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Encyclopedia > Subliminal message
Hidden messages

Subliminal messages Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A hidden message is information that is not immediately noticeable, and that must be discovered or uncovered and interpreted before it can be known. ...

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A subliminal message is a signal or message embedded in another medium, designed to pass below the normal limits of perception. These messages are unrecognizable by the conscious mind, but in certain situations can affect the subconscious or deeper mind and later actions or attitudes. Backmasking (also known incorrectly as backward masking)[1] is a recording technique in which a sound or message is recorded backwards onto a track that is meant to be played forwards. ... This article is about the theory of reversed messages in normal speech. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with periodogram. ... Look up numerology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Theomatics is a numerological study of the Greek and Hebrew text of the Christian Bible, based upon gematria and isopsephia, that its proponents assert demonstrates the direct intervention of God in the writing of Christian scripture. ... Bible codes, originally known as Torah codes, are information patterns said to exist in encrypted or coded form in the text of the Bible, or, more specifically, in the Hebrew Torah, the first five books of Old Testament. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... Look up Fnord in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Paranoiac-critical method is a surrealist technique developed by Salvador Dalí in the early 1930s, often employed in the production of paintings and other artworks. ... The term pareidolia (pronounced ), referenced in 1994 by Steven Goldstein,[1] describes a psychological phenomenon involving a vague and random stimulus (often an image or sound) being perceived as significant. ... Psychorama (or The Precon Process) is the act of communicating subliminal information through film—flashing images on the screen so quickly that they cannot be perceived by the conscious mind, but nonetheless leaving an unconscious imprint on the viewer. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... This article is about hidden messages. ... For the game, see Anagrams. ... Apophenia is the experience of seeing patterns or connections in random or meaningless data. ... The first easter egg. ... The clustering illusion is the natural human tendency to see patterns where actually none exist. ... The observer-expectancy effect, in science, is a cognitive bias that occurs in science when a researcher expects a given result and therefore unconsciously manipulates an experiment or misinterprets data in order to find it. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... See also: Unconscious mind. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ...


Subliminal techniques have occasionally been used in advertising and propaganda; the purpose, the effectiveness, and the frequency of the application of such techniques is debated. // Advert redirects here. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ...


The term subliminal means "beneath a limen," a sensory threshold. Subliminal is directly derived from the Latin words sub and limin. "Sub" meaning under, and "limin" meaning threshold. These two words out together literally mean under the threshold. In physiology, psychology, or psychophysics, a limen or a liminal point is a threshold of a physiological or psychological response. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...

Contents

Origin

E.W. Scripture published in 1898 The New Psychology, which described the basic principles of subliminal messages.[1]


In 1900, Knight Dunlap, an American professor of psychology, flashed an "imperceptible shadow" to subjects while showing them a Müller-Lyer illusion containing two lines with pointed arrows at both ends which create an illusion of different lengths. Dunlap claimed that the shadow influenced his subjects subliminally in their judgment of the lengths of the lines. {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... the Müller-Lyer optical illusion with arrows. ... For other uses, see illusion (disambiguation). ...


Although these results were not verified in a scientific study, American psychologist Harry Levi Hollingworth reported in an advertising textbook that such subliminal messages could be used by advertisers.[2] Harry Levi Hollingworth (1880-1956) was one of the first psychologists to bring psychology into the advertising world, as well as a pioneer in applied psychology. ...


Further Developments

During World War II, the tachistoscope, an instrument which projects pictures for an extremely brief period, was used to train soldiers to recognize enemy airplanes.[1] Today the tachistoscope is used to increase reading speed or to test sight.[3] A tachistoscope is a device that displays (usually by projecting) an image for a specific amount of time. ...


In 1957, market researcher James Vicary claimed that quickly flashing messages on a movie screen, in Fort Lee, New Jersey, had influenced people to purchase more food and drinks. Vicary coined the term subliminal advertising and formed the Subliminal Projection Company based on a six-week test. Vicary claimed that during the presentation of the movie Picnic he used a tachistoscope to project the words "Drink Coca-Cola" and "Hungry? Eat popcorn" for 1/3000 of a second at five-second intervals. Vicary asserted that during the test, sales of popcorn and Coke in that New Jersey theater increased 57.8 percent and 18.1 percent respectively.[1][4] James Vicary is a market researcher, perhaps best known for popularizing the notion of subliminal advertising in 1957. ... DVD cover for the 1955 film, showing stars William Holden and Kim Novak Picnic is a 1955 Cinemascope color film which tells the story of an ex-college football star turned drifter who arrives in a small Kansas town on Labor Day and is drawn to a girl whos... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ...


