extent of structural redesign of the vessel.[9]


The US Navy, which permits women to serve on almost every other ship in the fleet, only allows three exceptions for women being on board military submarines: (1) Female civilian technicians for a few days at most; (2) Women midshipmen on an overnight during summer training for both Navy ROTC and Naval Academy; (3) Family members for one-day dependent cruises.[10] No studies of the feasibility of an all-female crew, which would circumvent the US Navy's objections, are known to have been carried out[citation needed]. A midshipman is a subordinate officer, or alternatively a commissioned officer of the lowest rank, in the navies of several English-speaking countries. ... The Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) is a training program of the United States armed forces present on college campuses to recruit and educate commissioned officers. ... The United States Naval Academy (USNA) is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps and is in Annapolis, Maryland . ...


History of submarines

Main article: History of submarines

This article aims to cover some facts about the history of Submarines, ships or boats operating underwater. ...

Early history of submarines and the first submersibles

The first submersible with reliable information on its construction was built in 1620 by Cornelius Jacobszoon Drebbel, a Dutchman in the service of James I of England. It was created to the standards of the design outlined by English mathematician William Bourne. It was propelled by means of oars. The precise nature of the submarine type is a matter of some controversy; some claim that it was merely a bell towed by a boat. Two improved types were tested in the Thames between 1620 and 1624. In 2002 a two-man version of Bourne's design was built for the BBC TV programme Building the Impossible by Mark Edwards, and successfully rowed under water at Dorney Lake, Eton. Cornelius Jacobszoon Drebbel (Alkmaar, 1572 - London, November 7, 1633) was a Dutch inventor. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... William Bourne was an English mathematician, innkeeper and former Royal Navy gunner who created an idea for an early submarine. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Mark Edwards is a traditional boatbuilder based at Richmond-upon-Thames, Surrey, England. ... Dorney Lake is a purpose built rowing lake in the United Kingdom. ... Eton is a town in Berkshire, England, lying on the opposite bank of the River Thames to Windsor and connected to it by Windsor Bridge. ...


Though the first submersible vehicles were tools for exploring under water, it did not take long for inventors to recognize their military potential. The strategic advantages of submarines were set out by Bishop John Wilkins of Chester, England, in Mathematicall Magick in 1648. John Wilkins. ... For the larger local government district, see Chester (district). ...

  1. Tis private: a man may thus go to any coast in the world invisibly, without discovery or prevented in his journey.
  2. Tis safe, from the uncertainty of Tides, and the violence of Tempests, which do never move the sea above five or six paces deep. From Pirates and Robbers which do so infest other voyages; from ice and great frost, which do so much endanger the passages towards the Poles.
  3. It may be of great advantages against a Navy of enemies, who by this may be undermined in the water and blown up.
  4. It may be of special use for the relief of any place besieged by water, to convey unto them invisible supplies; and so likewise for the surprisal of any place that is accessible by water.
  5. It may be of unspeakable benefit for submarine experiments.

The first military submarines

The first military submarine was Turtle (1775), a hand-powered egg-shaped device designed by the American David Bushnell to accommodate a single man. It was the first verified submarine capable of independent underwater operation and movement, and the first to use screws for propulsion. During the American Revolutionary War, Turtle (operated by Sgt. Ezra Lee, Continental Army) tried and failed to sink the British warship HMS Eagle, flagship of the blockaders in New York harbor on September 7, 1776. For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ... A cross-section sketch of Bushnells Turtle. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ... This article is about military actions only. ... For other ships of the same name, see HMS Eagle. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ...

The Nautilus (1800)
The Nautilus (1800)

In 1800, France built a human-powered submarine designed by Robert Fulton, the Nautilus. The French eventually gave up on the experiment in 1804, as did the British when they later considered Fulton's submarine design. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1911x1374, 213 KB) Summary Fulton Nautilus submarine. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1911x1374, 213 KB) Summary Fulton Nautilus submarine. ... Nautilus was the first practical submarine, commissioned by Napoleon and designed by the American inventor Robert Fulton, then living in France. ... For other persons named Robert Fulton, see Robert Fulton (disambiguation). ... Nautilus was the first practical submarine, commissioned by Napoleon and designed by the American inventor Robert Fulton, then living in France. ...


During the War of 1812, in 1814, Silas Halsey lost his life while using a submarine in an unsuccessful attack on a British warship stationed in New London harbor. This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... Nickname: Motto: MARE LIBERUM Coordinates: , NECTA Norwich-New London Region Southeastern Connecticut Settled 1646 (Pequot Plantation) Named 1658 (New London) Incorporated (city) 1784 Government  - Type Council-manager  - City council Margaret Mary Curtin, Mayor Kevin J. Cavanagh, Dep. ...


In 1851, a Bavarian artillery corporal, Wilhelm Bauer, took a submarine designed by him called the Brandtaucher (incendiary-diver) to sea in Kiel Harbour. This submarine was built by August Howaldt and powered by a treadwheel. It sank but the three crewmen managed to escape. The submarine was raised in 1887 and is on display in a museum in Dresden. Wilhelm Bauer Wilhelm Bauer (December 23, 1822 - June 20, 1875) built several hand-powered submarines. ... Wilhelm Bauer Wilhelm Bauer (December 23, 1822 - June 20, 1875) built several hand-powered submarines. ... , For the city in the United States, see Kiel, Wisconsin. ... August Ferdinand Howaldt (born 23 October 1809 in Braunschweig, died 4 August 1883 in Kiel) was a German engineer and ship builder. ... What is a treadwheel? A treadwheel is a form of Animal engine powered by man. ...


Submarines in the American Civil War

The 1862 Alligator, first submarine of the US Navy, was developed in conjunction with the French
The 1862 Alligator, first submarine of the US Navy, was developed in conjunction with the French

During the American Civil War, the Union was the first to field a submarine. The French-designed Alligator was the first U.S. Navy sub and the first to feature compressed air (for air supply) and an air filtration system. It was the first submarine to carry a diver lock which allowed a diver to plant electrically detonated mines on enemy ships. Initially hand-powered by oars, it was converted after 6 months to a screw propeller powered by a hand crank. With a crew of 20, it was larger than Confederate submarines. Alligator was 47 feet (14.3 m) long and about 4 feet (1.2 m) in diameter. It was lost in a storm off Cape Hatteras on April 1, 1863 while uncrewed and under tow to its first combat deployment at Charleston. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1250x1260, 288 KB)The Alligator was the first submarine purchased by the U.S. Navy. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1250x1260, 288 KB)The Alligator was the first submarine purchased by the U.S. Navy. ... The fourth USS Alligator is the first known US Navy submarine, though not of the United States. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The fourth USS Alligator is the first known US Navy submarine, though not of the United States. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... An aerial view of the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse prior to its 1999 relocation. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The Confederate States of America fielded several man-powered submarines. The first Confederate submarine was the 30-foot (9 m) long Pioneer which sank a target schooner using a towed mine during tests on Lake Pontchartrain, but was not used in combat. It was scuttled after New Orleans was captured and in 1868 was sold for scrap. Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Two-masted fishing schooner A schooner (IPA: ) is a type of sailing vessel characterized by the use of fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts. ... Lake Pontchartrains north shore at Fontainebleau State Park near Mandeville, Louisiana in 2004 Lake Pontchartrain (local English pronunciation ) (French: Lac Pontchartrain, pronounced ) is a brackish lake located in southeastern Louisiana. ...


