FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Subhash Chandra Bose
Subhas Chandra Bose
January 23, 1897August 18, 1945 (disputed)

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose
Place of birth: Cuttack, Orissa, India
Place of death: Taiwan (disputed)
Movement: Indian Independence movement
Major organizations: Indian National Congress, All India Forward Bloc, Indian National Army

Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: নেতাজী সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু ( सुभाष चदंर वसु ) Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj and was a prominent supporter of the Axis dictatorships as a counterweight to European imperialism during the Second World War. He formed the Azad Hind Government in exile, and regrouped and led the Indian National Army to battle against the allies in Imphal & Burma during the World War II. January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: নেতাজী সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু ( सुभाष चदंर वसु ) Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj and was a prominent supporter of the Axis as a... Image File history File links Netaji_Subhas_Chandra_Bose. ... Cuttack   (derived from the Sanskrit word Kataka, which signifies a military camp or a fort or a Government seat protected by an army) is one of the oldest cities in India and the Business Capital of Orissa. ... Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... The Indian independence movement incorporated the efforts by Indians to liberate the region from British rule and form the nation-state of India. ... Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... The All India Forward Bloc is a leftwing nationalist political party in India. ... The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second... This article is about the Bengali language. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Death in absentia describes a legal finding of death if a person has been missing for more than a certain period of time. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The Indian independence movement incorporated the efforts by Indians to liberate the region from British rule and form the nation-state of India. ... The flag of British India British India, circa 1860 The British Raj (Raj in Hindi meaning Rule; from Sanskrit Rajya) was the British rule between 1858 and 1947 of the Indian Subcontinent, which included the present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Burma (Myanmar), whereby these lands were under the colonial... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second... Combatants British Fourteenth Army Indian IV Corps Japanese 15th Division Japanese 33rd Division Japanese 31st Division Commanders Louis Mountbatten Geoffrey Scoones Renya Mutaguchi Masakasu Kawabe Strength 4 Infantry Divisions 1 Armoured Brigade 1 Parachute Brigade 3 Infamtry about 100,000 Japanese Army Casualties 17,500 53,879 The Battle of... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Bose was elected president of the Indian National Congress for two consecutive terms. However, he had to resign from the post in the face of a motion of no-confidence, stemming from ideological conflicts with Mahatma Gandhi. Bose felt that Mahatma Gandhi's tactics of non-violence would never be sufficient to secure India's independence, and advocated violent resistance. He established a separate political party, the All India Forward Bloc and continued to call for the full and immediate independence of India from British rule. His stance did not change with the outbreak of War, which he saw as an opportunity to take advantage of British weakness. Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ... The All India Forward Bloc is a leftwing nationalist political party in India. ...


He was imprisoned by the British authorities 11 times. At the outset of World War II, in a daring act of escape from the eyes of the British, he fled from India, and reached Germany by a lengthy and dangerous route. He sought an alliance with the Axis powers with the aim of attacking the British in India from the Northwest. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


When this plan was foiled by the Nazi invasion of the USSR being pushed back, he headed for Japan and helped to organise—and later lead—the Indian National Army, put together from Indian prisoners-of-war and plantation workers from Malaysia,Singapore and other parts of Southeast Asia, against British forces during the Second World War. The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second... Austro-Hungarian POWs in Russia; a 1915 photo by Prokudin-Gorskii A prisoner of war (POW, PoW, or PW) is a combatant who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


His political views and the alliances he made with Nazi and other militarist regimes opposed to the British Empire have been the cause of arguments among historians and politicians, with some accusing him of Fascism and of Quislingist actions, while most others in India largely sympathetic towards his inculcation of realpolitik as a manifesto that guided his social and political choices. He is believed to have died on 18 August 1945 in a plane crash over Taiwan, however, contradicting evidence exists regarding his death in the accident. Quisling, after Norwegian fascist politician Vidkun Quisling, is a term used to describe traitors and collaborationists. ... Realpolitik (German: real (realistic, practical or actual) and Politik (politics)) is a term that is synonomous to Machiavellianism and is used to describe politics based on strictly practical rather than ideological notions, and practiced without any sentimental illusions. Realpolitik is usually used pejoratively as a term to imply politics imposed... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ...

Contents

Early life

Bose in his youth
Bose in his youth

Subhas Chandra Bose was born in 1897 to an affluent Bengali family in Cuttack, Orissa. His father, Janakinath Bose, was a public prosecutor who believed in orthodox nationalism, and later became a member of the Bengal Legislative Council. Bose was educated at Ravenshaw Collegiate School, Cuttack, Scottish Church College, Calcutta and Fitzwilliam College at Cambridge University. Image File history File links Young_Bose. ... Image File history File links Young_Bose. ... Cuttack   (derived from the Sanskrit word Kataka, which signifies a military camp or a fort or a Government seat protected by an army) is one of the oldest cities in India and the Business Capital of Orissa. ... Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Cuttack   (derived from the Sanskrit word Kataka, which signifies a military camp or a fort or a Government seat protected by an army) is one of the oldest cities in India and the Business Capital of Orissa. ... Scottish Church College at 175 The Scottish Church College, which is located at 1 & 3 Urquhart Square, Calcutta 700006 is the oldest continuing Missionary administered liberal arts and sciences academy in India. ... Full name Fitzwilliam College Motto Ex antiquis et novissimis optima Best of the old - and of the latest Named after Fitzwilliam Museum, named after Richard Fitzwilliam Previous names Fitzwilliam Hall [Non collegiate] (1869), Fitzwilliam House [Non collegiate] (1924) Established 1966 Sister College St Edmund Hall Master Prof. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ...



