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Encyclopedia > Submachine gun
The MP5 is a third-generation submachine gun that is widely used by law enforcement tactical teams and military forces.

A submachine gun (SMG) is a firearm that combines the automatic fire of a machine gun with the cartridge of a pistol, and is usually between the two in weight and size. They were first experimented with in the form of a stocked pistol being converted from semi to fully automatic in the early 20th century. Stocked automatic weapons firing pistol rounds were developed around the same time during World War I, by Italy, Germany, and the United States. The first dedicated designs were developed in the latter stages of World War I both as improvement on earlier stocked pistols, and to offer an advantage in trench warfare. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The MP5 is a submachine gun, developed by German weapons designer Heckler und Koch (HK) in the 1960s. ... Firearms redirects here. ... M2 Browning machine gun An automatic firearm is a firearm that automatically extracts and ejects the fired cartridge case, and loads a new case, usually through the energy of the fired round. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... Folding stock of a SIG 550 rifle A stock or buttstock or shoulder stock is present in many firearms and some crossbows, and performs three functions - to facilitate easy and steady holding and aiming of the weapon prior to and during firing (which may be further assisted by a sling... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... Walther P99, a semi-automatic pistol from the late 1990s A semi-automatic firearm is a gun that requires only a trigger pull for each round that is fired, unlike a single-action revolver, a pump-action firearm, a bolt-action firearm, or a lever-action firearm, which require the... M2 machine gun An automatic firearm is a firearm that will continue to load and fire rounds of ammunition as long as the trigger (or equivalent) is activated or until it runs out of ammunition. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ...


They were popularized in the 1920s and '30s as weapon of choice of American gangsters and police, in the form of the famous Thompson submachine gun, commonly referred to as the "Tommy Gun". Submachine guns rose to prominence as a frontline close quarters combat weapon and commando firearm during World War II. They are now widely used by police [1] SWAT teams and paramilitary organizations for counter-terror operations and hostage rescue. For other uses, see Gangster (disambiguation). ... For the Clash song, see Tommy Gun (song). ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ...


They are ideal for close-range combat in enclosed urban environments, where a weapon's range and accuracy is less important than the ability to easily obtain multiple strikes on a target. Pistol rounds are ideal for many law enforcement applications where noncombatants are present, since they are less likely to over-penetrate and hit unintended targets compared to most rifle cartridges. Conversely, they are largely ineffective against body armor, which limits modern military applications. Submachine guns lack long-range power and accuracy compared to higher power rifles, limiting their use in the open. For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ...

Contents

19th century to 1920

Replica Thompson 1921 with box-type magazine
Replica Thompson 1921 with box-type magazine

The first automatic weapon to fire a pistol round was a scaled down version of the Maxim machine gun, used for demonstrations in marketing the Maxim in the late 19th century, especially when a full size firing range was not available. First generation submachine guns were characterized by machined metal parts, blowback designs with the bolt directly behind the barrel. The submachine gun (sometimes abbreviated "SMG") appeared during the later stages of World War I. It would have its trial by fire in the brutal world of trench warfare. Fighting in the trenches had become a brutal battle involving grenades, pistols, sharpened entrenching tools, improvised clubs, and bayonets. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1383x474, 47 KB) Source: http://de. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1383x474, 47 KB) Source: http://de. ... The Thompson submachine gun, also known as the Tommy gun, was an American submachine gun (SMG) that became infamous during the Prohibition era. ... An early Maxim gun in operation with the Royal Navy The Maxim gun was the first self-acting machine gun. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ...


The Italians were the first to develop a submachine gun type of weapon, the Villar Perosa. Introduced in 1915, it is usually called the first submachine gun because it fired a pistol round (the 9 mm Glisenti). Originally developed as an aircraft weapon, it also saw some use by infantry, both for close quarters assaults and as a light machine gun. This odd design was eventually modified to become a traditional submachine gun, the Beretta 1918. The Villar-Persosa aircraft machine gun was an Italian double barreled machine gun designed by Bethel Abiel Revelli, a Major in the Italian Army in 1914. ... The M249 Squad Automatic Weapon, one of the most popular modern 5. ... The Beretta Model 1918 was a submachine gun that entered service in 1918 with the Italian armed forces. ...