The Confederate submarine H. L. Hunley (named for one of its financiers, Horace Lawson Hunley) was intended for attacking the North's ships, which were blockading the South's seaports. The submarine had a long pole with an explosive charge in the bow, called a spar torpedo. The sub had to approach an enemy vessel, attach an explosive, move away, and then detonate it. The sub was extremely hazardous to operate, and had no air supply other than what was contained inside the main compartment. On two occasions, the sub sank; on the first occasion half the crew died and on the second, the entire eight-man crew (including Hunley himself) drowned. On February 18, 1864 Hunley sank USS Housatonic off Charleston Harbor, the first time a submarine successfully sank another ship, though it sank in the same engagement shortly after signaling its success. Another Confederate submarine was lost on its maiden voyage in Lake Pontchartrain; it was found washed ashore in the 1870s and is now on display at the Louisiana State Museum. Submarines did not have a major impact on the outcome of the war, but did portend their coming importance to naval warfare and increased interest in their use in naval warfare. H. L. Hunley was a submarine of the Confederate States of America that demonstrated both the advantages and the dangers of undersea warfare. ... Horace Lawson Hunley was a Confederate marine engineer druing the American Civil War. ... A spar torpedo is a weapon consisting of a bomb placed at the end of a long pole, or spar, and attached to a boat. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... USS Housatonic was a screw sloop-of-war of the United States Navy, named for one of the rivers of New England which rises in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, and flows southward into Connecticut before emptying into Long Island Sound a little east of Bridgeport, Connecticut. ... The Cabildo is an important historical building in New Orleans, Louisiana. ...


South America

The first submarine in South America was the Hipopotamo, tested in Ecuador on September 18, 1837. It was built by Jose Rodriguez Lavandera, who successfully crossed the Guayas River in Guayaquil accompanied by Jose Quevedo. Rodriguez Lavandera enrolled in the Navy in 1823, becoming a Lieutenant by 1830. The Hipopotamo crossed the Guayas on two more occasions, but it was then abandoned because of lack of funding and interest from the government. is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Guayas River in Guayaquil The Guayas River is a river in western Ecuador. ... This article is about the city of Guayaquil. ...


The submarine Flach was commissioned in 1865 by the Chilean government during the war between Chile and Peru against Spain (1864-1866). It was built by the German engineer Karl Flach. The submarine sank during tests in Valparaiso bay on May 3, 1866, with the entire eleven-man crew. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Valparaiso is the name of at least three cities and a village: Valparaíso, Chile Valparaiso, Florida Valparaiso, Indiana Valparaiso, Nebraska This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Mechanically-powered submarines (late 19th century)

Plongeur, the first submarine to rely on mechanical power for propulsion
Plongeur, the first submarine to rely on mechanical power for propulsion

The first submarine not relying on human power for propulsion was the French Plongeur, launched in 1863, and using compressed air at 180 psi (1241 kPa).[11] Image File history File links Plongeur. ... Image File history File links Plongeur. ... The French submarine Plongeur, 1863 Plongeur (French for Diver) was a French submarine launched in 1863. ... The French submarine Plongeur, 1863 Plongeur (French for Diver) was a French submarine launched in 1863. ... A pressure gauge reading in PSI (red scale) and kPa (black scale) The pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in²) is a non-SI unit of pressure based on avoirdupois units. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ...


The first combustion-powered submarine was Ictineo II, designed in Spain by Narciso Monturiol. Originally launched in 1864 as human-powered, propelled by 16 men,[11] it was converted to peroxide propulsion and steam in 1867. The 14 meter (46 ft) craft was designed for a crew of two, could dive to 30 metres (96 ft), and demonstrated dives of two hours. On the surface it ran on a steam engine, but underwater such an engine would quickly consume the submarine's oxygen, so Monturiol invented an anaerobic engine. The beauty of this method was that while the engine drove the screw, it also released oxygen which was used in the hull for the crew and fed an auxiliary steam engine. Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol (September 28, 1819 - September 6, 1885) was the inventor of the mechanically driven submarine. ... Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol (September 28, 1819 - September 6, 1885) was the inventor of the mechanically driven submarine. ... Anaerobic is a technical word which literally means without air (where air is generally used to mean oxygen), as opposed to aerobic. ...

A replica of Monturiol's wooden Ictineo II stands near Barcelona harbor.
A replica of Monturiol's wooden Ictineo II stands near Barcelona harbor.

In 1870, the French writer Jules Verne published the science fiction classic 20,000 Leagues under the Sea, which concerns the adventures of a maverick inventor in Nautilus, a submarine more advanced than any at the time. The story inspired inventors to build more advanced submarines. Source of image Ictineo II replica at the harbour of Barcelona taken on October 2003 Author: Flemming Mahler Larsen, http://netfactory. ... Source of image Ictineo II replica at the harbour of Barcelona taken on October 2003 Author: Flemming Mahler Larsen, http://netfactory. ... Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol (September 28, 1819 - September 6, 1885) was the inventor of the mechanically driven submarine. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... This article is about the French author. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (French: ) is a classic science fiction novel by French writer Jules Verne, published in 1870. ... The Nautilus, as pictured in The Mysterious Island The Nautilus was the fictional submarine featured in Jules Vernes novels Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870) and The Mysterious Island (1874). ...


In 1879, the Peruvian government, during the War of the Pacific, commissioned and built the fully operational submarine Toro Submarino. It never saw military action before being scuttled after the defeat of that country in the war to prevent its capture by the enemy. For the conflict between Japan and the Allied powers in Asia and the Pacific Ocean from 1937 to 1945, which included World War II campaigns, see Pacific War. ... The Toro Submarino (Submarine Bull) was a Peruvian submarine developed during the War of the Pacific, but though completely operational, never saw action before the end of the war, when it was scuttled to prevent its capture by the victors. ...


The first submarine to be mass-produced was human-powered. It was the submarine of the Polish inventor Stefan Drzewiecki—50 units were built in 1881 for the Russian government. In 1884 the same inventor built an electric-powered submarine. Stefan Drzewiecki Stefan Drzewiecki (b. ...

The Nordenfelt-designed Ottoman submarine Abdülhamid (1886) was the first submarine in the world to fire a torpedo while submerged. It and its sister ship, Abdülmecid (1887), were built in pieces by Des Vignes (Chertsey) and Vickers (Sheffield) in England, and were assembled at the Taşkızak Naval Shipyard in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Nordenfelt-designed Ottoman submarine Abdülhamid (1886) was the first submarine in the world to fire a torpedo while submerged.[12] It and its sister ship, Abdülmecid (1887), were built in pieces by Des Vignes (Chertsey) and Vickers (Sheffield) in England, and were assembled at the Taşkızak Naval Shipyard in Istanbul, Turkey.

Discussions between the English clergyman and inventor George Garrett and the industrially and commercially adept Swede Thorsten Nordenfelt led to a series of steam-powered submarines. The first was the Nordenfelt I, a 56 tonne, 19.5 metre (64 ft) vessel similar to Garret's ill-fated Resurgam (1879), with a range of 240 kilometres (150 mi, 130 nm), armed with a single torpedo, in 1885. Like Resurgam, Nordenfelt I operated on the surface by steam, then shut down its engine to dive. While submerged the submarine released pressure generated when the engine was running on the surface to provide propulsion for some distance underwater. Greece, fearful of the return of the Ottomans, purchased it. Nordenfelt then built Nordenfelt II (Abdülhamid) in 1886 and Nordenfelt III (Abdülmecid) in 1887, a pair of 30 metre (100 ft) submarines with twin torpedo tubes, for the Ottoman navy. Abdülhamid became the first submarine in history to fire a torpedo submerged.[13] Nordenfelt's efforts culminated in 1887 with Nordenfelt IV which had twin motors and twin torpedoes. It was sold to the Russians, but proved unstable, ran aground, and was scrapped. Image File history File links Ottoman_submarine_Abdulhamid_1886. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_submarine_Abdulhamid_1886. ... Thorsten Nordenfelt (1842-1920), Swedish inventor and industrialist. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 2004. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... George William Garrett (1852-1902) was born at Moss Side in Manchester, England, the son of a Church of England clergyman. ... Thorsten Nordenfelt (1842-1920), Swedish inventor and industrialist. ... Resurgam (Latin for “I shall rise again”)... was one of the first mechanically powered submarines put to sea. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Torpedo tubes of the French SNLE Redoutable A torpedo tube is a device for launching torpedoes in a horizontal direction. ...