In 1920, Bose took the Indian Civil Service entrance examination and was placed fourth with highest marks in English. However, he resigned from the prestigious Indian Civil Service in April 1921 despite his high ranking in the merit list, and went on to become an active member of India's independence movement. He joined the Indian National Congress, and was particularly active in its youth wing. Indian Civil Service, popularly known by its acronym ICS, was the elite civil service of the Indian Government. ... Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ...


Still, Bose's ideals did not match those of Mahatma Gandhi's belief in non-violence. He therefore returned to Calcutta to work under Chittaranjan Das, the Bengali freedom fighter and co-founder (with Motilal Nehru) of the Swaraj Party. Chittaranjan Das (C.R.Das) (popularly called Deshbandhu) (November 25, 1870 - June 16, 1925) was a Bengali lawyer and a major figure in the Indian independence movement. ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ... The family of Motilal Nehru, who is seated in the centre. ... Swaraj Party, a political party of colonial India, was organized in 1923 by Deshbandhu Chitaranjan Das (1870-1925) and Motilal Nehru (1861-1931), to participate in legislative councils. ...


In 1921, Bose organised a boycott of the celebrations to mark the visit of the Prince of Wales to India, which led to his imprisonment. In April 1924, Bose was elected to the post of Chief Executive Officer of the newly constituted Calcutta Corporation, where Chittaranjan Das was mayor. Though Subhas was entitled to Rs 3000/month as salary but he decided to take only half of that amount, i.e. Rs 1500/month - still a very generous amount, considering that a schoolteacher earned less than Rs 50/month in those days. He used most of this money for charitable and relief work and for enhancing the volunteer level participation of the Swaraj Party. During this period he also monetarily supported the activities of the National Council of Education, Bengal (the future Jadavpur University) and the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, by helping them recruit teachers, occasionally taking classes and helping them in their administrative efforts. The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ... Chittaranjan Das (C.R.Das) (popularly called Deshbandhu) (November 25, 1870 - June 16, 1925) was a Bengali lawyer and a major figure in the Indian independence movement. ... Jadavpur University (Bengali: যাদবপুর বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়) (JU) is a state-funded university and a premier educational and research institution in India. ... The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science was established in July 1876 at 210 Bowbazar street, Kolkata, to foster high quality fundamental research in frontier disciplines of the basic sciences. ...


In October that year, Bose was arrested on suspicion of terrorism. At first, he was kept in Alipore Jail and later he was exiled to Mandalay in Burma (where earlier Tilak had spent 6 years in prison). On January 23, 1930, Bose was once again arrested for leading an "independence procession", protesting against British rule in India. After his release from jail on September 25, he was elected as the Mayor of the City of Calcutta. The Alipore Jail is a prison in Alipore, India, where political prisoners were kept under British rule, among them Subhash Chandra Bose. ... Mandalay (Burmese: ) is the second largest city in Myanmar (formerly Burma) with a population of 927,000 (2005 census), agglomeration 2,5 million. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ...

Bose arriving at the 1939 All India Congress Committee meeting. Photo courtesy of Tony Mitra
Bose arriving at the 1939 All India Congress Committee meeting. Photo courtesy of Tony Mitra

Over a span of 20 years, Bose was incarcerated eleven times by the British, either in India or in Rangoon. He spent many years in various capacities as the Chief Executive Officer of the Calcutta Municipal Corporation, and later as Mayor himself. Along with Jawaharlal Nehru, he was one of the radical left wing leaders of the Congress Party. During the mid 1930s he was exiled by the British from India to Europe, where he championed India's cause and aspiration for self-rule before gatherings and conferences. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 538 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 673 pixel, file size: 258 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Subhash Chandra Bose Metadata This file... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 538 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 673 pixel, file size: 258 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Subhash Chandra Bose Metadata This file... Yangôn, formerly Rangoon, population 4,504,000 (2001), is the capital of Myanmar. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Farsi Javaaher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, was a pivotal figure during the Indian independence movement and served as the first Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ...


After his father's death, the British authorities allowed him to land at Calcutta's airport only for the religious rites, which would be followed by his swift departure. He traveled extensively in India and in Europe before stating his political opposition to Gandhi. During his stay in Europe from 1933 to 1936, he met several European leaders and thinkers, including Benito Mussolini, Edvard Beneš, Karl Seitz, Eamon de Valera, Romain Rolland and Alfred Rosenberg. He came to believe that India could achieve political freedom only if it had political, military and diplomatic support from outside, and that an independent nation necessitated the creation of a national army to secure its sovereignty. Subhash Chandra Bose married Emilie Schenkl, an Austrian born national, who was his secretary, in 1937. According to Schenkl, she and Bose were secretly married in Bad Gastein on 26 December 1937. They had one daughter, Anita, born in 1942. Bose wrote many letters to Schenkl during the period 1934–1942, of which many have been published in the book Letters to Emilie Schenkl, edited by Sisir Kumar Bose and Sugata Bose. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... Edvard BeneÅ¡ Edvard BeneÅ¡ with wife 1921, autochrome portrait by Josef JindÅ™ich Å echtl Edvard BeneÅ¡ (May 28, 1884 - September 3, 1948) was a leader of the Czechoslovak independence movement and the second President of Czechoslovakia. ... Karl Seitz (September 4, 1869 - February 3, 1950) was an Austrian politician. ... Eamon de Valera (born Edward George de Valera, sometimes Gaelicised Éamon de Bhailéara; October 14, 1882 – August 29, 1975), was an Irish politician, best known as a leader of Irelands struggle for independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the early 20th century, and... Romain Rolland. ... Alfred Rosenberg Alfred Rosenberg (January 12, 1893, Reval (Tallinn) Estonia, then part of the Russian Empire–October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ... Fraü Emilie Schenkl Bose, an Austrian born national, was the secretary and later wife of Subhas Chandra Bose, the leader in India’s freedom struggle. ... Bad Gastein Bad Gastein is a city in Austria, situated in the middle of the National Park Hohe Tauern, at 1,000 metres above sea level, in fresh mountain air. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Anita Bose Pfaff (born 1942 in Vienna) is the daughter of Indian freedom fighter and nationalist leader Subhas Chandra Bose and his Austrian secretary, Emilie Schenkl. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ...