However, the Bergmann MP18 may be the first true submachine gun by comparing the dates of the early Bergman prototypes with the Beretta date of service entry. While the Beretta 1918 became standard issue a couple of months prior to the Bergmann MP18 in 1918, the Bergman had tested in prototype form as early as 1916- However, this overlooks that the Beretta was in prototype stage in the same period. Further complicating matters is that the first program to start was for the Thompson submachine gun. The various dates and achievements of the first generation submachine guns creates a contentious area for firearms historians, with conclusions much to do with their nationality and interpretations. The MP18 was one of the first submachine guns. ...


The Beretta 1918 had a traditional wooden stock, a 25-round box magazine, and had a cyclic rate of fire of 900 rounds per minute. The Germans had been using heavier versions of P08 pistols, equipped with larger capacity snail magazine, and longer barrel; these were semi-automatic. A stocked purposed designed automatic pistol was worked on by Bergmann, which by 1918 had developed the MP18. The MP18 used 9 mm Parabellum round in a snail-magazine. The MP18 was used in significant numbers by the German World War I stormtroopers which, in conjunction with appropriate tactics, achieved some notable successes in the final year of the war. However, they were not enough to prevent Germany's collapse in November 1918. (for paintball markers also)Rate of fire is the frequency at which a specific weapon can fire or launch its projectiles. ... The Parabellum-Pistole (Pistol Parabellum), popularly known as the Luger pistol is a semi-automatic self-loading pistol patented by Georg Luger in 1898 and manufactured by Deutsche Waffen- und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) starting in 1900. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... The MP18 was one of the first submachine guns. ... For other meanings of stormtrooper see Stormtrooper (disambiguation). ...


The Thompson submachine guns had been in development at approximately the same time as the Bergman and Beretta, but development was put on hold in 1917, when the US and the weapon's designer (Thompson) entered the war. The design was completed afterwards and used a different internal system from the MP18 or Beretta, but it had missed its chance to be the first purpose-designed submachine gun to enter service. It would however go on to serve as the basis for later weapons and have the longest active service life of the three.


1920 to 1950

In the inter-war years the submachine gun became notorious as a gangster weapon; the iconic image of pinstripe-suited James Cagney types wielding drum-magazine Thompsons caused some military planners to shun the weapon. It was also used by the police, but many criminals favored the M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle. The submachine gun was nevertheless gradually accepted by many militaries, with many countries developing their own designs over the period, especially in the 1930s. James Francis Cagney, Jr. ... For the Clash song, see Tommy Gun (song). ... The Browning Automatic Rifle (more formally first as the Rifle, Caliber . ...


In the USSR, the PPD34 and PPD34/38 were developed. In France the MAS-35 was developed into the MAS-38. In Germany some improvements on the MP18 were employed, namely the MP28/II and the MP34. Also, Nazi Germany adopted the MP38, unique in that it used no wood and a folding metal stock, though it used similar amount of stampings as the MAS. Italy further developed a number of its own designs (see list of Italian submachine guns), with similar attempts at improvements in lower production cost, quality, or weight. The PPD (Pistolet-Pulemet Degtyarova, Russian: Пистолет-пулемёт Дегтярёва) is a submachine gun originally designed in 1934 by Vasily Degtyaryov. ... Mitraillette MAS modéle 38 Type submachine gun Nationality France Era WW2 History Date of design 1938 Production period 1939 - 1946 Service duration 1939 - 1950 Operators France, Germany War service WW2, First Indochina War Specifications Type MAS 38 Calibre 7,65 Barrel length 224 mm Ammunition 7. ... The MP18 was one of the first submachine guns. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The MP40 was the standard German submachine gun for most of WWII. It was descended from the virtually identical MP38, the only differences being cost-saving alterations to some of the components. ... The Italians were the first to field a traditional submachine gun design, the Beretta 1918, in 1918. ...