It was later revealed, however, that Vicary lied about the experiment. He admitted to falsifying the results, and an identical experiment conducted by Dr. Henry Link showed no increase in cola or popcorn sales. This has led people to believe that Vicary actually didn't conduct his experiment at all.[5]


Vicary's claims were promoted in Vance Packard's book The Hidden Persuaders,[6] and led to a public outcry, and to many conspiracy theories of governments and cults using the technique to their advantage.[citation needed] The practice of subliminal advertising was subsequently banned in the United Kingdom and Australia,[2] and by American networks and the National Association of Broadcasters in 1958.[4] Vance Packard (May 22, 1914 - December 12, 1996) was an American journalist, social critic, and author. ... A conspiracy theory is a theory that defies common historical or current understanding of events, under the claim that those events are the result of manipulations by two or more individuals or various secretive powers or conspiracies. ... The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) is a US trade association that advocates on behalf of over 8,300 radio and television stations and networks before Congress, the Federal Communications Commission and various judicial bodies. ...


But in 1958, Vicary conducted a television test in which he flashed the message "telephone now" hundreds of times during a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation program, and found no increase in telephone calls. In 1962, Vicary admitted that he fabricated his claim, the story itself being a marketing ploy.[7] Efforts to replicate the results of Vicary's reports have never resulted in success.[1] Radio-Canada redirects here. ...


In 1973, commercials in the United States and Canada for the game Hūsker Dū? flashed the message "Get it".[6] During the same year, Wilson Bryan Key's book Subliminal Seduction claimed that subliminal techniques were widely used in advertising.[4] Public concern was sufficient to cause the FCC to hold hearings in 1974. The hearings resulted in an FCC policy statement stating that subliminal advertising was "contrary to the public interest" and "intended to be deceptive".[4] Subliminal advertising was also banned in Canada following the broadcasting of Hūsker Dū? ads there.[1] Hūsker Dū? is a young childrens memory game originally published in Sweden in the 1950s, which is still in print. ... Wilson Bryan Key is the controversial author of several books on subliminal advertising. ... Wilson Bryan Key is the controversial author of several books on subliminal advertising. ... FCC redirects here. ...


A study conducted by the United Nations concluded that "the cultural implications of subliminal indoctrination is a major threat to human rights throughout the world."[8] UN redirects here. ...


In 1985, Dr. Joe Stuessy testified to the United States Senate at the Parents Music Resource Center hearings that: Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Tipper Gore, founder of the Parents Music Resource Center The Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC) was an American committee formed in 1985 by four women: Tipper Gore, wife of Senator and later Vice President Al Gore; Susan Baker, wife of Treasury Secretary James Baker; Pam Howar, wife of Washington realtor...

The message [of a piece of heavy metal music] may also be covert or subliminal. Sometimes subaudible tracks are mixed in underneath other, louder tracks. These are heard by the subconscious but not the conscious mind. Sometimes the messages are audible but are backwards, called backmasking. There is disagreement among experts regarding the effectiveness of subliminals. We need more research on that.[9] Heavy metals, in chemistry, are chemical elements of a particular range of atomic weights. ...

Stuessy's written testimony stated that:

Some messages are presented to the listener backwards. While listening to a normal forward message (often somewhat nonsensical), one is simultaneously being treated to a back-wards message (in other words, the lyric sounds like one set of words going forward, and a different set of words going backwards). Some experts believe that while the conscious mind is absorbing the forward lyric, the subconscious is working overtime to decipher the backwards message.[10]

This testimony may have been based on an incorrect understanding of backward masking, however. Backward masking has several meanings: In psychoacoustics, it refers to temporal masking of quiet sounds that occur moments before a louder sound. ...


Later findings discover that not everyone will benefit from such messages, in fact it has been reported to have certain adverse effects.


Effectiveness

Visual

Used in advertising to create familiarity with new products, subliminal messages make familiarity into a preference for the new products. Dr. Johan Karremans suggests that subliminal messages have an effect when the messages are goal-relevant (Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2006). Karremans did a study assessing, whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink would affect a person’s choice of drink, and whether this effect is caused by the individual’s feelings of being thirsty. By subliminally priming or preparing the participant with text or an image without being aware of it, gave the partaker familiarity with the product. Half of his participants were subliminally primed with Lipton Ice (“Lipton Ice” was repeatedly flashed on a computer screen for 24 milliseconds), while the other half was primed with a control that didn’t consist of a brand. In his study he found that subliminally priming a brand name of a drink (Lipton Ice) made those who were thirsty want the Lipton Ice. Those who were not thirsty however, were not influenced by the subliminal message since their goal was not to quench their thirst. [11]


Subliminal messages have also been known to appear in music. In the 1990’s, two young men died from self-inflicted gunshots and their families were convinced it was because of a British rock band; Judas Priest. The families claimed subliminal messages told listeners to “do it” in the song “Better by You, Better Than Me". The case was taken to court and the families sought more than $6 million in damages. The Judge, Jerry Carr Whitehead, ruled that the subliminal messages did exist in the song, but stated that the families did not produce any scientific evidence that the song persuaded the young men to kill themselves (Vance et al. v. Judas Priest et ai,1990). In turn, he ruled it probably wouldn’t have been perceived without the “power of suggestion” or the young men wouldn’t have done it unless they really intended to. [12]


Subliminal messages can cause effects on a humans’ emotion or behavior but most effectively when done so unconsciously. The most extensive study of therapeutic effects from audiotapes was conducted to see if the self-esteem audiotapes would raise self-esteem. 237 volunteers were provided with tapes of three manufacturers and completed posttests after one month of use (Greenwald, Spangenberg, Pratkanis, & Eskenazi, 1991). The study showed clearly that subliminal audiotapes made to boost self-esteem did not produce effects associated with subliminal content within one month’s use. [13].


