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Encyclopedia > Subatomic particle
Helium atom (schematic)Showing two protons (red), two neutrons (green) and two electrons (yellow).
Helium atom (schematic)
Showing two protons (red), two neutrons (green) and two electrons (yellow).

A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite particle smaller than an atom. Particle physics and nuclear physics are concerned with the study of these particles, their interactions, and non-atomic matter. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the novel, see The Elementary Particles. ... Elementary particles An elementary particle is a particle with no measurable internal structure, that is, it is not a composite of other particles. ... A particle is Look up Particle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In particle physics, a basic unit of matter or energy. ... Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... Quark matter or QCD matter refers to any of a number of phases of matter whose degrees of freedom include quarks and gluons. ...


Subatomic particles include the atomic constituents electrons, protons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are composite particles, consisting of quarks. A proton contains two up quarks and one down quark, while a neutron consists of one up quark and two down quarks; the quarks are held together in the nucleus by gluons. There are six different types of quark in all ('up', 'down', 'bottom', 'top', 'strange', and 'charm'), as well as other particles including photons and neutrinos which are produced copiously in the sun. Most of the particles that have been discovered are encountered in cosmic rays interacting with matter and are produced by scattering processes in particle accelerators. There are dozens of subatomic particles. For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Elementary particles An elementary particle is a particle with no measurable internal structure, that is, it is not a composite of other particles. ... For other uses, see Quark (disambiguation). ... In particle physics, gluons are subatomic particles that cause quarks to interact, and are indirectly responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... For other uses, see Neutrino (disambiguation). ... Sol redirects here. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... For the DC Comics Superhero also called Atom Smasher, see Albert Rothstein. ...

Contents

Introduction to particles

In particle physics, the conceptual idea of a particle is one of several concepts inherited from classical physics, the world we experience, that are used to describe how matter and energy behave at the molecular scales of quantum mechanics. As physicists use the term, the meaning of the word "particle" is one which understands how particles are radically different at the quantum-level, and rather different from the common understanding of the term. Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... Classical physics is physics based on principles developed before the rise of quantum theory, usually including the special theory of relativity and general theory of relativity. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ...


The idea of a particle is one which had to undergo serious rethinking in light of experiments which showed that that the smallest particles (of light) could behave just like waves. The difference is indeed vast, and required the new concept of wave-particle duality to state that quantum-scale "particles" are understood to behave in a way which resembles both particles and waves. Another new concept, the uncertainty principle, meant that analyzing particles at these scales required a statistical approach. All of these factors combined such that the very notion of a discrete "particle" has been ultimately replaced by the concept of something like wave-packet of an uncertain boundary, whose properties are only known as probabilities, and whose interactions with other "particles" remain largely a mystery, even 80 years after quantum mechanics was established. A particle is Look up Particle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In particle physics, a basic unit of matter or energy. ... A WAVES Photographer 3rd Class The WAVES were a World War II era division of the U.S. Navy that consisted entirely of women. ... In physics, wave-particle duality holds that light and matter exhibit properties of both waves and of particles. ... In quantum physics, the outcome of even an ideal measurement of a system is not deterministic, but instead is characterized by a probability distribution, and the larger the associated standard deviation is, the more uncertain we might say that that characteristic is for the system. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ...

 string theory 

Energy

Energy and matter we have studied from Einstein's hypotheses are analogous: matter can be austerely denoted in terms of energy. Thus, we have only discovered two mechanisms in which energy can be transferred. These are particles and waves. For example, light can be expressed as both particles and waves. This paradox is known as the Duality Paradox. [1]. Einstein redirects here. ... An analogy is a comparison between two different things, in order to highlight some form of similarity. ... In physics, a particle is an object, or body, with only a few degrees-of-freedom, including position, and perhaps orientation in space. ... A WAVES Photographer 3rd Class The WAVES were a World War II era division of the U.S. Navy that consisted entirely of women. ... In physics, a particle is an object, or body, with only a few degrees-of-freedom, including position, and perhaps orientation in space. ... A WAVES Photographer 3rd Class The WAVES were a World War II era division of the U.S. Navy that consisted entirely of women. ... Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Particles are discrete, their energy is centralized into what appears to be a finite space, which possesses absolute boundaries and its contents we contemplate to be homogenous i.e. the same at any point within the particle. Particles subsist at a particular location. If they are demonstrated on a 3D graph, they have x, y, and z coordinates. They can never exist in more than one location at once, and to travel to a different place in space, a particle must move to it under the laws of kinematics, acceleration, velocity and so forth. [2] In mathematics, a set is called finite if and only if there is a bijection between the set and some set of the form {1, 2, ..., n} where is a natural number. ... This article is about the idea of space. ... Homogeneous is an adjective that has several meanings. ... Kinematics (Greek κινειν,kinein, to move) is a branch of mechanics which describes the motion of objects without the consideration of the masses or forces that bring about the motion. ...