The MP40 9mm submachinegun - stock extended
The MP40 9mm submachinegun - stock extended

During the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany in 1939, the MP38 production was still just starting and only a few thousand were in service, but it proved very popular especially in towns and cities. From it, the nearly identical, but safer and cheaper to make, MP40 was developed; about a million MP40s were made in World War II. The MP40's design used even more stampings, and less important metals such as aluminium, but still managed to be lighter because it avoided some of the heavier machined parts of the MP38. Download high resolution version (1362x540, 42 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1362x540, 42 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The MP40 (Maschinenpistole 40, literally machine pistol 40) was a submachine gun developed in Germany and used extensively by paratroopers and platoon and squad leaders, and other troops during World War II. The MP40 had a relatively lower rate of fire and low recoil, which made it more manageable than... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The MP40 (Maschinenpistole 40, literally machine pistol 40) was a submachine gun developed in Germany and used extensively by paratroopers and platoon and squad leaders, and other troops during World War II. The MP40 had a relatively lower rate of fire and low recoil, which made it more manageable than...


Britain adopted the Lanchester submachine gun, based on the MP28/II. However the high cost of manufacture and low rate of production led to the much simpler, cheaper and faster to make Sten submachine gun. The Sten gun was so cheap to make that near the end of World War II, Nazi Germany started manufacturing their own copy of the design (the MP 3008). Britain also used many M1928 Thompsons early on (the inter-war period version with a drum magazine), and also many of the improved version M1 (the one seen only with a stick magazine). After the war, the Sten would be replaced by the Sterling submachine gun. The Lanchester was a submachine gun used by the British during World War II. History In 1940, with the Dunkirk evacuation completed, the Royal Air Force decided to adopt some form of submachine gun for airfield defense. ... This article is about the submachine gun. ... The 9 mm MP 3008 was a Nazi German substitute standard submachine gun manufactured toward the end of World War II. The weapon was almost identical to the British Sten, except for its vertical magazine. ... The Sterling submachine gun is a British submachine gun which was in service with the British Army from 1953 until 1988 when it was phased out with the introduction of the L85A1 IW (Individual Weapon). ...


America and its allies used the Thompson submachine gun, especially the simplified M1 version that did away with the Tommy's drum magazine and some of the machined parts. Because it was still expensive to produce, the M3 "Grease Gun" was adopted in 1942, followed by the slightly improved M3A1 in 1944. The M3 was not necessarily more effective, but was made with cheap stamped metal, making it much more affordable. It could be configured to fire either .45 ACP ammunition, which the Thompson and M1911 pistol also fired, or the 9 mm Parabellum, widely used by Allies and Axis. It would be among the longest serving of the submachine guns designed during the war, being produced into the 1960s and serving in US forces officially into the 1980s. For the Clash song, see Tommy Gun (song). ... The M3 Grease Gun (more formally United States Submachine Gun, Cal. ... .45 ACP cartridges .45 redirects here. ... The M1911 is a single-action, semiautomatic handgun chambered for the . ... Ball and hollowpoint 9mm Luger rounds The 9 mm Luger pistol cartridge (9 x 19 mm Parabellum, 9 x 19 mm NATO) was designed by firearms designer Georg Luger. ...


Finland had developed the M/31 Suomi before the Winter War in which it saw much use. The weapon fired 9 mm Parabellum rounds from a drum magazine with the capacity of 70 (although often loaded with up to 74). Although America used stick magazines in the Thompson, and Russians carried only a few drum magazines (usually one drum, if any, and the rest ammo as stick magazines), the Suomi was mostly deployed with drums. They were also less prone to jamming than the stick or "casket" magazines developed for the weapon. The weapon was used until the end of Lapland war, and in peacetime service, to the early 1990s. The Suomi-konepistooli KP-31 (Finland-submachine gun KP-31) was a submachine gun of Finnish manufacture that was in service during World War II. It was a descendant of the M-22 prototype and the KP-26 production model, which was revealed to the public in 1925. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875...