Hull of Peral submarine at Cartagena, Spain
Hull of Peral submarine at Cartagena, Spain

On 8 September 1888, an electrically powered vessel built by the Spanish engineer and sailor Isaac Peral for the Spanish Navy was launched. It had two torpedoes, new air systems, and a hull shape, propeller, and cruciform external controls anticipating much later designs. Its underwater speed was ten knots (19 km/h). In June 1890 Peral's submarine launched a torpedo while submerged. Its ability to fire torpedoes under water while maintaining full propulsive power and control has led some to call it the first U-boat. After many successful dives the project was scrapped because of the difficulties of recharging at sea and the short range of battery-powered vessels. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 483 pixels Full resolution (1600 × 965 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 483 pixels Full resolution (1600 × 965 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other places with the same name, see Cartagena (disambiguation). ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The torpedo armed Peral submarine in 1888. ... The Spanish Navy (in Spanish, Armada Española) is the maritime arm of the Spanish Military. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ...


Shortly after, the French Gymnote was launched on 24 September 1888. The electrically-powered Gymnote was a fully functional military submarine and completed 2,000 dives successfully. Gymnote in 1889. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Many more designs were built at this time by various inventors, but submarines were not to become effective weapons until the 20th century.


Late 19th century to World War I

USS Plunger, launched in 1902
USS Plunger, launched in 1902

The turn of the 19th century marked a pivotal time in the development of submarines, with a number of important technologies making their debut, as well as the widespread adoption and fielding of submarines by a number of nations. Diesel electric propulsion would become the dominant power system and equipment such as the periscope would become standardized. Large numbers of experiments were done by countries on effective tactics and weapons for submarines, all of which would culminate in them making a large impact on the coming World War I. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A number of vehicles use a diesel-electric powerplant for providing locomotion. ...


In 1895, the Irish inventor John Philip Holland designed submarines that, for the first time, made use of internal combustion engine power on the surface and electric battery power for submerged operations. On 11 April 1900 the United States Navy purchased the Holland VI and renamed it the USS Holland (SS-1), America's first commissioned submarine. In 1902, Holland received a patent. [14] Some of his vessels were purchased by the United States, the United Kingdom, the Imperial Russian Navy, and Japan, and commissioned into their navies around 1900 (1905 for Japan, too late to serve in the Russo-Japanese War). John Philip Holland (Irish: Seán Ó Maolchalann) (24 February 1841–12 August 1914) was an engineer who developed the first submarine accepted by the U.S. Navy (though not the first American submarine, see American Civil War submarines, and the earlier Nautilus and Turtle) and the first ever Royal Navy... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... Four double-A batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Holland VI redirects here. ... Russian Navy Jack Russian Navy Ensign The Imperial Russian Navy refers to the Navy of Imperial Russia, before the Soviet Union. ... Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict...

The 1900 French submarine Narval
The 1900 French submarine Narval

Commissioned in June 1900, the French steam and electric submarine Narval introduced the classic double-hull design, with a pressure hull inside the outer light hull. These 200-ton ships had a range of over 100 miles (160 km) on the surface, and over 10 miles (16 km) underwater. The French submarine Aigrette in 1904 further improved the concept by using a diesel rather than a gasoline engine for surface power. Large numbers of these submarines were built, with seventy-six completed before 1914. Image File history File links NarvalSubmarine. ... Image File history File links NarvalSubmarine. ...


Submarines during World War I

The German submarine U-9, which sank three British cruisers in a few minutes in September 1914
The German submarine U-9, which sank three British cruisers in a few minutes in September 1914

Military submarines first made a significant impact in World War I. Forces such as the U-boats of Germany saw action in the First Battle of the Atlantic, and were responsible for the sinking of Lusitania, which was sunk as a result of unrestricted submarine warfare and among the reasons for the entry of the United States into the war. Image File history File links U9Submarine. ... Image File history File links U9Submarine. ... Unterseeboot 9 (also known as U-9) was a German U-boat built for the Kaiserliche Marine. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... The First Battle of the Atlantic (1914–1918) was a naval campaign of World War I, largely fought in the seas around the British Isles and in the Atlantic Ocean. ... RMS Lusitania was a British luxury ocean liner owned by the Cunard Steamship Line Shipping Company and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. ... Unrestricted submarine warfare is a kind of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchant ships without warning. ...


The U-boats' ability to function as practical war machines relied on new tactics, their numbers, and submarine technologies such as combination diesel-electric power system developed in the preceding years. More submersibles than true submarines, U-boats operated primarily on the surface using regular engines, submerging occasionally to attack under battery power. They were roughly triangular in cross-section, with a distinct keel to control rolling while surfaced, and a distinct bow. For other uses, see Keel (disambiguation). ...


In 1916, two Serbian pilots, Dimitrije Konjović and Walter Zelezny of the Austro-Hungarian air service, bombed and sank the French submarine Foucault in the Adriatic, becoming the first to sink a submarine from the air. Spotting survivors in the water, they landed their flying boats and rescued all of them, an act for which the French government awarded Konjovic special recognition in 1968. Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Dimitrije Konjović Dimitrije Konjović,[1] a pilot, naval officer and a renowned Serbian industrialist. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... Boeing 314 A flying boat is an aircraft that is designed to take off and land on water, in particular a type of seaplane which uses its fuselage as a floating hull (instead of pontoons mounted below the fuselage). ...


Interwar developments

Various new submarine designs were developed during the interwar years. Among the most notorious ones were submarine aircraft carriers, equipped with a waterproof hangar and steam catapult to launch and recover one or more small seaplanes. The submarine and its plane could then act as a reconnaissance unit ahead of the fleet, an essential role at a time when radar still did not exist. The first example was the British HMS M2, followed by the French Surcouf, and numerous aircraft-carrying submarines in the Imperial Japanese Navy. Submarine aircraft carriers are submarines equipped with airplanes for observation or attack missions. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... HMS M2 was a Royal Navy aircraft-carrying submarine shipwrecked in Lyme Bay, England, on 26 January 1932. ... Five ships of the French Navy have borne the name Surcouf, in honour of the 18th century Saint-Malo corsair Robert Surcouf: see French ship Surcouf for the list. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ...


Submarines during World War II

Germany

Main article: U-boat

Germany had the largest submarine fleet during World War II. Due to the Treaty of Versailles limiting the surface navy, the rebuilding of the German surface forces had only begun in earnest a year before the outbreak of World War II. Expecting to be able to defeat Great Britain through underwater warfare, the German High Command pursued the plan of guerre de course (commerce raiding) and immediately stopped all construction on capital surface ships save the nearly completed Bismarck class battleships and two cruisers, switching its resources to submarines, which could be built more quickly. Though it took most of 1940 to expand the production facilities and get the mass production started, more than a thousand submarines were built by the end of the war. U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The Bismarck class battleships were a class of capital ships built by Germany. ...

U-47 returns to port after sinking HMS Royal Oak in October 1939. The battlecruiser Scharnhorst is seen in the background.