Bose became the president of the Haripura Indian National Congress in 1938, against Gandhi's wishes. He was elected for a second term in 1939 in the Tripuri Congress Session; Gandhi had supported Pattabhi Sitaramayya and commented "Subhas' victory is my defeat" after learning the election results. Although Bose won the election, Gandhi's continued opposition led to the latter's resignation from the Working Committee, and the possibility that the rest of the CWC would resign. In the face of this gesture of no-confidence, Bose himself resigned, and was left with no alternative but to form an independent party, the All India Forward Bloc. Bose also initiated the concept of the National Planning Committee in 1938. Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Tripuri childrens in traditional attire grouping up for song presentation A beautiful and colourful pattern of rigwnai. ... Dr Bhogaraju Pattabhi Sitaramayya was born on 24th November 1880 in Gundugolanu village, West Godavari District in Andhra Pradesh, India. ... The executive committee of the Congress Party in India, typically consisting of fifteen members elected from the All India Congress Committee or AICC, is known as the Congress Working Committee or CWC. It is headed by the Working President. ... The All India Forward Bloc is a leftwing nationalist political party in India. ...


Actions during the Second World War

Bose advocated the approach that the political instability of war-time Britain should be taken advantage of—rather than simply wait for the British to grant independence after the end of the war (which was the view of Gandhi, Nehru and a section of the Congress leadership at the time). In this, he was influenced by the examples of Italian statesmen Giuseppe Garibaldi and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi in 1866. ... Giuseppe Mazzini. ...


His correspondence reveals that despite his clear dislike for British subjugation, he was deeply impressed by their methodical and systematic approach and their steadfastly disciplinarian outlook towards life. In England, he exchanged ideas on the future of India with British Labour Party leaders and political thinkers like Lord Halifax, George Lansbury, Clement Attlee, Arthur Greenwood, Harold Laski, J.B.S. Haldane, Ivor Jennings, G.D.H. Cole, Gilbert Murray and Sir Stafford Cripps . He came to believe that a free India needed Socialist authoritarianism, on the lines of Turkey's Kemal Atatürk, for at least two decades. Bose was refused permission by the British authorities to meet Mr. Ataturk at Ankara for political reasons. It may be noted here that during his sojourn in England, only the Labour Party and Liberal politicians agreed to meet Bose when Bose tried to schedule appointments with them. Conservative Party officials refused to meet him or show him the minimum courtesy due to a politician coming from a colony. It may also be observed here that it was during the regime of the Labour Party with Mr. Attlee as the Prime Minister, that India became free in 1947. The Labour Party is a centre-left or social democratic political party in Britain (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ... Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, known as Lord Irwin from 1926 until 1934, (1881-1959) was a British Conservative politician. ... Under a cloud (with a silver lining). ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from 1945 to 1951. ... Arthur Greenwood (1880—1954) became deputy leader of the Labour Party under Clement Attlee, with Winston Churchill appointing him to the Cabinet as Minister without Portfolio in 1940. ... Harold Joseph Laski (Manchester, June 30, 1893 – March 24, 1950 in London) was an English political theorist, economist, author, and lecturer, and served as the 1945-1946 chairman of the Labour Party. ... John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (November 5, 1892 - December 1, 1964), who normally used J.B.S. as a first name, was a geneticist born in Scotland and educated at Eton and Oxford University. ... Sir William Ivor Jennings, KBE, was a British lawyer and educator who went to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) in 1942 with a mandate to create a university for that land, then a Crown colony. ... George Douglas Howard Cole (September 25, 1889 - January 14, 1959) was an English journalist and economist, closely associated with the development of Fabianism. ... Gilbert Murray (or George Gilbert Aime) (January 2, 1866 - 1957) was a British classical scholar and diplomat. ... Rt Hon Sir Stafford Cripps Sir Richard Stafford Cripps (April 24, 1889 - April 21, 1952), British Labour politician, was born in London, the son of a Conservative member of the House of Commons who late in life, as Lord Parmoor, joined the Labour Party. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–10 November 1938), until 1934 Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Turkish army officer and revolutionist statesman, was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ...


The Escape

The famous car that Bose's nephew drove with Bose during the latter's dramatic escape
The famous car that Bose's nephew drove with Bose during the latter's dramatic escape