Subconscious stimulus by single words is well known to be modestly effective in changing human behavior or emotions. This is evident by a pictorial advertisement that portrays four different types of rum. The phrase “U Buy” was embedded somewhere, backwards in the picture. A study (Keys, 1973)[14] was done to test the effectiveness of the alcohol ad. Before the study, participants were able to try to identify any hidden message in the ad, none found any. In the end, the study showed 80% of the subjects unconsciously perceived the backward message, meaning they showed a preference for that particular rum. Although every subliminal message may not affect everyone, it is obvious it does affect the behavior or emotion of most.


Though many things can be perceived from subliminal messages, only a couple words or a single image of unconscious signals can be internalized. As only a word or image can be effectively perceived, the simpler features of that image or word will be cause a change in behavior (i.e.; beef is related to hunger). This was demonstrated by Byrne in 1959. The word “beef” was flashed for several, five millisecond intervals during a sixteen-minute movie to experimental subjects, while nothing was flashed to controlled subjects. Neither the experimental or controlled subjects reported for a higher preference for beef sandwiches when given a list of five different foods, but the experimental subjects did rate themselves as hungrier than the controlled subjects when given a survey [15] If the subjects were flashed a whole sentence, the words would not be perceived and no effect would be expected.


In 2007 to mark the 50th anniversary of James Vicary's original experiment, it was recreated at the International Brand Marketing Conference MARKA 2007[1]. As part of the "Hypnosis, subconscious triggers and branding" presentation 1,400 delegates watched part the opening credits of the film PICNIC that was used in the original experiment. They were exposed to 30 subliminal cuts over a 90 second period. When asked to choose one of two brands 81% of the delegates picked the brand suggested by the subliminal cuts.


Studies in 2004 and 2006 showed that subliminal exposure to images of frightened faces or faces of people from another race will increase the activity of the amygdala in the brain and also increase skin conductance.[16] [17] This article is about part of the human brain. ... Galvanic skin response (or GSR), also known as electrodermal response (EDR) or psychogalvanic reflex (PGR), is a method of measuring the electrical resistance of the skin and interpreting it as an image of activity in certain parts of the body. ...


In 2007 it was shown that subliminal exposure to the Israeli flag had a moderating effect on the political opinions and voting behaviors of Israeli volunteers. This effect was not present when a jumbled picture of the flag was subliminally shown.[18] Flag ratio: 8:11 The flag of Israel was adopted on October 28, 1948, five months after the nations independence. ...


Audio

The manual for the popular sound program SoX pokes fun at subliminal messages. The description of the "reverse" option says "Included for finding satanic subliminals."
The manual for the popular sound program SoX pokes fun at subliminal messages. The description of the "reverse" option says "Included for finding satanic subliminals."

Backmasking, an audio technique in which sounds are recorded backwards onto a track that is meant to be played forwards, produces messages that sound like gibberish to the conscious mind. Gary Greenwald, a fundamentalist Christian preacher, claims that these messages can be heard subliminally, and can induce listeners towards, in the case of rock music, sex and drug use.[19] However, this is not generally accepted as fact.[20] Image File history File links A screenshot of the man page for the SoX program, which includes a joke about backward messages. ... Image File history File links A screenshot of the man page for the SoX program, which includes a joke about backward messages. ... Sound eXchange, abbreviated SoX, is a free digital audio editor which is licensed under the GPL and distributed by Chris Bagwell through Sourceforge. ... Backmasking (also known incorrectly as backward masking)[1] is a recording technique in which a sound or message is recorded backwards onto a track that is meant to be played forwards. ... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... This article is about the genre. ... Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment[1] This article is an overview of the nontherapeutic use of alcohol and drugs of abuse. ...