Germany put submarines to devastating effect in the Second Battle of the Atlantic in World War II, attempting but ultimately failing to cut off Britain's supply routes by sinking more merchant ships than Britain could replace. The supply lines were vital to Britain for food and industry, as well as armaments from the US. Although the U-boats had been updated in the intervening years, the major innovation was improved communications, encrypted using the famous Enigma cipher machine. This allowed for mass-attack tactics or "wolf packs" (Wolfsrudel), but was also ultimately the U-boats' downfall. U-47 returning to port after sinking the Royal Oak. ... U-47 returning to port after sinking the Royal Oak. ... Unterseeboot 47 (U-47) was a German type VII B U-Boat (submarine). ... HMS Royal Oak was a Revenge-class battleship of the British Royal Navy, torpedoed in Scapa Flow by the German submarine U-47 on 14 October 1939. ... Scharnhorst was a famous World War II 31,500 tonne Gneisenau class battlecruiser[1] of the German Kriegsmarine, named after the Prussian general and army reformer Gerhard von Scharnhorst and to commemorate the World War I armoured cruiser SMS Scharnhorst that was sunk in the Battle at the Falkland Islands... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines The Second Battle of the Atlantic... Cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship that carries goods and materials from one port to another. ... For a discussion of how Enigma-derived intelligence was put to use, see Ultra (WWII intelligence). ... Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... The term wolf pack refers to the mass-attack tactics against convoys used by U-boats of the Kriegsmarine during the Battle of the Atlantic and submarines of the United States Navy against Japanese shipping in the Pacific Ocean in World War II. Karl Dönitz used the term Rudel...


After putting to sea, U-boats operated mostly on their own, trying to find convoys in areas assigned to them by the High Command. If a convoy was found, the submarine did not attack immediately, but shadowed the convoy to allow other submarines in the area to find the convoy. These were then grouped into a larger striking force to attack the convoy simultaneously, preferably at night while surfaced.


From September 1939 to the beginning of 1943, the Ubootwaffe ("U-boat weapon") scored unprecedented success with these tactics, but were too few to have any decisive success. By the spring of 1943, German U-boat construction was at full capacity, but this was more than nullified by increased numbers of convoy escorts, aircraft, as well as technical advances like radar and sonar. Huff-Duff and Ultra allowed the Allies to route convoys around wolf packs when they detected them from their radio transmissions. The results were devastating: from March to July of that year, over 130 U-boats were lost, 41 in May alone. Concurrent Allied losses dropped dramatically, from 750,000 tons in March to only 188,000 in July. Although the Second battle of the Atlantic would continue to the last day of the war, the U-boat arm was unable to stem the tide of men and material, paving the way for Operation Torch, Operation Husky, and ultimately, D-Day. Winston Churchill wrote that the U-boat "peril" was the only thing that ever gave him cause to doubt the Allies' eventual victory. For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... This article is about underwater sound propagation. ... High Frequency Direction Finder is usually known by its acronym HF/DF, pronounced Huff-Duff. ... Ultra (sometimes capitalized ULTRA) was the name used by the British for intelligence resulting from decryption of German communications in World War II. The term eventually became the standard designation in both Britain and the United States for all intelligence from high-level cryptanalytic sources. ... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines The Second Battle of the Atlantic... Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 73,500 60,000 Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in... Husky was also the codename of Australian military support to Sierra Leone ending in February 2003. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... Churchill redirects here. ...


Japan

The Imperial Japanese Navy's I-400 class submarine, the largest submarine type of WWII
The Imperial Japanese Navy's I-400 class submarine, the largest submarine type of WWII

The Japanese Imperial Navy started their submarine service with five Holland Type VII class submarines purchased from the Electric Boat Company. Japan had the most varied fleet of submarines of World War II, including manned torpedoes (Kaiten manned torpedos), midget submarines (Ko-hyoteki and Kairyu), medium-range submarines, purpose-built supply submarines (many for use by the Army), long-range fleet submarines (many of which carried an aircraft), submarines with the highest submerged speeds of the conflict (Sen taka I-200 class submarines), and submarines that could carry multiple bombers (WWII's largest submarine, the Sen toku I-400 class submarine). These submarines were also equipped with the most advanced torpedo of the conflict, the oxygen-propelled "Long Lance" Type 95. Imperial Japanese Navy submarines originate with the purchase of five Holland type submarines to the United States in 1905. ... Image File history File links I400_2. ... Image File history File links I400_2. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... The Sen Toku I-400 class (伊四〇〇型潜水艦) submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy were the largest submarines of WW2, the largest non-nuclear submarines ever constructed, and the largest in the world until the development of nuclear ballistic submarines in the 1960s. ... Executor and several escorting Star Destroyers In the fictional Star Wars galaxy, the Imperial Navy, or more properly, the Imperial Starfleet, was the military arm of the Galactic Empire charged with maintaining security in Imperial space. ... Electric Boat division of General Dynamics Corporation is the major contractor for submarine work for the United States Navy. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Kaiten (Japanese:回天, translated Return to Heaven or Reverse the Destiny) was a torpedo modified as a suicide weapon, and used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the final stages of the Second World War. ... The Ko-hyoteki (甲標的, Type A Target) class of Japanese midget submarines had hull numbers but no names. ... The Kairyu (海龍 Sea Dragon) was a class of Kamikaze midget submarines designed in 1943-1944, and produced from the beginning of 1945. ... The Sensuikan I-200 class submarines were submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. These submarines were modern design, and known as Senkou (From Sen, abbreviation of Sensuikan, Submarine, and kou, Fast). Three of them were made, with the numbers I-201, I-202 and I-203... The Sen Toku I-400 class (伊四〇〇型潜水艦) submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy were the largest submarines of WW2, the largest non-nuclear submarines ever constructed, and the largest in the world until the development of nuclear ballistic submarines in the 1960s. ... The Type 93 was a 610 mm (24 inch) diameter torpedo of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ...


The Japanese Navy had pursued the battle plan of guerre d' escadre (fleet warfare), which placed them in the offensive roles against warships, which were fast, maneuverable, and well-defended compared to merchant ships. Despite some remarkable victories, such as the sinking of the fleet aircraft carrier USS Wasp, and the damaging of the battleship USS North Carolina and the destroyer USS O'Brien (which sank later) all from one submarine salvo, plus the sinking of the USS Indianapolis towards the end of the war, their technical prowess not withstanding, Japanese submarines were considered relatively unsuccessful when compared to the guerre de course campaign pursued by Germany. Japanese submarines conducted raids onto the mainland of the US by shelling Santa Barbara, California and launching an aircraft to bomb Brookings, Oregon. Damage and casualties were minimal, and the US censors were quick to suppress the information, but the attacks had been accomplished successfully, with no loss to either submarine or aircraft. Imperial submarines continued to operate through out the war, but as fuel oil became less available, the submarines were given less responsibilities, such as being used as transport for logistical re-supply for distant island garrisons. By the end of the war, the US submarine service had effectively cut Japan's fuel oil line, so the Imperial Navy could no longer operate what warships they had remaining for any offensive or proper defensive operations. Ten ships of the United States Navy have borne the name USS Wasp, after the wasp, a stinging insect. ... Four ships of the United States Navy (and one of the Confederate States Navy) have been named USS North Carolina in honor of the 12th state. ... USS OBrien (DD-415) was a World War II-era Sims-class destroyer in the service of the United States Navy, named after Captain Jeremiah OBrien and his five brothers who captured HMS Margaretta on 12 June 1775 during the American revolution. ... Two ships of the United States Navy have been named USS Indianapolis, after the city of Indianapolis, Indiana. ... Nickname: Location in Santa Barbara County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Barbara Government  - Mayor Marty Blum Area  - Total 41. ... Brookings is a city located in Curry County, Oregon. ...


United States

USS Grayback
USS Grayback

The United States used its submarine force to attack merchant shipping (commerce raiding or guerre de course), its submarines destroying more Japanese shipping than all other weapons combined. This feat was considerably aided by the Japanese refusal to provide escorts for its Merchant Fleet until very late in the war. USS Grayback (SS 208) from US government source, public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... USS Grayback (SS 208) from US government source, public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... USS Grayback (SS-208), a Tambor-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the lake herring. ...