On the outbreak of war, Bose advocated a campaign of mass civil disobedience to protest against the Viceroy, Lord Linlithgow's decision to declare war on India's behalf without consulting the Congress leadership. Having failed to persuade Gandhi of the necessity of this, Bose organised mass protests in Calcutta calling for the 'Holwell Monument' commemorating the Black Hole of Calcutta, which then stood at the corner of Dalhousie Square, to be removed. A reasonable measure of the contrast between Gandhi and Bose is captured in a saying attributable to him: "If people slap you once, slap them twice". He was thrown in jail by the British, but was released following a seven-day hunger strike. Bose's house in Calcutta was kept under surveillance by the CBI, but their vigilance left a good deal to be desired. With two court cases pending, he felt the British would not let him leave the country before the end of the war -Bose, This set the scene for Bose's escape to Germany, via Afghanistan and the Soviet Union. Bose had never been to Afghanistan, and could not speak the local tribal language (Pashto). Bose escaped from under British surveillance at his house in Calcutta. On January 19, 1941, accompanied by his nephew Sisir K. Bose, Bose gave his watchers the slip and journeyed to Peshawar. With the assistance of the Abwehr, he made his way to Peshawar where he was met at Peshawar Cantonment station by Akbar Shah, Mohammed Shah and Bhagat Ram Talwar. Bose was taken to the home of Abad Khan, a trusted friend of Akbar Shah's. On 26 January 1941, Bose began his journey to reach Russia through India's North West frontier with Afghanistan. For this reason, he enlisted the help of Mian Akbar Shah, then a Forward Bloc leader in the North West Frontier Province. Shah had been out of India en route to the Soviet Union, and suggested a novel disguise for Bose to assume. Since Bose could not speak one word of Pashto, it would make him an easy target of Pashto speakers working for the British. For this reason, Shah suggested that Bose act deaf and dumb, and let his beard grow to mimic those of the tribesmen. Image File history File links CarBose. ... Image File history File links CarBose. ... Victor Alexander John Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow (24 September 1887 - 5 January 1952) was a British statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1943. ... The Black Hole of Calcutta was a small dungeon where troops of the Nawab of Bengal held British prisoners of war after the capture of Fort William on June 20, 1756. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... The Abwehr was a German intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944. ... Peshāwar (Pashto: پښور; Urdu: پشاور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pakhawar in Pashto. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... The All India Forward Bloc is a leftwing nationalist political party in India. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ...

Cancelled passport of Bose
Cancelled passport of Bose

Supporters of the Aga Khan helped him across the border into Afghanistan where he was met by an Abwehr unit posing as a party of road construction engineers from the Organization Todt who then aided his passage across Afghanistan via Kabul to the border with Soviet Russia. Once in Russia the NKVD transported Bose to Moscow where he hoped that Russia's traditional enmity to British rule in India would result in support for his plans for a popular rising in India. However, Bose found the Soviets' response disappointing and was rapidly passed over to the German Ambassador in Moscow, Count von der Schulenberg. He had Bose flown on to Berlin in a special courier aircraft at the beginning of April where he was to receive a more favorable hearing from von Rippentrop and the Foreign Ministry officials at the Wilhelmstrasse.[1] Image File history File links Cancelledpassport_of_Bose. ... Image File history File links Cancelledpassport_of_Bose. ... This article is about the hereditary title. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Friedrich-Werner Graf von der Schulenburg (born 20 November 1875 in Kemberg, Saxony-Anhalt; died 10 November 1944 in Berlin) began his diplomatic career even before the First World War, serving as consul and ambassador in several countries. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop with his son. ... Wilhelmstraße (William street) in Berlin became during the 19th century the governmental neighbourhood of Prussia. ...


Assassination Attempts

In 1941, when the British learned that Bose had sought the support of the Axis Powers, they ordered their agents to intercept and kill Bose before he reached Germany. A recently declassified intelligence document refers to a top-secret instruction to the Special Operations Executive (SOE) of British intelligence to murder Bose. For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Special Operations Executive (SOE), sometimes referred to as the Baker Street Irregulars after Sherlock Holmess fictional group of spies, was a World War II organization initiated by Winston Churchill and Hugh Dalton in July 1940 as a mechanism for conducting warfare by means other than direct military engagement. ...


The decision was extraordinary, unusual and rare, and it seemed that the British took Bose much more seriously than many had thought. In fact, the plan to liquidate Bose has few parallels, and appears to be a last desperate measure against a man whose uncompromising radicalism had seriously worried the leadership of the British Empire.[2] The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


In Germany

See also: Legion Freies Indien and Azad Hind Radio
Subhash Chandra Bose and a German army officer
Subhash Chandra Bose and a German army officer

Having escaped incarceration at home by assuming the guise of a Pathan insurance agent ("Ziaudddin") to reach Afghanistan, Bose traveled to Moscow on the passport of an Italian nobleman "Count Orlando Mazzotta". From Moscow, he reached Rome, and from there he traveled to Germany, where he instituted the Special Bureau for India under Adam von Trott zu Solz, broadcasting on the German-sponsored Azad Hind Radio. He founded the Free India Centre in Berlin, and created the Indian Legion (consisting of some 4500 soldiers) out of Indian prisoners of war who had previously fought for the British in North Africa prior to their capture by Axis forces. The Indian Legion was attached to the Wehrmacht, and later transferred to the Waffen SS;[3] its members swore their allegiance to both Hitler and Bose to secure India's independence. At a time, when no one in Germany dared criticise Hitler, Bose was openly critical of Hitler's treatment of Jews, the destruction of democratic institutions in Germany and the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union. He was also, however, prepared to envisage an invasion of India via the U.S.S.R. by Nazi troops, spearheaded by the Azad Hind Legion; many have questioned his judgment here, as it seems unlikely that the Germans could have been easily persuaded to leave after such an invasion, which might also have resulted in an Axis victory in the War.[4] The Legion Freies Indien, or the Indische Freiwilligen-Legion Regiment 950 variously known as the Tiger Legion, the Free India Legion (in English), The Azad Hind Legion, or the I.R 950 (Indisches Infanterie Regiment 950) was an Indian armed unit raised in 1941 attached to the Wehrmacht, ostensibly according... Radio Service wich was started in leadership of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose in Germany to unite Indians to fight for freedom. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (861x563, 92 KB) Summary Bose and a German officer wearing tropical uniform. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (861x563, 92 KB) Summary Bose and a German officer wearing tropical uniform. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun (Persian: پختون) (Urdu: پشتون ), or Pathan) or ethnic Afghans[4] are an ethno-linguistic group living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Bureua of India most probably is the first Indian embassy type thing in the World. ... Adam von Trott zu Solz (born August 9, 1909 in Potsdam, Germany - died August 26, 1944 in Berlin, Germany) was a lawyer and diplomat who opposed the Nazi regime. ... Radio Service wich was started in leadership of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose in Germany to unite Indians to fight for freedom. ... During World War 2 the Tiger Legion was a unit of the German Wehrmacht made up of men from India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... During World War 2 the Tiger Legion was a unit of the German Wehrmacht made up of men from India. ... Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The lack of interest shown by Hitler in the cause of Indian independence eventually caused Bose to become disillusioned with Hitler and he decided to leave Nazi Germany in 1943. Bose had been living together with his wife Schenkl in Berlin from 1941 until 1943, when he left for south-east Asia. He travelled by the German submarine U-180 around the Cape of Good Hope to Imperial Japan (via Japanese submarine I-29), which helped him raise his army in Singapore. This was the only civilian transfer across two submarines of two different navies in World War II. Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Unterseeboot 180 or U-180 was a German Type IX D-1 U-boat or submarine used during World War II. Her keel was laid in February 1941 at AG Weser yard in Bremen, and she was launched in May 1942. ... The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ... I-29, code-named Matsu (松, Japanese for pine tree), was a B1 type submarine of the Imperial Japanese Navy used during World War II on two secret missions with Germany, during one of which she was sunk. ...