Following the 1950s subliminal message panic, many businesses have sprung up purporting to offer helpful subliminal audio tapes that supposedly improve the health of the listener. However, there is no evidence for the therapeutic effectiveness of such tapes.[21]


Instances

In 1978, Wichita, Kansas TV station KAKE-TV received special permission from the police to place a subliminal message in a report on the BTK Killer (Bind, Torture, Kill) in an effort to get him to turn himself in. The subliminal message included the text "Now call the chief," as well as a pair of glasses . The glasses were thought to be of significance to the killer because when BTK murdered Nancy Fox, there was a pair of glasses lying upside down on her dresser. So, police felt that the glasses would stir up some remorse emotion and included them in the subliminal message. The attempt was unsuccessful, and police reported no increased volume of calls afterward. [22] Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Wichita (disambiguation). ... KAKE-TV, channel 10, is an American Broadcasting Company (ABC) affiliate television station based in Wichita, Kansas. ... Pool video released March 1, 2005 of Raders first appearance Dennis Lynn Rader (born March 9, 1945) is an American serial killer, who murdered at least ten people in Sedgwick County (in and around Wichita), Kansas, United States, between 1974 and 1991. ... BTK may refer to: A hardcore gang of street thugs dealing with the trafficking of drugs through Bloomington Indiana. ...


Before the re-election of French president François Mitterrand in 1988, a subliminal picture of him was mixed in the title sequence of French national television daily news show, and it appeared for several consecutive days.[citation needed]   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ...


The subject was also prominently featured in the 1999 film Fight Club. Pictures of the main character, Tyler Durden, flash onscreen at various points during the earlier parts of the film, before Durden is introduced.[23] Also, Durden is shown at his job as a projectionist, splicing pornographic flash frames into a film he is showing.[24] A picture of a penis flashes before the end credits.[25] Fight Club[1] (1996) is the first published novel by American author Chuck Palahniuk. ... This article is for the novel by Chuck Palahniuk. ...


During the 2000 U.S. presidential campaign, a television ad campaigning for Republican candidate George W. Bush showed words (and parts thereof) scaling from the foreground to the background on a television screen. When the word BUREAUCRATS flashed on the screen, one frame showed only the last part, RATS.[26][27] The FCC looked into the matter,[28] but no penalties were ever assessed in the case.[citation needed] (Redirected from 2000 U.S. presidential campaign) Map The U.S. presidential election of 2000 took place on Election Day, Tuesday, November 7. ... An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication (IMC). ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy, usually within an institution of the government. ...


In the British alternative comedy show The Young Ones, a number of subliminal images were present in the original and most repeated broadcasts of the second series. Images included a gull coming into land, a tree frog jumping through the air, a man gurning, and the end credits of the movie Carry On Cowboy.[citation needed] These were included to mock the then-occurring matter of subliminal messages in television. Although they may fall foul of the FCC guidelines, these images do appear in the U.S. boxset DVD Every Stoopid Episode. The Young Ones was a popular British sitcom, first seen in 1982, which aired on BBC2. ... Carry On Cowboy is the eleventh in the Carry On series of films and the first film to feature series regulars Peter Butterworth and Bernard Bresslaw. ...


Chris Morris famously used subliminal messages to display a half-frame of the last episode of Brass Eye, stating "Grade is a cunt" in reference to Michael Grade, the Channel 4 executive responsible for the heavy editing of Morris's show [29]. Chris Morris may refer to : Chris Morris (satirist) Chris Morris (activist) Chris Morris (basketball player) This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Brass Eye is a UK television series of satirical spoof documentaries which aired on Channel 4 in 1997 and was re-run in 2001. ... Michael Ian Grade CBE (born March 8, 1943) is a British businessman and a distinguished figure in the field of broadcasting. ... This article is about the British television station. ...


Shaun Micallef's Australian 'Micallef P(r)ogram(me)' shows contained strange subliminal messages that can be seen on the DVDs. As they are of random, humorous statements, questions, etc, they are not regarded as advertising. They were usually images of politicians, as is the case with his more recent Newstopia. Shaun Patrick Micallef (born 18 July 1962) is an Australian comedian. ... Newstopia is a Australian half-hour satirical comedy programme hosted by Shaun Micallef. ...


In Warner Brothers' 1943 animated film "Wise Quacking Duck", Daffy Duck spins a statue which is holding a shield. For one frame the words "BUY BONDS" are visible on the shield.


The December 16, 1973 episode of Columbo titled "Double Exposure", is based on subliminal messaging : it is used by the murderer, Dr. Bart Keppler, a motivational research specialist, played by Robert Culp, to lure his victim out of his seat during the viewing of a promotional film and by Lt. Columbo to bring Keppler back to the crime scene and incriminate him. Lt. Columbo is shown how subliminal cuts work in a scene mirroring James Vicary's experiment.[30][31] is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Columbo is an American crime fiction TV series, starring Peter Falk as Lieutenant Columbo, a homicide detective with the Los Angeles Police Department. ... Robert Martin Culp (born August 16, 1930 in Oakland, California), and a 1947 graduate of Berkeley High School, is an American actor, best known for his work on television. ... James Vicary is a market researcher, perhaps best known for popularizing the notion of subliminal advertising in 1957. ...


