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Encyclopedia > Sublimation (physics)

Sublimation of an element or substance is a conversion between the solid and the gas phases with no intermediate liquid stage. Sublimation is a phase transition that occurs at temperatures and pressures below the triple point (see phase diagram). In jewelry, a solid gold piece is the alternative to gold-filled or gold-plated jewelry. ... A gas is one of the five main phases of matter (after solid and liquid, and followed by plasma and Bose-Einstein Condensate) and, that subsequently appear as a solid material is subjected to increasingly higher temperatures. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container. ... In physics, a phase transition, (or phase change) is the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one phase to another. ... In physics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance may coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ...


At normal pressures, most chemical compounds and elements possess three different states at different temperatures. In these cases the transition from the solid to the gaseous state requires an intermediate liquid state. However, for some elements or substances at some pressures the material may transition directly from solid to the gaseous state. Note that the pressure referred to here is the vapor pressure of the substance, not the total pressure of the entire system. The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, often called simply an element, is a substance that cannot be decomposed or transformed into other chemical substances by ordinary chemical processes. ... Fig. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ...


The opposite of sublimation is deposition. The formation of frost is an example of meteorological deposition. Antonyms, from the Greek anti (against) and onoma (name) are word pairs that are opposite in meaning, such as hot and cold, fat and thin, and up and down. ... Deposition is a term used in chemistry to describe the settling of particles or sediment from a solution or suspension mixture, or the production of a solid on a pre-existing surface. ... It has been suggested that hoar frost be merged into this article or section. ... Deposition is the process by which, in sub-freezing air, water vapor changes directly to ice without first becoming a liquid. ...


Sublimation and the elements

Some materials (such as zinc and cadmium) will sublimate at low pressures and thus may be a problem encountered in high-vacuum applications. General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Atomic mass 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Atomic mass 112. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Carbon dioxide is a common example of a chemical compound that sublimates at atmospheric pressure - a block of solid CO2 (dry ice) set on a table will turn into gas without melting. Iodine is another example of a substance that visibly sublimates at room temperature. In contrast to CO2, though, it is possible to obtain liquid iodine at atmospheric pressure by heating it. Snow and other water ices also sublimate, although more slowly, at below-freezing temperatures. This phenomenon, used in freeze drying, allows wet cloth to be hung outdoors in freezing weather and retrieved later in a dry state. Naphthalene, a common ingredient in mothballs, also sublimes slowly. Arsenic can also sublimate at high temperatures. Sublimation requires additional energy and is an endothermic change. The enthalpy of sublimation can be calculated as the enthalpy of fusion plus the enthalpy of vaporization. Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure above any area in the Earths atmosphere caused by the weight of air. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Atomic mass 126. ... Animation of snowcover changing with the seasons. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Freeze drying (also known as Lyophilization) is a dehydration process typically used to preserve a perishable material, or to make the material more convenient for transport. ... Naphthalene (also known as naphthalin, naphthaline, tar camphor, white tar, albocarbon, or naphthene) is a crystalline, aromatic, white, solid hydrocarbon, best known as the primary ingredient of mothballs. ... Mothballs are small balls of chemical pesticide and deodorant used when storing clothing and other articles susceptible to damage from mold or moth larvae. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Atomic mass 74. ... Endothermic can mean: In biology, an endotherm is a type of animal that can control its body temperature. ... Heat of fusion is the amount of heat energy which must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of a substance to change states from a solid to a liquid or vice versa. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ...


Sublimation purification

Simple sublimation apparatus. Water usually cold, is circulated in cold finger to allow the desired compound to be deposited.1 Cooling water in 2 Cooling water out 3 Vacuum/gas line 4 Sublimation chamber 5 Sublimed compound 6 Crude material 7 External heating
Simple sublimation apparatus. Water usually cold, is circulated in cold finger to allow the desired compound to be deposited.
1 Cooling water in 2 Cooling water out 3 Vacuum/gas line 4 Sublimation chamber 5 Sublimed compound 6 Crude material 7 External heating