Indian National Army

Main article: Indian National Army
See also: Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind, Mohan Singh Deb, and Rash Behari Bose
Bose as the leader of INA
Bose as the leader of INA

The Indian National Army (INA) was originally founded by Capt Mohan Singh in Singapore in September 1942 with Japan's Indian POWs in the Far East. This was along the concept of- and with support of- what was then known as the Indian Independence League,headed by expatriate nationalist leader Rash Behari Bose. The first INA was however disbanded in December 1942 after disagreements between the Hikari Kikan and Mohan singh, who came to believe that the Japanese High Command was using the INA as a mere pawn and Propaganda tool. Mohan Singh was taken into custody and the troops returned to the Prisoner-of-War camp. However, the idea of a liberation army was revived with the arrival of Subhas Chandra Bose in the Far East in 1943. In July, at a meeting in Singapore, Rash Behari Bose handed over control of the organisation to Subhash Chandra Bose. At its height it consisted of some 85,000[citation needed] regular troops, including a separate women's army unit named after Rani Lakshmi Bai (the women's combat army unit was the first of its kind in Asia). These troops were under the aegis of a provisional government, with its own currency, court and civil code, called the "Provisional Government of Free India" (or, the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind), and recognised by nine Axis states—Germany, Japan, Italy, the Independent State of Croatia, Wang Jingwei's Government in Nanjing, Thailand, a provisional government of Burma, Manchukuo and Japanese-controlled Philippines. Recent researches have shown that the USSR too had recognised the "Provisional Government of Free India". Of those countries, five were puppet states established by Axis occupation. This government participated as a delegate or observer in the so-called Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... General Mohan Singh Deb (1909-1989), famous for his part in the Indian National Army for the liberation of India from British rule, in which he held the rank of a general, was born the only son of Tara Singh and Hukam Kaur, a peasant couple of Ugoke village, near... Rashbehari Bose (1885-1945) was a revolutionary leader against the British Raj in India and was one of the organisers of the Indian National Army. ... Image File history File links Subhas_Bose. ... Image File history File links Subhas_Bose. ... In Polynesian mythology, Ina is a lunar deity (daughter of Kui or Vaitere) Ina, also known as Ine, was king of Wessex from 688 to 726. ... The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second... General Mohan Singh Deb (1909-1989), famous for his part in the Indian National Army for the liberation of India from British rule, in which he held the rank of a general, was born the only son of Tara Singh and Hukam Kaur, a peasant couple of Ugoke village, near... Look up September in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Rashbehari Bose (1885-1945) was a revolutionary leader against the British Raj in India and was one of the organisers of the Indian National Army. ... Equestrian statue of Jhansi ki Rani Rani Lakshmi Bai also known as Jhansi Ki Rani, was the queen of Jhansi, a Maratha-ruled princely state of northern India, was one of the great nationalist heroes of the War of Independence of 1857, and a symbol of resistance to British rule... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1941–1945). ... The Wang Jingwei Government was a government under the leadership of Wang Jingwei in the Republic of China, set up by the Empire of Japan in March 1940. ... Manchukuo (1932–1945), Manchu country, was a former state in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia created by former Qing Dynasty officials and Imperial Japan in 1932. ... Poster of Manchukuo promoting harmony between Japanese, Han Chinese and Manchu. ...


As the Japanese pressed forward through Burma towards India, some of the INA's troops assisted in the Japanese victory over the British in the battles of Arakan and Meiktila, along with the Burmese National Army led by Ba Maw and Aung San. A year after the islands were taken by the Japanese, the Provisional Government and the INA were established in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal, part of the British Indian Empire under Japanese occupation, which he renamed Shaheed (Martyr) and Swaraj (Self-rule). Bose visited the islands on just one occasion late in 1943, when he was carefully screened from the local population by the Japanese authorities, who at that time were torturing the leader of the Indian Independence League on the Islands, Dr. Diwan Singh (who later died of his injuries, in the Cellular Jail). The islanders made several attempts to alert Bose to their plight, but apparently without success.[5] Arakan is a state in the North Western part of Myanmar, formerly Burma. ... MEIKTILA is in Mandalay division of Myanmar; population (1901) 252,305, and is located at 20°53N, 95°53 E. It is situated on the banks of magnificent Lake Meiktila, an ancient irrigation and drinking water reservoir, and at the junction of the Bagan-Taunggyi and Yangon-Mandalay roads. ... Ba Maw (February 8, 1893 – May 29, 1977) was a Burmese political leader. ... Aung San General Aung San (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ); February 13, 1915 – July 19, 1947) was a Burmese revolutionary, nationalist, general, and politician. ... The Andaman and Nicobar Islands (8,293 sq km on 139 islands), are a group of islands situated in the Bay of Bengal at about 780 miles from Kolkata, 740 miles from Chennai and 120 miles from Cape Nargis in Burma. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... Map of Nicobar Islands The Nicobar Islands are an island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean, and are part of India. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Cellular Jail (also known as Kaala paani, literally Black water, a term for the deep sea and hence exile) situated in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) was completed in 1906. ...