Interactions between particles have been scrutinized for many centuries, and a few simple laws underpin how particles proceed in collisions and interactions. The most angelic of these are the conservation of energy and momentum which facilitate us to elucidate calculations between particle interactions on scales of magnitude which diverge between planets and quarks[3]. These are the prerequisite basics of Newtonian mechanics, a series of statements and equations in Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica originally published in 1687. Look up conservation of energy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A planet (from the Greek πλανήτης, planetes or wanderers) is a body of considerable mass that orbits a star and that produces very little or no energy through nuclear fusion. ... For other uses of this term, see: Quark (disambiguation) 1974 discovery photograph of a possible charmed baryon, now identified as the Σc++ In particle physics, the quarks are subatomic particles thought to be elemental and indivisible. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Classical mechanics. ... Newtons own copy of his Principia, with handwritten corrections for the second edition. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ...


Dividing an atom

The study of electrochemistry led G. Johnstone Stoney to postulate the existence of the electron (denoted e) in 1874 as a constituent of the atom. It was observed in 1897 by J. J. Thomson. Subsequent speculation about the structure of atoms was severely constrained by the 1907 experiment of Ernest Rutherford which showed that the atom was mostly empty space, and almost all its mass was concentrated into the (relatively) tiny atomic nucleus. The development of the quantum theory led to the understanding of chemistry in terms of the arrangement of electrons in the mostly empty volume of atoms. Protons (p+) were known to be the nucleus of the hydrogen atom. Neutrons (n) were postulated by Rutherford and discovered by James Chadwick in 1932. The word nucleon denotes both the neutron and the proton. English chemists John Daniell (left) and Michael Faraday (right), both credited to be founders of electrochemistry as known today. ... George Johnstone Stoney (1826-1911) was an Irish physicist. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Joseph John “J.J.” Thomson, OM, FRS (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was a British physicist and Nobel laureate, credited for the discovery of the electron and of isotopes, and the invention of the mass spectrometer. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM PC FRS (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937), widely referred to as Lord Rutherford, was a nuclear physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom () or a hydrogen-like ion (), where the negatively charged electron confined to an atomic shell encircles a small positively charged atomic nucleus, and an electron jump between orbits is accompanied by an emitted or absorbed amount of electromagnetic energy . ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sir James Chadwick, CH (20 October 1891 – 24 July 1974) was an English physicist and Nobel laureate who is best known for discovering the neutron. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In physics a nucleon is a collective name for two baryons: the neutron and the proton. ...


Electrons, which are negatively charged, have a mass of 1/1836 of a hydrogen atom, the remainder of the atom's mass coming from the positively charged proton. The atomic number of an element counts the number of protons. Neutrons are neutral particles with a mass almost equal to that of the proton. Different isotopes of the same nucleus contain the same number of protons but differing numbers of neutrons. The mass number of a nucleus counts the total number of nucleons. This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... The mass number (A), also called atomic mass number (not to be confused with atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus) or nucleon number, is the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) in an atomic nucleus. ...


Chemistry concerns itself with the arrangement of electrons in atoms and molecules, and nuclear physics with the arrangement of protons and neutrons in a nucleus. The study of subatomic particles, atoms and molecules, their structure and interactions, involves quantum mechanics and quantum field theory (when dealing with processes that change the number of particles). The study of subatomic particles per se is called particle physics. Since many particles need to be created in high energy particle accelerators or cosmic rays, sometimes particle physics is also called high energy physics. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Quantum field theory (QFT) is the quantum theory of fields. ... Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... For the DC Comics Superhero also called Atom Smasher, see Albert Rothstein. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the elementary constituents of matter and radiation, and the interactions between them. ...