A McDonald's logo appeared for one frame during the Food Network's Iron Chef America series on 2007-01-27, leading to claims that this was an instance of subliminal advertising. The Food Network replied that it was simply a glitch.[32] McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants, primarily selling hamburgers, chicken, french fries, milkshakes and soft drinks. ... Food Network is an American cable network that airs many specials and recurring (episodic) shows about food. ... Iron Chef America: The Series is an American cooking show based on Fuji Televisions Iron Chef, and is the second American adaptation of the series, following the failed Iron Chef USA. The show is produced by Food Network, which also carries a dubbed version of the original Iron Chef. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Formula One racing, the paint scheme of many cars would carry messages intended to look as if they were of banned tobacco products in many Grands Prix where tobacco advertising was banned, though many of these were jokes on the part of the teams (for example, Jordan Grand Prix ran Benson and Hedges sponsorship as "Bitten and Hisses" with a snake-skin design on their cars). A similar procedure was used by NASCAR driver Jeff Burton after the AT&T Mobility advertising was banned by a court order in 2007. Tobacco advertising is the promotion of tobacco use (typically cigarette smoking) by the tobacco industry through a variety of media. ... Eddie Jordan, founder and owner of Jordan Grand Prix, greets the fans in Montreal in 1996 Jordan Grand Prix was a Formula One constructor that competed from 1991 to 2005. ... Benson & Hedges is a brand of cigarette. ... Jeffrey Brian Burton (born June 29, 1967 in South Boston, Virginia) also sometimes referred to as JB is a NASCAR Nextel Cup Series driver. ... This article is about the wireless subsidiary of AT&T. For the defunct wireless provider that was merged into Cingular in 2004, see AT&T Wireless Services. ...


On November 7, 2007 Network 10 Australia's broadcast of the ARIA Awards was caught out for using subliminal advertising in an exposé by the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). [33] is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Ten Network logo Network TEN so called because it broadcasts on Channel TEN in most cities, is Australias third but possibly most profitable television network. ... The Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA) is a trade group representing the Australian recording industry. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ...


In June-July 2007, Sprite used a type of obvious subliminal message, involving yellow (lemon) and green (lime) objects such as cars. The objects would then be shown inconspicuously in the same setting, while showing the word "lymon" (combining the words lime and lemon) on screen for a second at a time. They called this "Sublymonal Advertising." The previous year, Sprite used a similar advertising campaign, but this time it was tied in to The Lost Experience, an alternate reality game. Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Sprite is a clear soda, lemon-lime flavored, caffeine free soft drink, produced by the Coca-Cola Company. ... Lost Experience is the name of an alternate reality game that runs alongside the second season of the popular television show Lost in the UK, and during the break between season 2 and 3 in the US/Canada. ... Alternate Reality, see Alternate Reality (computer game). ...


In Brainiac: Science Abuse, there is an experiment carried out to see if viewers would react to subliminal messages. One was shown during an experiment to discover which substance provides the best skid; the message appeared when a brainiac hit a bale of hay. The second message appeared across a T-Shirt of a brainiac saying 'Call your mum', and the third said 'scratch your nose' when a sound wave hit the Brainiac logo. At the end of the show, people were shown in a theatre watching that episode. The test showed that the messages barely impacted the audience. The subliminal content in this episode was legal, as its presence was announced at the beginning and end of the episode. Brainiac: Science Abuse is a television programme showing in the UK on Sky One (and repeated on Sky Mix). ...


In Week 11 of The Apprentice: Martha Stewart in which candidates have to create an ad for the Delta's former low-cost commercial airlines Song, the team Matchstick used a 1/48th of a frame image at the bottom-right corner with the Song Airlines logo. Song was a low-cost airline brand owned and operated by Delta Air Lines. ...


Allegations

Some groups have made claims that subliminal messages can be found in various forms of popular entertainment, such as the supposed use of "backward messages" in rock and roll songs.


Many of these purported messages are Satanic; for example, if the Led Zeppelin song "Stairway to Heaven" is played backwards, lyrics including "Oh here's to my sweet Satan" can supposedly be made out. [34] For the bands 1969 eponymous debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... This article is about the Led Zeppelin song. ...


Queen's "Another One Bites the Dust" is also supposed to contain a pro-marijuana message: "It's fun to smoke marijuana". Another One Bites the Dust is a 1980 funk/rock song from the English rock band Queen, written by bassist John Deacon and was a worldwide crossover hit (hitting number one on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100, hitting #2 on the R&B charts, and the Disco Top 100). ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ...


These two messages have not been confirmed by the artists, and have not been proven to exist by fully respected sources.[35]


In February 2007, it was discovered that 87 Konami slot machines in Ontario (OLG) casinos displayed a brief winning hand image before the game would begin. Government officials worried that the image subliminally persuaded gamblers to continue gambling; the company claimed that the image was a coding error. The machines were removed pending a fix by Konami.[36] Konami Corporation ) (TYO: 9766 NYSE: KNM SGX: K20) is a leading developer and publisher of numerous popular and strong-selling toys, trading cards, anime, tokusatsu, slot machines and video games. ... Current Logo The Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation (OLG; also Ontario Lottery and Gaming) is a Crown agency of the Government of Ontario, Canada. ...