On the Indian mainland, an Indian Tricolour, modeled after that of the Indian National Congress, was raised for the first time in the town in Moirang, in Manipur, in northeastern India. The towns of Kohima and Imphal were placed under siege by divisions of the Japanese, Burmese and the Gandhi and Nehru Brigades of I.N.A. during the attempted invasion of India, also known as Operation U-GO. However, Commonwealth forces held both positions and then counter-attacked, in the process inflicting serious losses on the besieging forces, which were then forced to retreat back into Burma. Moirang is a district situated in the south of India, 45 km from Imphal, Manipur. ... Manipur   (Bengali: মণিপুর,Now in Meitei mayek) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... Kohima is the hilly capital of Indias north eastern border state of Nagaland which shares its borders with Burma. ... Imphal is the capital of Manipur, India. ...


At the time of the Great Bengal Famine of 1943, during which millions died of starvation as a consequence of British inefficiency and indifference, Bose had offered (through radio) to provide Burmese rice to the victims of the famine. The British authorities in India (and in the UK) refused the offer, arguing that it was made for propaganda purposes. The Bengal famine of 1943 occurred in undivided Bengal (now independent Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal) in 1943. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ...


Bose had hoped that large numbers of soldiers would desert from the Indian Army when they would discover that INA soldiers were attacking British India from the outside.[6] However, this did not materialise on a sufficient scale. Instead, as the war situation worsened for the Japanese, troops began to desert from the INA. At the same time Japanese funding for the army diminished, and Bose was forced to raise taxes on the Indian populations of Malaysia and Singapore, sometimes extracting money by force.[7] When the Japanese were defeated at the battles of Kohima and Imphal, the Provisional Government's aim of establishing a base in mainland India was lost forever. The INA was forced to pull back, along with the defeated Japanese Army. Japan's surrender also led to the eventual surrender of the Indian National Army. The Battle of Kohima was a battle of the Burma Campaign in World War II, fought around the town of Kohima in northeast India from April 4 to June 22, 1944. ... Combatants British Fourteenth Army Indian IV Corps Japanese 15th Division Japanese 33rd Division Japanese 31st Division Commanders Louis Mountbatten Geoffrey Scoones Renya Mutaguchi Masakasu Kawabe Strength 4 Infantry Divisions 1 Armoured Brigade 1 Parachute Brigade 3 Infamtry about 100,000 Japanese Army Casualties 17,500 53,879 The Battle of... The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second...


Spoken as a part of a motivational speech for the Indian National Army at a rally of Indians in Burma on July 4, 1944, Bose's most famous quote was "Give me blood, and I shall give you freedom!" (which in Hindi translates to तुम मुझे खून दो, मैं तुम्हे आज़ादी दूँगा!). In this, he urged the people of India to join him in his fight against the British Raj. Spoken in Hindi, Bose's words are highly evocative. For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


His other famous quote was, "Delhi chalo", meaning "On to Delhi!". This was the call he used to give the INA armies to motivate them. "Jai Hind(जय हिन्द!)", or, "Glory to India!" was another slogan used by him and later adopted by the Government of India and the Indian Armed Forces. Jai Hind is a salutation most commonly used in India in speeches and communications pertaining to or referring to patriotism towards India. ... The Indian Armed Forces is the primary military organization responsible for the territorial security and defense of India. ...

See also: Legion Freies Indien and Battaglione Azad Hindoustan

The Legion Freies Indien, or the Indische Freiwilligen-Legion Regiment 950 variously known as the Tiger Legion, the Free India Legion (in English), The Azad Hind Legion, or the I.R 950 (Indisches Infanterie Regiment 950) was an Indian armed unit raised in 1941 attached to the Wehrmacht, ostensibly according... The Battaglione Azad Hindoustan was a unit of Indian troops formed in Fascist Italy under the Raggruppamento Centri Militari in July 1942. ...

Disappearance and alleged death

Officially, Bose died in a plane crash over Taiwan, while flying to Tokyo on 18 August 1945. However, his body was never recovered, and many theories have been put forward concerning his possible survival. One such claim is that Bose actually died in Siberia, while in Soviet captivity. Several committees have been set up by the Government of India to probe into this matter. His last undisputed picture that was taken on the morning of August 17, 1945 in Saigon The alleged death of Subhas Chandra Bose[1] in a plane crash in Taiwan on August 18, 1945, has been the subject of dispute till date. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


In May 1956, a four-man Indian team (known as the Shah Nawaz Committee) visited Japan to probe the circumstances of Bose's alleged death. The Indian government did not then request assistance from the government of Taiwan in the matter, citing their lack of diplomatic relations with Taiwan. However, as far back as 1956, the Government of Taiwan informed a British investigation that no air crash had occurred in that country between August and October 1945. Details are available in the book "Netaji - Dead or Alive?" by Indian ex-MP, late Shri Samar Guha and in the book "Back From Dead: Inside the Subhas Bose Mystery" by journalist Anuj Dhar. The G D Khosla Commission (1970-1974) too could not reach to any conclusion as it failed to take inputs from Taiwan. Published in 1978, Guha's book is the first-ever and easily the most comprehensive compilation on the Netaji disappearance mystery, which effectively trashes the Taihoku air crash story. On the basis of this book, Mr. Morarji Desai, the then Prime Minister of India, rejected the G D Khosla Commission report in Parliament in 1978.