Whereas Japan had the finest submarine torpedoes of the war, the United States Navy had the worst: the Mark 14 torpedo that ran ten feet too deep, tipped with a Mk VI exploder that was based on an unimproved version of the Mark V contact exploder but with an additional magnetic exploder, neither of which was reliable. The faulty depth control mechanism of the Mark 14 was corrected in August 1942, but field trials for the exploders were not ordered until mid-1943, when tests in Hawaii and Australia confirmed the flaws. Fully operational Mark 14 torpedoes were not put into service until September 1943. The Mark 15 torpedo used by US surface combatants had the same Mk VI exploder and was not fixed until late 1943. One attempt to correct the problems resulted in a wakeless, electric torpedo being placed in submarine service, but USS Tang and Tullibee were lost to self-inflicted hits by these torpedoes. USN redirects here. ... The Mark 14 torpedo was the U.S. Navys most common submarine-launched torpedo of World War II. Although this weapon was plagued with many problems which crippled its performance at the beginning of the war, and was largely supplanted by the Mark 18 electric torpedo in the war... USS Tang (SS-306) was a Second World War era Balao-class submarine. ... USS Tullibee (SS-284), a Gato-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the tullibee, a whitefish of central and northern North America. ...


During World War II, 314 submarines served in the United States Navy. On 7 December 1941, 111 boats were in commission; 203 submarines from the Gato, Balao, and Tenchclasses were commissioned during the war. During hostilities, 52 boats with 3,506 men were lost, the highest killed in action percentage of any US service arm in WWII. US submarines sank 1,392 enemy vessels, a total tonnage of 5.3 million tons, including 8 aircraft carriers and over 200 warships. is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gato-class submarine was the state of the art in American design at the start of World War II. Using the previous Tambor-class submarine as a basis, Gatos incorporated improvements to increase their overall patrol and combat abilities. ... The Balao class was a successful design of United States Navy submarine used during World War II. An evolutionary improvement over the earlier Gato class, the boats had slight internal differences. ... Tench class submarines were an evolutionary improvement over the Gato and Balao classes, only about 35 to 40 tons larger, but more strongly built and with a slightly improved internal layout. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ...


United Kingdom

The Royal Navy Submarine Service was primarily used to enforce the classic British blockade role. It therefore chiefly operated in inshore waters and tended to only surface by night.[citation needed] The Royal Navy Submarine Service - sometimes known as the Silent Service, on account of a submarine being required to operate quietly in order to remain undetected by enemy SONAR (or ASDIC as it was known in the RN pre-1948) - is the collective name given to the submarine element of... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ...


Its major operating areas were around Norway, the Mediterranean (against the Axis supply routes to North Africa), and in the Far East. RN submarines operating out of Trincomalee and Australia were a constant threat to Japanese shipping passing through the Malacca Straits.[citation needed] The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Trincomalee District Map Trincomalee (Tamil: (Thirukonamalai, hist: Sirigonakanda); Sinhala: (Thirikunamalaya)) is a port city on the northeast coast of Sri Lanka, about 110 miles northeast of Kandy. ... ...


In the war British submarines sank 2 million tons of enemy shipping and 57 major warships, the latter including 35 submarines. Amongst these is the only instance ever of a submarine sinking another submarine while both were submerged. This occurred when HMS Venturer engaged the U864; the Venturer crew manually computed a successful firing solution against a three-dimensionally manoeveuring target using techniques which became the basis of modern torpedo computer targeting systems. Seventy-four British submarines were lost, half probably to naval mines.[15] For other ships with the same name, see HMS Venturer. ... Unterseeboot 864 (U-864) was a German Type IX U-boat sunk on February 9, 1945 by the British submarine HMS Venturer, killing all 73 onboard. ... Polish wz. ...


The snorkel

The diesel motors on HMS Ocelot charged the batteries located beneath the decking.
The diesel motors on HMS Ocelot charged the batteries located beneath the decking.
The larger search periscope, and the smaller, less detectable attack periscope on HMS Ocelot
The larger search periscope, and the smaller, less detectable attack periscope on HMS Ocelot

Diesel submarines need air to run their engines, and so carried very large batteries for submerged travel. These limited the speed and range of the submarines while submerged. The snorkel, a prewar Dutch invention, was used to allow German submarines to run just under the surface, attempting to avoid detection visually and by radar. The German navy experimented with engines that would use hydrogen peroxide to allow diesel fuel to be used while submerged, but technical difficulties were great. The Allies experimented with a variety of detection systems, including chemical sensors to "smell" the exhaust of submarines. For other uses, see Battery. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... Olfaction (also known as olfactics) refers to the sense of smell. ...


Cold war diesel electric submarines, such as the Oberon class, used batteries to power the motors so they ran silently. They recharged the batteries using the diesel engines without ever surfacing. The Oberon-class was a thirteen-ship class of diesel-electric submarines of the Royal Navy, and were based on the successful Porpoise-class submarine. ...


Modern submarines

In the 1950s, nuclear power partially replaced diesel-electric propulsion. Equipment was also developed to extract oxygen from sea water. These two innovations gave submarines the ability to remain submerged for weeks or months, and enabled previously impossible voyages such as USS Nautilus' crossing of the North pole beneath the Arctic ice cap in 1958 [16]and the USS Triton's submerged circumnavigation of the world in 1960.[17] Most of the naval submarines built since that time in the United States and the Soviet Union/Russia have been powered by nuclear reactors. The limiting factors in submerged endurance for these vessels are food supply and crew morale in the space-limited submarine. This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... USS Nautilus (SSN-571) was the worlds first operational nuclear-powered submarine and the first vessel to complete a submerged transit across the North Pole. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... For other ships of the same name, see USS Triton. ...


In 1959–1960, the first ballistic missile submarines were put into service by both the United States (George Washington class) and the Soviet Union (Hotel class) as part of the Cold War nuclear deterrent strategy. The Redoutable, a French SNLE (now a museum) A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine equipped to launch ballistic missiles (SLBMs), such as the Russian R-29 or the American/British Trident. ... The George Washington class of United States Navy submarine were the first ballistic missile submarines in the world. ... Development of the Project 658 Hotel class nuclear powered ballistic missile submarine, designed to carry the D-2 launch system and R-13 missiles, was approved on August 26, 1956. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is the doctrine of military strategy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ...


While the greater endurance and performance from nuclear reactors makes nuclear submarines better for long-distance missions or the protection of a carrier battle-force, conventional diesel-electric submarines have continued to be produced by both nuclear and non-nuclear powers, as they can be made stealthier, except when required to run the diesel engine to recharge the ship’s battery. Technological advances in sound damping, noise isolation, and cancellation have substantially eroded this advantage. Though far less capable regarding speed and weapons payload, conventional submarines are also cheaper to build. The introduction of air-independent propulsion boats led to increased sales of such types of submarines.


During the Cold War, the United States] and the Soviet Union maintained large submarine fleets that engaged in cat-and-mouse games; this tradition today continues, on a much reduced scale. The Soviet Union suffered the loss of at least four submarines during this period: K-129 was lost in 1968 (which the CIA attempted to retrieve from the ocean floor with the Howard Hughes-designed ship Glomar Explorer), K-8 in 1970, K-219 in 1986, and Komsomolets in 1989 (which held a depth record among military submarines—1000 m). Many other Soviet subs, such as K-19 (the first Soviet nuclear submarine, and the first Soviet sub to reach the North Pole) were badly damaged by fire or radiation leaks. The US lost two nuclear submarines during this time: USS Thresher due to equipment failure during a test dive while at its operational limit, and USS Scorpion due to unknown causes. K-129 was a Project 629A (NATO reporting name Golf-II) diesel-electric powered submarine of the Soviet Pacific Fleet, one of six Project 629 strategic ballistic missile submarines attached to the 15th Submarine Squadron based at Rybachiy Naval Base, Kamchatka, commanded by Rear Admiral Rudolf A. Golosov. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... For the Welsh murderer, see Howard Hughes (murderer). ... USNS Glomar Explorer (T-AG-193) is a large ship currently being used as a deep-sea drilling platform. ... K-8 was a November class submarine of the Soviet Northern Fleet. ... K-219 was a Navaga-class ballistic missile submarine (NATO reporting name Yankee I) of the Soviet Navy involved in what has become one of the most controversial submarine incidents in the Cold War. ... The Soviet submarine K-278 Komsomolets was a prototype of a new deep-diving class of nuclear attack submarines. ... K-19 was a Hotel class submarine which suffered various severe accidents. ... The second USS Thresher (SSN-593) was the lead ship of its class of nuclear-powered attack submarines in the United States Navy. ... USS Scorpion (SSN-589) was the sixth ship of the United States Navy to be named for the scorpion, (hence the Scorpius constellation on her insignia). ...