By the end of World War II, the USSR had fielded the largest number of submachine guns, such as the PPSh-41, with whole infantry battalions being armed with little else. Even in the hands of conscripted soldiers just out of basic training, the volume of fire produced by massed submachine guns could be overwhelming. The German forces formed similar troops of their own in response to this. The discovery made during World War II that a high rate of fire was more effective than the slower but more accurate fire (such as provided by bolt-action and semi-automatic rifles) was one of the main causes for the development of the assault rifle. The PPSh-41 (Pistolet-Pulemet Shpagina, Russian: , nicknamed Phe-phe-sha, Shpagin and Burp Gun) submachine gun was one of the most simplisticly produced weapons of World War II. It was designed by Georgi Shpagin, as an inexpensive alternative to the PPD-40, which was expensive and time consuming to... The AK-47 is the worlds most common assault rifle. ...


1950 to present

An Uzi submachine gun with sling
An Uzi submachine gun with sling

Submachine guns lend themselves to moderation with suppressors, particularly so in cases where the weapon is loaded with subsonic ammunition. Variants of the Sten and modern-day Heckler & Koch MP5 have been manufactured with integral silencers, and such weapons are on occasion used by special forces and police units. After the Korean War, the role of submachine guns in military applications was gradually diminished. Both submachine guns and battle rifles were supplanted by the new assault rifles, such as the CAR-15 and Heckler & Koch HK53. Download high resolution version (1024x832, 160 KB)Uzi Submachinegun Photo taken by Ferkelparade and hereby released under the GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Uzi submachine gun User:Ferkelparade/photos Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1024x832, 160 KB)Uzi Submachinegun Photo taken by Ferkelparade and hereby released under the GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Uzi submachine gun User:Ferkelparade/photos Categories: GFDL images ... Look up uzi in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Several firearms with detachable suppressors Bolt-action rimfire rifle with suppressor Semiautomatic rimfire pistol with suppressor A suppressor or sound moderator is a device attached to a firearm to reduce the amount of noise and flash generated by firing the weapon. ... The MP5 is a submachine gun, developed by German weapons designer Heckler und Koch (HK) in the 1960s. ... For other uses, see Special forces (disambiguation). ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... The FN FAL battle rifle The term battle rifle can have different meanings. ... The AK is the worlds most common assault rifle. ... CAR-15 is a common name applied to many carbine variants of the Colt AR-15 rifle (adopted by the USA as the M16 rifle) in both military and civilian service. ... The HK 53 is an assault carbine variant of the HK33 rifle, based on the proven delayed roller lock bolt system introduced with the MG30 machine gun scaled down to 5. ...


Submachine guns are still used by special forces and counter-terrorist units operating in urban environments or cramped interior areas, and as defence weapons for air crews, armored vehicle crews, , and naval personnel. Though submachine guns still have a strong hold on niche users, due to their advantage in compact size, they are facing competition from carbines, cut-down assault rifles. The dominance of submachine guns in law enforcement tactical operations has been diminished by new developments since the 1990s. Factors such as the wide availability of assault rifles and carbines and the increasing use of body armor have combined to limit the appeal of submachine guns to government agencies. Assault rifles and carbines have been supplementing submachine guns in some roles. However, assault rifles are not a complete replacement, since they are generally heavier, have greater muzzle blast, more recoil, and may be likely to overpenetrate due to their use of rifle rounds. For other uses, see Special forces (disambiguation). ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... Aircrew members may include pilots, flight attendants, flight engineers, navigators, Taccos, signallers, observers, (air) gunners, weapons specialists, loadmasters and various electronics system operators depending on the age during which the aircraft operated and the type of operations. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, protected by armour and armed with weapons. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... A carbine is a firearm, similar to but shorter than an ordinary rifle or musket in barrel and stock. ... The AK-47 is the worlds most common assault rifle. ... A carbine is a firearm similar to, but generally shorter and less powerful than, a rifle or musket of a given period. ... ...