However, the Inquiry Commission under Justice Mukherjee, which investigated the Bose disappearance mystery in the period 1999-2005, did approach the Taiwanese government and obtained information from the Taiwan Government that no plane carrying Bose had ever crashed in Taipei [1]. The Mukherjee Commission also received a report originating from the US State Department, supporting the claim of the Taiwan Government that no such air crash took place during that time frame [2]. The Mukherjee Commission refers to the one-man board of Mr. ...


There are theories of political effort to classify information on the death mystery. In fact, according to some, Nehru did not wish to unveil the mystery behind Bose's disappearance and led to hushing of some important documents.[8] It has been reported that a conversation reportedly took place between Josef Stalin and Vyacheslav Molotov in 1946 about whether Bose should remain in the Soviet Union, although he is supposed to have died the year before. There are theories that Bose had kept contact with the Soviets after the defeat of the Axis powers became apparent, and traveled to Manchuria instead of Taiwan (Manchuria was occupied by the Soviets in the final days of the war). (Russian, in full: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин [Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin]; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922-1953... For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ...


The Mukherjee Commission submitted its report to the Indian Government on November 8, 2005. The report was tabled in Parliament on May 17, 2006. The probe said in its report that Bose did not die in the plane crash and the ashes at Renkoji temple are not his. However, the Indian Government rejected the findings of the Commission, amid speculation that accepting it would "harm Nehru's image".


Political views

Main article: Political Views of Bose Bose with Gandhi in 1938 Subhash Chandra Bose advocated complete freedom for India at the earliest, whereas most of the Congress Committee wanted it in phases, through a Dominion status. ...


Bose advocated complete freedom for India at the earliest, whereas most of the Congress Committee wanted it in phases, through a Dominion status.[9]


At the time the Second World War began, great divisions existed in the Indian independence movement about whether to exploit the weakness of the British to achieve independence. Some felt that any distinctions between the political allegiances and ideologies of the warring factions of Europe were inconsequential in the face of the possibility of Indian independence, given the fact that the British resisted democratic reforms in India. Others felt that it was inappropriate to seek concessions when Britain itself was in peril, or else that pressure was better applied within India and in peaceful fashion, and found that their distaste for Nazi Germany and Japan outweighed any possibility that an alliance with them would bring India's independence closer.


See also

The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... The Legion Freies Indien, or the Indische Freiwilligen-Legion Regiment 950 variously known as the Tiger Legion, the Free India Legion (in English), The Azad Hind Legion, or the I.R 950 (Indisches Infanterie Regiment 950) was an Indian armed unit raised in 1941 attached to the Wehrmacht, ostensibly according... Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon (born 18 March 1914 died 06 February 2006), popularly known as Col. ... Captain Doctor Lakshmi Sehgal, an India doctor and politician. ... Fraü Emilie Schenkl Bose, an Austrian born national, was the secretary and later wife of Subhas Chandra Bose, the leader in India’s freedom struggle. ... Anita Bose Pfaff (born 1942 in Vienna) is the daughter of Indian freedom fighter and nationalist leader Subhas Chandra Bose and his Austrian secretary, Emilie Schenkl. ... Angami Zapu Phizo was the Nagaland based Indian revolutionary, who dreamt of making a free Naga state. ... The All India Forward Bloc is a leftwing nationalist political party in India. ... All India Netaji Revolutionary Party, was a political party in India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The following is a compilation of people who have mysteriously disappeared, whose death is not substantiated, whose remains have not been recovered, whose current whereabouts are unknown, and who (except for the most recent cases) may be presumed deceased. ... Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology (NSIT), New Delhi is an Institution of Government of NCT of Delhi under Department of Training and Technical Education and comes formally under the purview of Delhi University. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Kurowski, The Brandenburgers - Global Mission, p. 136
  2. ^ Bhaumik S, British "attempted to kill Bose" BBC news. 15 August 2005. URL accessed on 6 April 2006
  3. ^ Rudolf Hartog The Sign of the Tiger (Delhi: Rupa) 2001 pp159-60
  4. ^ Sen, S. 1999. Subhas Chandra Bose 1897-1945. From webarchive of this URL. URL accessed on 7 April, 2006.
  5. ^ N. Iqbal Singh The Andaman Story (Delhi: Vikas Publ.) 1978 p249; Jayant Dasgupta Japanese in Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Red Sun over Black Water (Delhi: Manas Publications) 2002 pp67, 73-5. With reference to this it is interesting to note that during the 1970s the leader of the Communist Party in the Lok Sabha, Samar Guha, proposed renaming the Islands once again as Shaheed and Swaraj, as Bose would have wanted. This was strongly opposed by K.R. Ganesh, a Minister in Indira Gandhi's Government, and the one prominent Indian politician to have hailed from the Andamans, on the grounds that Bose had failed the people of the islands in 1943. When asked in debate by Guha whether atrocities had been committed before or after Bose's visit, Ganesh replied "Before, during and after" Dasgupta Red Sun over Black Water p77
  6. ^ Bose, Subhas Chandra. Speech at a mass rally, Singapore, 9 July 1943. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose & India's Independence. Tanilnation.org. URL accessed on 7 April 2006
  7. ^ Toye, H. "The Springing Tiger", pp. 112, 113, 115. Collected from Montgomery, A. Subhas Chandra.... JHR.
  8. ^ Namboodiri, U. Despite Formosa probe, Nehru closed chapter on Netaji. The Pioneer. URL accessed on 7 April 2006
  9. ^ Subhas Chandra Bose.Itihas.sify.com. URL accessed on 7 April 2006