During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the Pakistan Navy's Hangor sank the Indian frigate INS Khukri. This was the first submarine kill since World War II, and the only one until the United Kingdom employed nuclear-powered submarines against Argentina in 1982 during the Falklands War. The Argentine cruiser General Belgrano was sunk by HMS Conqueror (the first sinking by a nuclear-powered submarine in war). The PNS Ghazi, a Tench class submarine on loan to Pakistan from the US, was lost in the Indo-Pakistani War. It was the first submarine casualty since World War II during war time. Belligerents India Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora G.G Bewoor K. P. Candeth Gul Hassan Khan Abdul Hamid Khan Tikka Khan A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 100,000 Mukti BahiniRebels 400,000+ troops Casualties and losses 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] Unknown... Pakistan Navy (Urdu: پاک بحریہ) is the naval wing of the Pakistan military. ... The PNS Hangor was a Pakistani Daphne class submarine, which during the 1971 Indo-Pakistani War sank the Indian frigate INS Khukri. ... INS Khukri was an old Type 14 ASW (Anti-submarine Warfare) frigate in the Indian Navy. ... Belligerents Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties and losses 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner... For the Argentine politician and military leader, see Manuel Belgrano. ... HMS Conqueror was a Churchill-class nuclear-powered submarine that served in the Royal Navy from 1971 to 1990. ... PNS Ghazi, the flagship submarine of Pakistan Navy until it was sunk in 1971. ... Tench class submarines were an evolutionary improvement over the Gato and Balao classes, only about 35 to 40 tons larger, but more strongly built and with a slightly improved internal layout. ...


More recently, Russia has had two high profile submarine accidents. The Kursk went down with all hands in 2000. The K-159 sank while being towed to a scrapyard in 2003, with nine lives lost. K-141 Kursk (Russian in full: Атомная подводная лодка Курск [АПЛ Курск] - nuclear submarine Kursk) was a Project 949A Антей (Antey, Antaeus; also known by its NATO reporting name of Oscar-II class) nuclear cruise missile submarine named after the Russian city Kursk, where one of the biggest battles of World War II took place (Battle of... In August 2000, the Russian Oscar II class submarine, Kursk sank in the Barents Sea when a leak of hydrogen peroxide in the forward torpedo room apparently led to the detonation of a torpedo warhead, which in turn triggered the explosion of around half a dozen other warheads about two... K-159 was a Projekt 627 Kit (NATO reporting name November) class submarine of the Soviet Navy. ...


Submarines in popular culture

Fiction books

The most famous submarine of all time is probably Nautilus, which belongs to Captain Nemo in Jules Verne's Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea. Many other ships were named Nautilus; however, Verne named the submarine after Robert Fulton's real-life submarine Nautilus, and the name has been associated with fighting ships of the United States Navy since 1803. The Nautilus, as pictured in The Mysterious Island The Nautilus was the fictional submarine featured in Jules Vernes novels Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870) and The Mysterious Island (1874). ... Captain Nemo is a fictional character featured in Jules Vernes novels Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870) and The Mysterious Island (1874). ... This article is about the French author. ... Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (French: ) is a classic science fiction novel by French writer Jules Verne, published in 1870. ... // The nautilus is a tropical mollusk, having a many-chambered, spiral shell with a pearly interior. ... For other persons named Robert Fulton, see Robert Fulton (disambiguation). ... Nautilus was the first practical submarine, commissioned by Napoleon and designed by the American inventor Robert Fulton, then living in France. ...


Other books:

See also Category:Fictional submarines. The Dragon in the Sea (also known as Under Pressure from its serialization) is a novel by Frank Herbert. ... This article contains a trivia section. ... For the member of the Irish folk band The Clancy Brothers, see Tom Clancy (singer) and for the American Celticist, see Thomas Owen Clancy. ... Jingo can refer to: Jingoism, belligerent chauvanistic nationalism. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... ... World War Z: An Oral History of the Zombie War (abbreviated WWZ) is a novel by Max Brooks which chronicles a theoretical zombie apocalypse, specifically the titular Zombie World War, as a series of after-the-fact oral history interviews with prominent survivors. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Madame Terror is a 2006 novel by Jan Guillou, starring Carl Gustaf Gilbert Hamilton. ... The cover of the 1965 UK paperback edition of: Ice Station Zebra Ice Station Zebra is a 1963 novel written by Alistair MacLean and a 1968 film made from that novel. ... Alistair Stuart MacLean (April 28, 1922 - February 2, 1987) was a Scottish novelist who wrote successful thrillers or adventure stories, the best known of which are perhaps The Guns of Navarone and Where Eagles Dare. ... Hunter-Killer is a military term used to describe any team in which the roles of sensor and shooter are separated. ... Geoffrey Jenkins (1920-2001) was a South African novelist born in Port Elizabeth where he wrote his first novel by the age of seventeen. ... Run Silent, Run Deep is a war film released in 1958. ... Edward Latimer Beach, Jr. ... Torpedo Run 1958 MGM 1hour 36minutes starring Glenn Ford,Ernest Borgnine (Oscar winner-Marty) also starring Diane Brewster and Dean Jones Directed by Joseph Pevney Produced by Edmund Grainger Category: ... Red Rackhams Treasure (Le Trésor de Rackham le Rouge) is one of a series of classic comic-strip albums, written and illustrated by Belgian writer and illustrator Hergé, featuring young reporter Tintin as a hero. ... Georges Prosper Remi (May 22, 1907 – March 3, 1983), better known by the pen name Hergé, was a Belgian comics writer and artist. ... Cryptonomicon is a 1999 novel by Neal Stephenson. ... Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer, known primarily for his science fiction works in the postcyberpunk genre with a penchant for explorations of society, mathematics, currency, and the history of science. ... The first Tom Swift book: Tom Swift and his Motor Cycle Tom Swift is the protagonist in several series of juvenile adventure novels starting in the early twentieth century and continuing to present. ... Victor Appleton was a house pseudonym used by the Stratemeyer Syndicate, most famous for being associated with the Tom Swift series of books. ...


Television

  • Stingray was a 1960s marionette TV series by Gerry Anderson, based around the exploits of the crew of the eponymous futuristic submarine.
  • Thunderbird 4 was a small utility submarine featured in the TV series Thunderbirds by Gerry Anderson.
  • The Seaview is a submarine that serves as scenario for Irwin Allen's 1960s series Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea.
  • SeaQuest DSV is a science fiction television series featuring a futuristic submarine of the same name. In the series prologue, the seaQuest DSV (Deep Submergence Vessel) is a full military vessel as it was originally design to be by its primary architect, Capt. Nathan Bridger (actor Roy Scheider). However, after the (fictional) Livingston Trench standoff incident, a treaty was signed, and the giant submarine was later refit into an exploration vessel under control of the newly-formed United Earth Oceans Organization (UEO). Though the majority of the crew at the time of the series were scientists, the seaQuest retained military-trained personnel to operate and control her, as well as semi-self-sealing hull technology to prevent leaks or minimize external damage, multi-function torpedoes, torpedo interception devices, and even nuclear missiles for armament. (A reluctant Bridger is tricked into commanding her for the first two years of the series, though he soon grows to appreciate being in command of his dream ship. Actor Michael Ironside would replace Scheider as a new commanding officer of the seaQuest in the third-and-last season.) Many consider the series SeaQuest DSV to be an updated remake of the earlier series Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea.