Also touted as a successor to the submachine gun is the personal defense weapon (PDW), a machine pistol-like weapon which fires armour-piercing pistol cartridges. The PDW is similar in operation to submachine guns and is often considered as such. However, the PDW's specialized ammunition is incompatible with common pistol and rifle rounds, and it is less effective against unarmored targets. The trend in modern submachine guns had been toward lighter, smaller weapons utilizing plastics to a greater degree. A PDW or personal defense weapon is a compact firearm, smaller than an assault rifle or a full size submachine gun, but more powerful and flexible than a normal pistol. ... A machine pistol shares several properties of the semi-automatic handgun and the sub-machine gun. ...


Legality

In the United States, submachine guns are regulated under the National Firearms Act of 1934 as amended by Title II of the Gun Control Act of 1968 and Firearms Owners' Protection Act of 1986. The manufacture of machine guns for civilian ownership has been illegal since this law passed. Machine guns in circulation previous to 1986 were grandfathered allowing them to be owned by civilians legally only if they were properly registered with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. For more information on the subject see the NFA link above. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Gun Control Act of 1968 (also known as GCA, and codified as Chapter 44 of Title 18, United States Code) is a federal law in the United States that broadly regulates the firearms industry and firearms owners. ... The Firearm Owners Protection Act (FOPA) is a United States federal law that revised many statutes in the Gun Control Act of 1968. ... A grandfather clause is an exception that allows an old rule to continue to apply to some existing situations, when a new rule will apply to all future situations. ... The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATFE or ATFE) is a law enforcement agency within the United States Department of Justice. ...


Switzerland allows the private ownership of semi-automatic versions of submachine guns as sporting firearms. Fully automatic submachine guns may only be owned by collectors and may not be fired in fully automatic mode. Many other countries such as Germany, Austria and Italy authorize the private ownership of semi-automatic versions of submachine guns as sporting firearms, in some cases with modifications (i.e. Italy requires the magazine capacity to be permanently reduced to 10 or 5 rounds depending from the case, also requires a permanently fixed stock in all cases), while the fully-automatic submachine guns remain forbidden for civilian use.


Czech Republic allows the ownership of all kinds of automatic weapons up to .50 caliber to collectors who obtain a license from the Ministry of the Interior. In the United Kingdom, however they are prohibited except for use by the police and military. The exception is relatively hard to obtain and depends largely on the discretion of the local police department. Finland and Sweden allows ownership of submachine guns and other automatic weapons, though subject to licensing. Private ownership of submachine guns and indeed all automatic weapons (except weapons disabled and forming part of a collection) are banned in all Australian states though they are used by the various states' police services (mainly if not exclusively by specialist counter-terrorist or SWAT units) and the Australian military.


References

1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Bio of the Main Gun Designer Mikhail Timofeevich Kalashnikov (1066 words)
In June, 1942 the second model of a Kalashnikov submachine gun was developed in workshops of the institute.
Though he didn't recommend the submachine gun for service, the talent of the inventor, originality in the decision of a lot of technical questions were highly estimated by him and as a result Blagonravov made everything to direct the self-taught-designer to study.
The cause of such great popularity of Kalashnikov submachine guns is in fact that Mikhail Timofeevitch has achieved an optimum combination of a number of qualities which provide the usage of guns with high efficiency of application and exclusive reliability in battles.
Submachine gun Summary (2285 words)
A submachine gun is a firearm that combines the automatic fire of a machine gun with the ammunition of a pistol, and is usually between the two in weight and size.
Submachine guns lend themselves to moderation with suppressors, particularly so in cases where the weapon is loaded with subsonic ammunition.
Prominent recent examples of the submachine gun are the Israel Military Industries Uzi submachine gun, the Heckler and Koch MP5 series, the Ingram MAC-10, the Skorpion, the Sterling and the FN P90 (itself part of a new generation of 'personal defence weapons', firing cartridges intermediate in power between a pistol and assault rifle round).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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