Reading List

  • Indian Pilgrim: an unfinished autobiography / Subhas Chandra Bose; edited by Sisir Kumar Bose and Sugata Bose, Oxford University Press, Calcutta, 1997
  • Netaji - Dead or Alive? / Samar Guha; 1978
  • Back from Dead: Inside the Subhas Bose Mystery / Anuj Dhar, Manas Publications, New Delhi; 2005
  • The Indian Struggle, 1920-1942 / Subhas Chandra Bose; edited by Sisir Kumar Bose and Sugata Bose, Oxford University Press, Calcutta, 1997
  • A WILL FOR FREEDOM: Subhas Chandra Bose and the Indian Independence Movement in Southeast Asia" / Romen Bose, V.J. Times, Singapore, 1993
  • Brothers Against the Raj—A biography of Indian Nationalists Sarat and Subhas Chandra Bose / Leonard A. Gordon, Princeton University Press, 1990
  • Lost hero: a biography of Subhas Bose / Mihir Bose, Quartet Books, London; 1982
  • Democracy Indian style: Subhas Chandra Bose and the creation of India's political culture / Anton Pelinka; translated by Renée Schell, New Brunswick, NJ : Transaction Publishers (Rutgers University Press), 2003
  • Subhas Chandra Bose: a biography / Marshall J. Getz, Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., USA, 2002
  • The Springing Tiger: Subhash Chandra Bose / Hugh Toye : Cassell, London, 1959
  • Netaji and India's freedom: proceedings of the International Netaji Seminar, 1973 / edited by Sisir K. Bose. International Netaji Seminar (1973: Calcutta, India), Netaji Research Bureau, Calcutta, India, 1973
  • Correspondence and Selected Documents, 1930-1942 / Subhas Chandra Bose; edited by Ravindra Kumar, Inter-India, New Delhi, 1992.
  • Letters to Emilie Schenkl, 1934-1942 / Subhash Chandra Bose; edited by Sisir Kumar Bose and Sugata Bose, Permanent Black : New Delhi, 2004
  • Japanese-trained armies in Southeast Asia: independence and volunteer forces in World War II / Joyce C. Lebra, New York : Columbia University Press, 1977
  • Jungle alliance, Japan and the Indian National Army / Joyce C. Lebra, Singapore, Donald Moore for Asia Pacific Press,1971
  • The Forgotten Army: India's Armed Struggle for Independence / Peter Ward Fay, Calcutta: Rupa & Co., 1994
  • Burma: The Forgotten War / Jon Latimer, London: John Murray, 2004

Mihir Bose is a British Indian sportswriter and journalist. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Subhash Chandra Bose
Wikisource has original text related to this article:


Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Banglapedia is a National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. ... Sify Limited (formerly known as Satyam Infoway Limited ) (NASDAQ: SIFY) is a major ISP company based in Chennai, India. ...

          Indian Independence Movement               
History: Colonisation - British East India Company - Plassey - Buxar - British India - French India - Portuguese India - More...
Philosophies: Indian nationalism - Swaraj - Gandhism - Satyagraha - Hindu nationalism - Indian Muslim nationalism - Swadeshi - Socialism
Events and movements: Rebellion of 1857 - Partition of Bengal - Revolutionaries - Champaran and Kheda - Jallianwala Bagh Massacre - Non-Cooperation - Flag Satyagraha - Bardoli - 1928 Protests - Nehru Report - Purna Swaraj - Salt Satyagraha - Act of 1935 - Legion Freies Indien - Cripps' mission - Quit India - Indian National Army - Bombay Mutiny
Organisations: Indian National Congress - Ghadar - Home Rule - Khudai Khidmatgar - Swaraj Party - Anushilan Samiti - Azad Hind - More...
Indian leaders: Mangal Pandey - Rani of Jhansi - Bal Gangadhar Tilak - Gopal Krishna Gokhale - Lala Lajpat Rai - Bipin Chandra Pal - Mahatma Gandhi - Sardar Patel - Subhash Chandra Bose - Badshah Khan - Jawaharlal Nehru - Maulana Azad - Chandrasekhar Azad - Rajaji - Bhagat Singh - Sarojini Naidu - Purushottam Das Tandon - Tanguturi Prakasam - More...
British Raj: Robert Clive - James Outram - Dalhousie - Irwin - Linlithgow - Wavell - Stafford Cripps - Mountbatten - More...
Independence: Cabinet Mission - Indian Independence Act - Partition of India - Political integration - Constitution - Republic of India


  Results from FactBites:
 
Calcuttaweb - People : Subhash Chandra Bose (1313 words)
Bose was a fierce and popular leader in the political scene in pre-independence India.
Subhas Chandra was born on January 23rd 1897 in Cuttack as the ninth child among fourteen, of Janakinath Bose, an advocate, and Prabhavati Devi, a pious and God-fearing lady.
Bose was outspoken in his anti-British stance and was jailed 11 (eleven) times between 1920 and 1941 for periods varying between six months and three years.
Subhash Chandra Bose - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6603 words)
Subhas Chandra Bose was born to an affluent family in Cuttack, Orissa.
Bose visited the islands on just one occasion late in 1943, when he was carefully screened from the local population by the Japanese authorities, who at that time were torturing the leader of the Indian Independence League on the Islands, Dr. Diwan Singh (who later died of his injuries, in the Cellular Jail).
Bose's judgment in allying with the Japanese has been questioned, as many argue that he would have been unable to ensure an independent India had he ridden to power on Japanese bayonets, and was in danger of being turned into a puppet ruler like Pu-yi, the last Chinese Emperor in Manchukuo.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m