Stingray (1964 – 1965) is a childrens marionette television show, made by Sylvia and Gerry Anderson and produced by AP Films for ATV and ITC Entertainment. ... A marionette is a type of puppet with strings controlled by a puppeteer from above. ... Gerry Anderson (MBE), born 14 April 1929, is a British producer, director and writer, famous for his futuristic television programmes, particularly those involving specially modified marionettes, a process called Supermarionation. His first television production was the 1957 Roberta Leigh childrens series The Adventures of Twizzle. ... Brains Thunderbirds is a mid-1960s Sylvia and Gerry Anderson television show which used a form of puppetry called Supermarionation. Cast, crew, and production notes Thunderbirds was the fourth and by far the most successful of the childrens series made by AP Films (APF) for the British television company... Thunderbirds is a British mid-1960s television show devised by Gerry and Sylvia Anderson and made by AP Films using a form of puppetry dubbed Supermarionation. The series followed the adventures of International Rescue, an organisation created to help those in grave danger using technically advanced equipment and machinery. ... Gerry Anderson (MBE), born 14 April 1929, is a British producer, director and writer, famous for his futuristic television programmes, particularly those involving specially modified marionettes, a process called Supermarionation. His first television production was the 1957 Roberta Leigh childrens series The Adventures of Twizzle. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Irwin Allen (June 12, 1916 – November 2, 1991) was a television and film producer nicknamed The Master of Disaster for his work in the disaster film genre. ... Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea was a 1960s American Science Fiction television series based on the 1961 film of the same name. ... This section has been identified as trivia. ... Roy Richard Scheider (born November 10, 1932 in Orange, New Jersey) is an Academy Award-nominated and Golden Globe-nominated American actor. ... A standoff is used in mechanics and electronics to separate two parts from one another. ... Michael Ironside (born Frederick Reginald Ironside[1] on February 12, 1950) is a Canadian character actor. ... This section has been identified as trivia. ... In film, a remake is a newer version of a previously released film or a newer version of the source (play, novel, story, etc. ... Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea was a 1960s American Science Fiction television series based on the 1961 film of the same name. ...

Film

Main article: Submarine film

A genre of submarine movies has developed. Submarines are popular subjects for films due to the danger, drama and claustrophobia of being on a submarine, and the suspense of the cat-and-mouse game of submarine or anti-submarine warfare. Some of the first, based on a classic book, was Run Silent, Run Deep and The Enemy Below. More modern movies include Gray Lady Down, The Hunt for Red October, Das Boot, U-571, and Crimson Tide. K-19: The Widowmaker is about the first of many disasters that befell the Soviet submarine K-19. Operation Petticoat is a Cary Grant comedy from 1959 about a World War II submarine. Another comedy about a diesel submarine, Down Periscope, stars Kelsey Grammer. The James Bond movie The Spy Who Loved Me featured a Royal Navy ballistic missile sub being stolen by a shipping tycoon to be used in his plot for world domination. Submarine film is a subgenre of war film which takes place in a submarine below the surface of the ocean. ... Run Silent, Run Deep is a war film released in 1958. ... The Enemy Below is a 1957 film which tells the story of battle between the captain of an American destroyer escort and the commander of a German submarine during World War II. It stars Robert Mitchum, Curd Jürgens, David Hedison and Theodore Bikel. ... Gray Lady Down is a little-regarded 1978 disaster movie. ... The Hunt for Red October was a 1990 film based on the best-selling novel of the same name. ... For the song Das Boot, see U96. ... U-571 is a 2000 movie directed by Jonathan Mostow, and starring Matthew McConaughey, Bill Paxton, Harvey Keitel, Jon Bon Jovi, Jack Noseworthy, Will Estes, and Tom Guiry. ... Crimson Tide is a 1995 Hollywood submarine film starring Denzel Washington and Gene Hackman and directed by Tony Scott. ... K-19: The Widowmaker is a movie released July 19, 2002, about the first of many disasters that befell the Soviet submarine K-19. ... Movie theatre lobby poster Operation Petticoat is a 1959 comedic film directed by Blake Edwards, and starring Cary Grant, Tony Curtis, and Dina Merrill, later adapted for television in 1977. ... Down Periscope is a 1996 comedy movie starring Kelsey Grammer as the captain of a rust-bucket submarine (called the USS Stingray) who is fighting for his career. ... Allen Kelsey Grammer (born February 21, 1955 in Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands) is a six-time Emmy and a two-time Golden Globe-winning American actor who is best known for his two-decade portrayal of psychiatrist Dr. Frasier Crane, whom he played for nine years on Cheers... This article is about the spy series. ... For the James Bond film, see The Spy Who Loved Me (film). ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


Games

Many computer games have been created around submarines.

Aces of the Deep is a World War II U-boat combat simulation game developed and published by Dynamix for MS-DOS in 1994. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Dangerous Waters a naval simulation developed by Sonalysts Combat Simulations released on February 22, 2005. ... Operation Neptune is a computer game produced in 1991 by The Learning Company. ... A World War II submarine combat simulation for DOS, developed by Aeon Electronic Entertainment and published by Strategic Simulations in 1996. ... A WWII U-boat combat simulation from Ubi Soft for Windows 95/98/ME. It was originally being developed by Aeon Electronic Entertainment, the developers of Silent Hunter, but they had to leave the project unfinished, and Ultimation Inc. ... Silent Hunter III is a submarine simulation developed by Ubisoft Romania and published by Ubisoft. ... Silent Service is a 1985 submarine simulator computer game. ... The Silent Service was the name of the U.S. Navys submarine force in the Pacific Ocean during World War II. [1] [2] Silent Service is an early submarine simulator computer game, designed by Sid Meier and first published in 1985 by Microprose for various computer systems, most notably... Silent Steel is an unorthodox submarine simulation (or subsim) computer game. ... In biology, a subculture in a population of a microorganism is when one microbe colony in such a population is transferred onto blank growth medium and allowed to freely reproduce. ... Wolfpack is a World War II submarine simulator published by Brøderbund in the 1990s, for use on the Apple Macintosh and other platforms. ... 688 Attack Sub is a submarine simulator game designed by John W. Ratcliff & Paul Grace, published in 1988 for MS-DOS systems and 1990 for Amiga computers by Electronic Arts. ... Codename: ICEMAN is one of the Sierra adventures made with the SCI engine in 1990. ... Age of sail II Screenshot Age of Sail II is the sequel to Age of Sail. ... Destroyer Command is a naval simulation released by Ubi Soft in 2002 and developed by the now-defunct Ultimation Inc. ... Pacific Storm is a strategic and tactical game of pacific war in World War II, released by Buka Entertainment. ... Tom Clancys SSN is a simulation of the 688i (Los Angeles-class) nuclear hunter/killer submarine. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Music

The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Music sample Yellow Submarine Problems? See media help. ... Iron Maiden are an English heavy metal band from Leyton in the East End of London. ... Alternate cover Original cover No Prayer for the Dying is the eighth studio album by the British heavy metal band Iron Maiden. ... Thomas Dolby (born Thomas Morgan Robertson, on 14 October 1958) is an English musician, producer, and inventor. ... One of Our Submarines is a song by British new wave/synth pop musician Thomas Dolby. ... The Golden Age of Wireless is a 1982 album by Synthpop pioneer Thomas Dolby. ... Loscil is the electronic/ambient music project of Scott Morgan, from Vancouver, BC. The name Loscil is taken the name from the looping oscillator function (loscil) in Csound. ... Sabaton is a power metal band from Sweden formed in 1999. ... The term wolf pack refers to the mass-attack tactics against convoys used by U-boats of the Kriegsmarine during the Battle of the Atlantic and submarines of the United States Navy against Japanese shipping in the Pacific Ocean in World War II. Karl Dönitz used the term Rudel... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Unterseeboot 124 or U-124 (Type IXB) was one of the most successful Nazi German U-Boats to serve in World War II. It was first launched on March 9th, 1940, with a crew of 54, under the command of Georg-Wilhelm Schultz up until September, 1941, when Johann Mohr... Unterseeboot 94 (commonly abbreviated U-94) was a German submarine commissioned and used operationally during World War II. U-94 had sunk a total of 26 Allied ships at the time of her sinking in 1942. ... Philip David Ochs (December 19, 1940–April 9, 1976) was a U.S. protest singer (or, as he preferred, a topical singer), songwriter, musician and recording artist who was known for his sharp wit, sardonic humor, earnest humanism, political activism, insightful and alliterative lyrics, and haunting voice. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
submarines