Fictional references

While their ultimate efficacy is somewhat controversial, subliminal messages have a long history in television shows, movies, and novels.


Governments are often depicted as employing subliminal messages in propaganda. The novel "FREEZE FRAME" by B. David Warner depicts the election of a corrupt president candidate using subliminal advertising to sway the votes in his favor. The movie Josie and the Pussycats described a long lasting plot whereby the U.S. government was controlling trends by inserting subliminal messages in popular music. Furthermore, towards the end of the film, a government agent shuts down the operation, saying that subliminal advertising works better in films. The words "Josie and the Pussycats is the best movie ever" are then spoken rapidly in voice-over and displayed quickly on screen, with the words "Join the Army" in smaller letters below it. And in the 2005 science fiction movie Serenity, the Alliance uses subliminal messages broadly disseminated in commercials and other video to cause River Tam to go berserk. It only works on River because she was subjected to Alliance training and conditioning. Josie and the Pussycats is a 2001 comedy released by Universal Pictures and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. ... Look up Trend in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikiquote quotations related to: Trend The word trend has a number of possible meanings: In statistics, a trend is a long-term movement in time series data after other components have been accounted for. ... For the music genre, see Pop music. ... A voice-over is a narration that is played on top of a video segment, usually with the audio for that segment muted or lowered. ... Serenity is a 2005 science fiction space western/epic film written and directed by Joss Whedon. ...


Many references deal specifically with the military. An episode of The Simpsons involved Bart and his friends joining a boy band, the Party Posse. While watching a video for the Party Posse, Lisa notices the phrase "Yvan Eht Nioj" being repeated continuously by belly-dancers. She plays the video in reverse and finds that it means "Join the Navy". Also, an Uncle Sam "I Want You" poster can be seen in the video frame by frame. The joke was that the United States sends subliminal messages in order to recruit people. In addition, the art of "superliminal messages" was demonstrated to Lisa; a Navy representative leans out a window, picks a random passerby, and shouts "Hey you! Join the Navy!" And in an episode of Malcolm in the Middle titled "Reese joins the Army (2)", one of the drill sergeants comments about the other's restored confidence in the Army "I guess the subliminal advertising's working after all." his fellow drill sergeant then matter-of-factly states "the army doesn't use subliminal ads" and then the pair slowly turn and look at each other. Not too different from the joke in The Simpsons episode mentioned above, this episode was a joking reference to the low military recruiting numbers in 2004 suggesting that the U.S. military uses such things in a tactic of desperation. And in an episode of Babylon 5, during a scene which represents a public service announcement for Psi Corps, the words "TRUST THE CORPS" and "THE CORPS IS YOUR FRIEND" appear on screen for four frames. J. Michael Straczynski wanted the audience to recognize the subliminal message; "I had my staff find out what constitutes subliminal material--and it's two frames per second, which is illegal, you can't do things at that speed--so I went four frames per second".[37] New Kids on the Blecch is an episode from the twelfth season of The Simpsons. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... This article is about the national personification of the USA. For other uses, see Uncle Sam (disambiguation). ... Malcolm in the Middle is a seven-time Emmy-winning,[1] one-time Grammy-winning[1] and seven-time Golden Globe-nominated[1] American sitcom created by Linwood Boomer for the Fox Network. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Armed Forces are the military services of the United States. ... Babylon 5 is an epic American science fiction television series created, produced, and largely written by J. Michael Straczynski. ... Spoiler warning: In the fictional universe of Babylon 5, the Psi Corps was an agency of the Earth Alliance responsible for telepathic individuals. ...


An early episode of the X-Files deals with a small town plagued by killings where the perpetrators are influenced by messages appearing on ATMs and other electronic devices. Mulder refers to the use of subliminal messages in several instances. The Family Guy episode Mr. Griffin Goes to Washington jokes about subliminal messages for smoking in television. It shows an old black and white TV show whose dialogue is repeatedly interrupted by a suited man stating "Smoke" and later "Are you smoking yet?" in a monotone voice. Later in the episode, when Peter is arguing with his bosses about smoking, the same man interrupts while saying "Smoke." X-Files intro from first 8 seasons The X-Files was a popular 1990s American science fiction television series created by Chris Carter. ... Family Guy is an Emmy Award-winning American animated television series about a dysfunctional family in the fictional town of Quahog, Rhode Island. ... Mr. ...