History

J. J. Thomson discovered electrons in 1897. In 1905 Albert Einstein demonstrated the physical reality of the photons which were postulated by Max Planck in order to solve the problem of black body radiation in thermodynamics. Ernest Rutherford discovered in 1907 in the gold foil experiment that the atom is mainly empty space, and that it contains a heavy but small atomic nucleus. The early successes of the quantum theory involved explaining properties of atoms in terms of their electronic structure. The proton was soon identified as the nucleus of hydrogen. The neutron was postulated by Rutherford following his discovery of the nucleus, but was discovered by James Chadwick much later, in 1932. Neutrinos were postulated in 1931 by Wolfgang Pauli (and named by Enrico Fermi) to be produced in beta decays (the weak interaction) of neutrons, but were not discovered till 1956. Pions were postulated by Hideki Yukawa as mediators of the strong force which binds the nucleus together. The muon was discovered in 1936 by Carl D. Anderson, and initially mistaken for the pion. In the 1950s the first kaons were discovered in cosmic rays. Sir Joseph John “J.J.” Thomson, OM, FRS (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was a British physicist and Nobel laureate, credited for the discovery of the electron and of isotopes, and the invention of the mass spectrometer. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... “Planck” redirects here. ... As the temperature decreases, the peak of the black body radiation curve moves to lower intensities and longer wavelengths. ... Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM PC FRS (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937), widely referred to as Lord Rutherford, was a nuclear physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Top: Expected results: alpha particles passing through the plum pudding model of the atom undisturbed. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom () or a hydrogen-like ion (), where the negatively charged electron confined to an atomic shell encircles a small positively charged atomic nucleus, and an electron jump between orbits is accompanied by an emitted or absorbed amount of electromagnetic energy . ... Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule or other body. ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sir James Chadwick, CH (20 October 1891 – 24 July 1974) was an English physicist and Nobel laureate who is best known for discovering the neutron. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Neutrino (disambiguation). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Austrian-Swiss physicist. ... Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 – November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, particle physics and statistical mechanics. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... The weak interaction (often called the weak force or sometimes the weak nuclear force) is one of the four fundamental interactions of nature. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In particle physics, pion (short for pi meson) is the collective name for three subatomic particles: Ï€0, Ï€+ and π−. Pions are the lightest mesons and play an important role in explaining low-energy properties of the strong nuclear force. ... Hideki Yukawa Hideki Yukawa FRSE (湯川 秀樹, January 23, 1907 - September 8, 1981) was a Japanese theoretical physicist and the first Japanese to win the Nobel prize. ... The strong nuclear force or strong interaction (also called color force or colour force) is a fundamental force of nature which affects only quarks and antiquarks, and is mediated by gluons in a similar fashion to how the electromagnetic force is mediated by photons. ... The muon (from the letter mu (μ)--used to represent it) is an elementary particle with negative electric charge and a spin of 1/2. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carl David Anderson (3 September 1905 – 11 January 1991) was a U.S. experimental physicist. ... In particle physics, pion (short for pi meson) is the collective name for three subatomic particles: Ï€0, Ï€+ and π−. Pions are the lightest mesons and play an important role in explaining low-energy properties of the strong nuclear force. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... In particle physics, Kaons (also called K-mesons and denoted K) are a group of four mesons distinguished by the fact that they carry a quantum number called strangeness. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ...


The development of new particle accelerators and particle detectors in the 1950s led to the discovery of a huge variety of hadrons, prompting Wolfgang Pauli's remark: "Had I foreseen this, I would have gone into botany". The classification of hadrons through the quark model in 1961 was the beginning of the golden age of modern particle physics, which culminated in the completion of the unified theory called the standard model in the 1970s. The discovery of the weak gauge bosons through the 1980s, and the verification of their properties through the 1990s is considered to be an age of consolidation in particle physics. Among the standard model particles the existence of the Higgs boson remains to be verified— this is seen as the primary physics goal of the accelerator called the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. All currently known particles fit into the standard model. For the DC Comics Superhero also called Atom Smasher, see Albert Rothstein. ... The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is an example of a large particle detector. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A hadron, in particle physics, is a subatomic particle which experiences the nuclear force. ... This article is about the Austrian-Swiss physicist. ... In physics, the quark model is a classification scheme for hadrons in terms of their valence quarks, i. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions For the Standard Model in Cryptography, see Standard Model (cryptography). ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... The Higgs boson, also known as the God particle, is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. ... The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a particle accelerator and collider located at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland (). Currently under construction, the LHC is scheduled to begin operation in May 2008. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ...


Visualisation

In 2000 a group of scientists from University of Michigan joined forces with designer Jan-Henrik Andersen with a goal "to nurture a future consensus on how to visually represent subatomic particle energy and matter". They resulted in a project "Sized Matter: perception of the extreme unseen" where series of particles such as photon and some atomic events were depicted possibly closely to what is 'natural'. The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ...


References

  1. ^ Einstein, Albert; Robert W. Lawson (1920). Relativity: The Special & General Theory. New York Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 1-58734-092-5. 
  2. ^ Laws of Kinematics
  3. ^ Isaac Newton - Newton's Laws of Motion (Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica). 1687.

Einstein redirects here. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to special relativity. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ... Kinematics (Greek κινειν,kinein, to move) is a branch of mechanics which describes the motion of objects without the consideration of the masses or forces that bring about the motion. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... Newtons own copy of his Principia, with handwritten corrections for the second edition. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ...

See also

Poincare symmetry is the full symmetry of special relativity and includes translations (ie, displacements) in time and space (these form the Abelian Lie group of translations on space-time) rotations in space (this forms the non-Abelian Lie group of 3-dimensional rotations) boosts, ie, transformations connecting two uniformly moving... CPT-symmetry is a fundamental symmetry of physical laws under transformations that involve the inversions of charge, parity and time simultaneously. ... The spin-statistics theorem in quantum mechanics relates the spin of a particle to the statistics obeyed by that particle. ... In particle physics, bosons, named after Satyendra Nath Bose, are particles having integer spin. ... In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ... Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... This is a list of particles in particle physics, including currently known and hypothetical elementary particles, as well as the composite particles that can be built up from them. ... In physics, the quark model is a classification scheme for hadrons in terms of their valence quarks, i. ... The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions For the Standard Model in Cryptography, see Standard Model (cryptography). ...

External links

  • particleadventure.org: The Standard Model
  • particleadventure.org: Particle chart
  • University of California: Particle Data Group
  • Annotated Physics Encyclopædia: Quantum Field Theory
  • Jose Galvez: Chapter 1 Electrodynamics (pdf)
  • Subatomic Particles: from Electrons to Quarks

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