Submarine articles

Naval warfare is divided into three operational areas: surface warfare, air warfare and submarine warfare. ... The Redoutable, a French SNLE (now a museum) A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine equipped to launch ballistic missiles (SLBMs), such as the Russian R-29 or the American/British Trident. ... Because electromagnetic radiation such as normal radio communication cannot travel through thick conductors such as salt water, communication with submarines when they are submerged is a difficult technological task which requires specific techniques and devices. ... CGI image of two frogmen with Siebe Gorman CDBA rebreathers riding a human torpedo. ... Deutschland unloading in New London, 1916. ... // An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is a robot which travels underwater. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The US Navys Mystic docked to a Los Angeles class attack submarine. ... There are two major types of submarines in the United States Navy: ballistic missile submarines and attack submarines. ... A submarine simulator, or subsim for short, is a computer game in which the player commands a submarine. ... The following countries operate or have operated submarines for naval or other military purposes. ... This is a list of notable submarine actions: Not complete yet American Civil War 1864 February 17 - human-powered submarine CSS Hunley sinks sloop USS Housatonic with spar mine, off Charleston World War One 1914 September 22 - German submarine U-9 sinks three British armoured cruisers HMS Aboukir, HMS Hogue... Eight nuclear submarines have sunk as a consequence of either accident or extensive damage: two from the United States, four from the Soviet Navy, and two from the Russian Navy. ...

Related topics

Timeline of underwater technology // Pre-industrial Several centuries BC: (Relief carvings made at this time show Assyrian soldiers crossing rivers using inflated goatskin floats. ... It is tempting to regard modern naval combat as the purest expression of tactics. ... Nuclear navy, or nuclear powered navy consists of ships powered by relatively small onboard nuclear reactors known as naval reactors. ... A submarine communications cable is a cable laid beneath the sea to carry telecommunications between countries. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... MV Mighty Servant 2 carries USS from Dubai to Newport, R.I., in 1988. ... Depth Charge used by U.S. Navy later in World War II The depth charge is the oldest anti-submarine weapon. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ...

Articles on specific vessels

// The nautilus is a tropical mollusk, having a many-chambered, spiral shell with a pearly interior. ... This is a list of Royal Navy submarines, arranged chronologically. ... This is a list of submarines of the United States Navy, listed both by hull number and by name. ... Soviet aircraft carrier Ulyanovsk Corvettes Grisha I class Nanuchka I class Nanuchka II class Grisha II class Nanuchka III class Nanuchka IV class Tarantul I class Grisha III class Tarantul II class Pauk I class Dergach class Pauk II class Parchim II class Grisha IV class Tarantul III class Grisha... Details of the Submarines of the Indian Navy,the largest Submarine fleet in Asia. ... The list of U-boats includes all U-boats built or operated by Germany. ...

Articles on specific submarine classes

This is a list of submarine classes, sorted by country. ... This is a list of submarine classes of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom. ... Submarines in the Soviet Navy were developed by numbered projects, which sometimes but not always were given names. ... Submarines of the United States Navy are built in classes, using a single design for a number of boats. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... [[Image:HMS Hood and HMS Barham. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... French steam corvette Dupleix (1856-1887) Canadian corvettes on antisubmarine convoy escort duty during World War II. A corvette is a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship, smaller than a frigate and larger than a coastal patrol craft. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... Ironclad (and broadside ironclad) redirects here. ... A monitor was a special form of warship, little more than a self-propelled floating artillery platform that could move close inshore and give its support to military operations on land. ...

Patents

  • U.S. Patent 708,553  - Submarine boat

References

  1. ^ Physics Of Liquids & Gases. Elementary Classical Physics. Retrieved on 2006-10-07.
  2. ^ http://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/issues/2000/May/Virginia-Class.htm National Defence magazine
  3. ^ Federation of American Scientists
  4. ^ US Naval Academy
  5. ^ Submarine Warfare. Retrieved on 2006-10-07.
  6. ^ a b NATO Review - Vol.49 - No 2 - Summer 2001: Women in uniform
  7. ^ http://www.rekryc.mil.se/article.php?id=11756 in Swedish, Retrieved 04-23-2007
  8. ^ ;[1]
  9. ^ Armed Forces Careers offering you information about military careers - Air Force Careers
  10. ^ question #10
  11. ^ a b Globalsecurity
  12. ^ Submarine Heritage Centre - submarine history of Barrow-in-Furness
  13. ^ Submarine Heritage Centre - submarine history of Barrow-in-Furness
  14. ^ U.S. Patent 708,553 
  15. ^ Submarine History. The Royal Navy. Retrieved on April 18, 2007.
  16. ^ History of USS Nautilus SSN571
  17. ^ May 10, 1960: USS Triton Completes First Submerged Circumnavigation
  • Gardiner, Robert (1992). Steam, Steel and Shellfire, The steam warship 1815-1905. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 9781557507747. OCLC 30038068. 
  • Blair, Clay (1975). Silent Victory: The U.S. Submarine War Against Japan. Philadelphia: Lippincott. ISBN 9780397007530. OCLC 821363. 
  • Lockwood, Charles A. (1951). Sink 'Em All: Submarine Warfare in the Pacific. New York: Dutton. OCLC 1371626. 
  • O'Kane, Richard H. (1977). Clear the Bridge!: The War Patrols of the USS Tang. Chicago: Rand McNally. ISBN 9780528810589. OCLC 2965421. 
  • O'Kane, Richard H. (1987). Wahoo: The Patrols of America's Most Famous World War II Submarine. Novato, California: Presidio Press. ISBN 9780891413011. OCLC 15366413. 
  • Werner, Herbert A. (1999). Iron coffins: a personal account of the German U-Boat battles of World War II. London: Cassell Military. ISBN 9780304353309. OCLC 41466905. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Clay Blair, Jr. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Charles Andrews Lockwood (6 May 1890 – 7 June 1967) was an admiral of the United States Navy. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Commander Richard H. OKane, USN Richard Hetherington OKane (February 2, 1911 – February 16, 1994) was a United States Navy submarine commander in World War II, who received a Medal of Honor for his service on the USS Tang (SS-306). ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Commander Richard H. OKane, USN Richard Hetherington OKane (February 2, 1911 – February 16, 1994) was a United States Navy submarine commander in World War II, who received a Medal of Honor for his service on the USS Tang (SS-306). ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

External links

Image File history File links En-Submarine. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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USS Blueback Submarine (394 words)
After 31 years of service in the U.S. Navy throughout the Pacific Ocean, and appearing in the movie The Hunt for Red October, the Blueback is now on permanent display at OMSI.
The Blueback is a Barbel class submarine, the first battle-ready class of subs to use the tear drop hull design.
Discover what daily life was like aboard the US Navy's last fast-attack submarine as you explore the control room, peer through a periscope, and check out the engine room of the USS Blueback.
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Submarines of the 1700s and early 1800s were larger in size than their predecessors, but were still primitive hand-powered ships, with rudimentary and often ineffective explosive weapons.
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Submarines are valued for their ability to roam undetected in the ocean, and many navies operate submarine fleets.
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