The advertising element is mocked in Terry Pratchett's Discworld novel Moving Pictures, when, to please a sponsor, a movie producer inserts a still image lasting several minutes of a serving of spare ribs. The producer claimed that if showing just a few frames would have a positive impact, imagine what showing it for longer would do. Terence David John Pratchett, OBE (born 28 April 1948) is a British fantasy and science fiction author, best known for his Discworld series. ... This article is about the novels. ... Moving Pictures is the name of the tenth Discworld novel by Terry Pratchett, published in 1990. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Spare ribs with Chinese barbecue sauce Spare ribs (also called spareribs) are a variety of pork ribs, eaten in various cuisines around the world. ...


References

Bibliography

  1. ^ a b c d e The Straight Dope: Does subliminal advertising work?. The Straight Dope. Retrieved on 2006-08-11.
  2. ^ a b Pratkanis, Anthony R.. "The Cargo-Cult Science of Subliminal Persuasion", Skeptical Inquirer, Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, Spring 1992, pp. 260-272. Retrieved on 2006-08-11. 
  3. ^ tachistoscope - Definitions from Dictionary.com
  4. ^ a b c d Urban Legends Reference Pages: Business (Subliminal Advertising). The Urban Legends Reference Pages. Retrieved on 2006-08-11.
  5. ^ Urban Legends Reference Pages: Subliminal Advertising
  6. ^ a b Lantos, Geoffrey P.. The Absolute Threshold Level and Subliminal Messages (PDF). Stonehill College. Retrieved on 2007-03-01.
  7. ^ Boese, Alex (2002). The Museum of Hoaxes: A Collection of Pranks, Stunts, Deceptions, and Other Wonderful Stories Contrived for the Public from the Middle Ages to the New Millennium, E. P. Dutton, ISBN 0-525-94678-0. pages. 137-38.
  8. ^ Peters, Dan; Steve Peters (1985). Rock's Hidden Persuader: The Truth About Backmasking. Bethany House Publishers, 19.  Cited in U.S. Senate, page 125.
  9. ^ U.S. Senate, page 118.
  10. ^ U.S. Senate, page 125.
  11. ^ Karremans, J. (2006). Beyond vicary’s fantasies: the impact of subliminal priming and brand choice [Electronic Version]. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 792-798
  12. ^ Vance, J., et al. v. Judas Priest et al., No. 86-5844, 2nd Dist. Ct. Nev. (August, 24 1990)
  13. ^ Eskenazi, J., & Greenwald, A.G., Pratkanis, A.R. (1990). What you expect is what you believe (but not necessarily what you get): On the ineffectiveness of subliminal self-help audiotapes. Unpublished manuscript. University of California. Santa Cruz.
  14. ^ Key, B. W. (1973). Subliminal seduction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  15. ^ Byrne, D. (1959). “The effect of a subliminal food stimulus on verbal responses.” Journal of Applied Psychology. 43 (no.4), 249-251.
  16. ^ Williams, Leanne M.; Belinda J. Liddell, Andrew H. Kemp, Richard A. Bryant, Russell A. Meares, Anthony S. Peduto, Evian Gordon (2006). "Amygdala-prefrontal dissociation of subliminal and supraliminal fear". Human Brain Mapping 27 (8): 652-661. doi:10.1002/hbm.20208. Retrieved on 2008-01-16. 
  17. ^ Brain Activity Reflects Complexity Of Responses To Other-race Faces, Science Daily, 14 December 2004
  18. ^ Hassin, Ferguson, Shidlovski, Gross (2007). Subliminal exposure to national flags affects political thought and behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, vol. 104, no. 50
  19. ^ Vokey, John R. (2002). "Subliminal Messages", Psychological Sketches (PDF), 6th edition, Lethbridge, Alberta: Psyence Ink, 223–246. Retrieved on 2006-07-05. 
  20. ^ Robinson, B.A.. Backmasking on records: Real, or hoax?. Retrieved on 2006-07-04.
  21. ^ Moore, Timothy E.. "Subliminal Perception: Facts and Fallacies", Skeptical Inquirer, Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, Spring 1992, pp. 273-81. Retrieved on 2006-08-11. 
  22. ^ BTK Back
  23. ^ Fight Club Easter Eggs - Eeggs.com
  24. ^ Screen It! Parental Review: Fight Club
  25. ^ Fight Club (1999) - Crazy credits
  26. ^ Crowley, Candy. "Bush says 'RATS' ad not meant as subliminal message" CNN.com, 2000-9-12. Retrieved on December 16, 2006
  27. ^ Smoking Pistols: George "Rat Ad" Bush and the Subliminal Kid
  28. ^ 9/19/00 Speech by Commissioner Harold Furchtgott-Roth: The FCC's Investigation of "Subliminal Techniques:"
  29. ^ Brasseye Wiki
  30. ^ Error - - New York Times
  31. ^ Re: [AMIA-L] Reply: "Sherlock Jr."
  32. ^ It was a glitch, not a subliminal ad, for McDonald's on Food Network. Canadian Press (2007-01-25). Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  33. ^ Subliminal advertising. - ninemsn Video
  34. ^ YouTube - Led Zeppelin : Greatest Secret
  35. ^ Media:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xdd01RI-AZE
  36. ^ Agency asks slot-machine maker to halt subliminal messages
  37. ^ Killick, Jane (1997). Babylon 5: The Coming of Shadows. The Ballantine Publishing Group, 131. 
  • Dixon, N. F. (1971). Subliminal Perception: The nature of a controversy, McGraw-Hill, New York.
  • Greeenwald, Anthony W. (1992). New Look 3: Unconscious Cognition Reclaimed, American Psychologist, 47.
  • Holender, D. (1986). Semantic activation without conscious identification in dichotic listening, parafoveal vision, and visual masking: A survey and appraisal. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 1-23.
  • Merikle, P. M., and M. Daneman (1998). Psychological Investigations of Unconscious Perception, Journal of Consciousness Studies.
  • Watanabe, Sasaki, Nanez (2001). Perceptual learning without perception. Nature, 413, 844-848.
  • Seitz and Watanabe (2003). Is subliminal learning really passive. Nature, 422, 36.
  • United States Senate (1985). Record Labeling: Hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate, Ninety-ninth Congress, First Session on Contents of Music and the Lyrics of Records (September 19, 1985). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Cecil Adams is the pen name of the author of The Straight Dope since 1973, a popular question and answer column published in The Chicago Reader, syndicated in thirty newspapers in the United States and Canada, and available online. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Skeptical Inquirer is a magazine of the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) dedicated to debunking pseudoscience. ... The Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, or CSICOP, is a U.S. organization founded to encourage the critical investigation of paranormal and fringe-science claims from a responsible, scientific point of view and disseminate factual information about the results of such inquiries to the scientific... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Urban Legends Reference Pages, also known as snopes. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Stonehill College is a private Roman Catholic college located in North Easton, Massachusetts, United States, founded in 1948. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... E. P. Dutton is an American book publishing company founded as a book retailer in Boston, Massachusetts in 1852 by Edward Payson Dutton. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Skeptical Inquirer is a magazine of the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) dedicated to debunking pseudoscience. ... The Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, or CSICOP, is a U.S. organization founded to encourage the critical investigation of paranormal and fringe-science claims from a responsible, scientific point of view and disseminate factual information about the results of such inquiries to the scientific... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brass Eye is a UK television series of satirical spoof documentaries which aired on Channel 4 in 1997 and was re-run in 2001. ... The Canadian Press (CP) is a Canadian news agency established in 1917 as a vehicle to permit Canadian newspapers of the day to exchange their news and information. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Journal of Consciousness Studies (JCS) is an interdisciplinary, peer-reviewed academic journal dedicated entirely to the field of consciousness studies. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States...