Sublimation is a technique used by chemists to purify compounds. Typically a solid is placed in a vessel which is then heated under vacuum. Under this reduced pressure the solid volatilizes and condenses as a purified compound on a cooled surface, leaving the non-volatile residue impurities behind. This cooled surface often take the form of a cold finger. Once heating ceases and the vacuum is released, the sublimed compound can be collected from the cooled surface. Image File history File links Sublimation_apparatus. ... Image File history File links Sublimation_apparatus. ... A chemist pours from a Florence flask. ... A compound is an area of land that is surrounded by fences, walls, or barbed wire and is used for a particular purpose, especially an area containing buildings and where the entry and exit of people is controlled. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra. ... Volatile is the name of more than one concept: A financial instrument with high volatility is considered volatile in economics. ... Volatile is the name of more than one concept: A financial instrument with high volatility is considered volatile in economics. ... Impurities are substances inside a confined amount of liquid, gas, or solid, which differ from the chemical composition of the material or compound. ... Cold fingers. ...


Uses

Frost-free freezers are the result of having a fan and air circulation inside the freezer. The sub-zero temperature combined with the air circulation that keeps the air arid, significantly accelerates the sublimation process. This keeps freezer walls and shelves free of ice, although ice-cubes will continually sublimate. Sub-Zero is the name of two characters from the Mortal Kombat series. ... Fig. ... An arid environment has a high precipitation deficit, receiving much less precipitation annually than would satisfy the climatological demand for evaporation and transpiration. ...


Dye sublimation is also often used in color printing on a variety of substrates, including paper. A small heater is used to vaporize the solid dye material, which then solidifies upon the paper. As this type of printer allows extremely fine control of the primary color ratios it is possible to obtain a good quality picture even with relatively low printer resolution, as compared to other printer types of similar resolution. Standard black and white laser printers are capable of printing on plain paper using a special "transfer toner" containing sublimation dyes which can then be permanently heat transferred to T-shirts, hats, mugs, metals, puzzles and other surfaces. The tone of this article is inappropriate for an encyclopedia. ... Color printing is the reproduction of an image or text in color (as opposed to simpler black and white or monochrome printing). ... Substrate is a term used in printing, mainly industrial printing, to describe the base material that images will be printed onto. ... Piece of A4 paper Paper is a thin material produced by the amalgamation of plant fibres, which are subsequently held together without extra binder, largely by hydrogen bonds and to a large degree by fiber entanglement. ... A primary color or colour is a color that cannot be created by mixing other colors in the gamut of a given color space. ...


In alchemy, sublimation typically refers to the process by which a substance is heated to a vapor, then immediately collects as sediment on the upper portion and neck of the heating medium (typically a retort or alembic). It is one of the 12 core alchemical processes. For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... A retort. ... An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two retorts connected by a tube. ... Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of the protoscience of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century. ...


In the Fast-Freeze, Deep-Etch technique, samples (for example, tissue samples) are rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen and transferred to a vacuum device in which surface ice is sublimed. This effectively etches the sample surface, revealing the preserved 3D structure of the hydrated material. A rotary shadowed surface replica can then be obtained via electron microscopy. :For other senses of this word, see dimension (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Sublimation is also used to create freeze-dried substances, for example tea, soup or drugs in a process called lyophilization, which consists in freezing a solution or suspension and heating it very slowly under medium to high vacuum - specifically, a pressure lower than the vapor pressure of the solvent at its melting point. This can be well under the melting point of water if there are organic solvents or salts in the sample being freeze-dried. The resulting solid is usually much easier to dissolve or resuspend than one that is produced from a liquid system, and the low temperatures involved cause less damage to sensitive or reactive substances. Oral medication Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world. ... Freeze drying (also known as Lyophilization) is a dehydration process typically used to preserve a perishable material, or to make the material more convenient for transport. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... It has been suggested that Solid solubility be merged into this article or section. ... Flour suspended in water In chemistry, a suspension is a colloidal dispersion (mixture) in which a finely-divided species is combined with another species, with the former being so finely divided and mixed that it doesnt rapidly settle out. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Benton Trophy Online - Sublimation F.A.Q. (1170 words)
Most sublimation products are made of a polyester/polystyrene blend of materials, that is specifically designed to accept the dye and high temperatures involved with this process.
True, sublimation is generally more expensive than screen printing (per piece), however with sublimation you get the ability to order as little as 1 item without being punished with extra charges.
The reason sublimation is generally more expensive is because the items are specially manufactured for the sublimation process using a special coating or fabric, and special dye, which intern reflects the price of the product.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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