Further reading

  • Boese, Alex (2006). Hippo Eats Dwarf: A Field Guide to Hoaxes and Other B.S.'', Harcourt, Inc., ISBN 0-15-603083-7, 193-95

http://youtube.com/watch?v=m-rU_gStbyU


See also

Vance Packard (May 22, 1914 - December 12, 1996) was an American journalist, social critic, and author. ... In the 1985 film Max Headroom: 20 Minutes into the Future and the subsequent 1987 science fiction television show Max Headroom, blipverts were a new high-intensity television commercial which had the consequence of overloading the nervous systems of certain viewers. ... Robert B. Zajonc (1923-present) is a social psychologist who is best known for his decades of work on the mere exposure effect, the phenomenon that repeated exposure to a stimulus brings about an attitude change in relation to the stimulus. ... A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. ... The following are lists of hoaxes: // These are some claims that have been revealed to be deliberate public hoaxes. ... Backmasking (also known incorrectly as backward masking)[1] is a recording technique in which a sound or message is recorded backwards onto a track that is meant to be played forwards. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Judas Priest Subliminal Message Trial (Skeptical Inquirer November 1996) (5404 words)
Since the recipient of a subliminal message is unaware of it, the message can't contribute to dialogue, the pursuit of truth, the marketplace of ideas, or personal autonomy.
Shevrin's argument was that subliminal commands are especially potent because the recipient is unaware of their source and attributes the directive or the imperative to himself-to his own inner motivational state.
Empirical studies of subliminal perception indicate that, with rare exceptions, the phenomenon appears to be confined to a certain range of stimulus intensities (Cheesman and Merikle 1986).
Subliminal message (552 words)
Subliminal message are also implanted in all forms of media for the remembrance of the people because subliminal message are helpful in making subliminal self-help audio tapes for changing human habits and behaviors like overeating, smoking, drinking etc.
All subliminal message were presented to the women in both alert posture and relaxed posture using a set of headphones.
When they had to pay attention to the listening subliminal message, the physiological response was increased with the volume intensity more than with the meaning of the words but when listened in relaxed posture; the physiological response was increased more with the meaning of the words than the sound level.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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