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Encyclopedia > Styria (duchy)
Coat of arms of the Dukes of Styria, crowned with the ducal hat, today state coat

The Duchy of Styria (German: Herzogtum Steiermark, Slovenian ┼átajerska) was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until its dissolution in 1918. This mountainous and scenic region, which became a centre for mountaineering in the 19th century, is often called the "Green March", because half of the area is covered with forests and one quarter with meadows, grasslands, vineyards and orchards. Styria is also rich in minerals, soft coal and iron, which has been mined at Erzberg since the time of the Romans. The Windisch Buheln is a famous Austrian wine-producing district. Styria was for long the most densely-populated and productive mountain region in Europe. Image File history File links Steiermark_Landeswappen. ... Image File history File links Steiermark_Landeswappen. ... The ducal hat of the Duchy of Styria is jagged crown made out of gilded silver. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (German: Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation â–¶(?), Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium Nationis Germanicae, see names and designations of the empire) was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ...


Styria's population before World War I was 68% German-speaking, 32% Slovene, bordered on (clockwise) Lower Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Carniola, Carinthia, Salzburg, and Upper Austria. In 1918 after World War I the southern, Slovene-speaking third south of the river Mur was incorporated into Slovenia in the Yugoslavia. The remaining two thirds became the Austrian federal state of Styria, while the Slovenian third (Lower Styria) is an informal province in Slovenia. The capital of the duchy has always been Graz as well as the residence of the governor and the seat of the administration of the province. Combatants Entente Powers Central Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties > 5 million military deaths > 3 million military deaths World War I, also known as the First World War and (before 1939) the Great War, the War of the Nations, War to End All Wars was a world conflict... Map of Lower Austria showing districts and the four quarters (Waldviertel in green, Weinviertel in red, Mostviertel in yellow and Industrieviertel in blue) Lower Austria (de: Niederösterreich) is one of the nine states or Länder in Austria. ... Carniola English and Latin; (Slovenian Kranjska, German Krain) is a name for a region in Slovenia. ... Coat of arms of the Dukes of Carinthia, today state coat The Duchy of Carinthia (German language: Kärnten, Slovenian: Koroška) was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until it dissolved in 1918. ... Flag of Salzburg Salzburg (population 145,000 in 2003) is a city in western Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg (population 520,000 in 2003). ... Upper Austria (Ober sterreich) is one of the nine federal states or Bundesl nder of Austria. ... Combatants Entente Powers Central Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties > 5 million military deaths > 3 million military deaths World War I, also known as the First World War and (before 1939) the Great War, the War of the Nations, War to End All Wars was a world conflict... Mura (German Mur) is a river in Central Europe, a subsidiary of the bigger Drava and subsequently Danube. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... Since Austria is a federal republic according to the constitutional framework of Austrian politics, Austrias nine provinces are customarily referred to as States of Austria or Bundesländer, singular Bundesland. ... Styria (die Steiermark in German, Štajerska in Slovenian) is a state or Land, located in the south east of Austria. ... Styria (Štajerska in Slovenian) is an informal province (pokrajina) in northeast Slovenia, known for its white wine. ... The Graz Schlossberg Clock Tower Graz [graːts] (Slovenian: Gradec IPA: /gra. ...

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Styria in the first millennium

The Roman history of Styria is as part of Noricum and Pannonia, with a Celtic population of the Taurisci. During the great migrations, various Germanic tribes traversed the region using the river valleys and low passes, but about 600 CE the Slavs took possession and settled. The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... This article is about the European people. ... The German term Völkerwanderung (lit. ... For other uses, see number 600. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ...


When Styria came under the hegemony of Charlemagne as a part of Karantania (Carinthia), erected as a border territory against the Avars and Slavs, there was a large influx of Bavarii and other Christianized Germanic peoples, whom the bishops of Salzburg and the patriarchs of Aquileia kept faithful to Rome. Bishop Virgilius of Salzburg (745-84), was largely instrumental in establishing a church hierarchy in the Duchy and gained for himself the name of "Apostle of Karantania". In 811 Charlemagne made the Drave river the boundary between the Dioceses of Salzburg and Aquileia. Charlemagne (742 or 747–28 January 814) (also Charles the Great; from Latin, Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus) was the king of the Franks from 768 to 814 and king of the Lombards from 774 to 781. ... Karantania sometimes Carantania, Carentania, Carinthia (in old Slovenian onomastics Korotan, or Karantanija) was a Slavic principality that developed in the 6th century and was centered on the territory of contemporary Carinthia. ... Coat of arms of the Dukes of Carinthia, today state coat The Duchy of Carinthia (German language: Kärnten, Slovenian: KoroÅ¡ka) was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until it dissolved in 1918. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who migrated into central and eastern Europe in the 6th century. ... Bavarii was a large and powerful tribe which emerged late in Teutonic tribal times, in what is now the Czech Republic (Bohemia). ... The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice of converting pagan cult practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Flag of Salzburg Salzburg (population 145,000 in 2003) is a city in western Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg (population 520,000 in 2003). ... Aquileia (Friulian Acuilee, Slovene Oglej), an ancient town of Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 6 to. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,823,807 almost 4,000,000 1... Events Births November 10 - Musa al-Kazim, Shia Imam (d. ... Events Kyoto becomes the Japanese capital. ... The Twelve Apostles (in Koine Greek απόστολος apostolos [1], someone sent forth/sent out, an emissary) were probably Galilean Jewish men (10 names are Aramaic, 4 names are Greek) chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth by Jesus of Nazareth to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles... Events July 26 - Battle of Pliska: Nicephorus I is defeated by the Bulgar khan Krum, and is succeeded by Stauracius as Byzantine emperor. ... River Drava at Drávaszabolcs, Hungary River Drava at Vízvár, Hungary River Drava at Maribor, Slovenia Drave (German: Drau, Slovenian, Croatian and Italian: Drava, Hungarian: Dráva) is a river in southern Central Europe, flowing East from South Tyrol, Italy through Carinthia, Austria, and Slovenia (145 km) then... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ...


Steiermark

In the 10th century a part of Styria was separated from Carinthia under the name of the Carinthian March; it was also named the Windic March. The margraves ruling the march (known as the Otakars) took from the name of the fortified castle of Steier the title of Margraves of Styria, and the country received its German name Steiermark. During the reign of Margrave Ottokar IV (1164-92) Styria was raised to a duchy by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, in 1180 after the fall of Henry the Lion of Bavaria. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Margrave is the English and French form of the German title Markgraf (from Mark march and Graf count) and certain equivalent nobiliary (princely) titles in other languages. ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to an area along a border, e. ... The Otakars were a dynasty ruling Styria from 1056 to 1192. ... Ottokar IV (1163 – May 5, 1192) was Margrave of Styria and Duke from 1180 onwards, when Styria, previously a margraviate subordinated to the duchy of Carinthia, was raised to the status of an independent duchy. ... // Events Count Henry I of Champagne marries Marie de Champagne. ... // Events The Third Crusade ends in disaster. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Frederick I (German: Friedrich I. von Hohenstaufen)(1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Friedrich Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Coronation of Henry the Lion and Matilda of England (1188) Henry the Lion (face of statue on his tomb in Brunswick Cathedral) Henry the Lion (1129 - August 6, 1195; in German, Heinrich der Löwe) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony as Henry III since...


With the death of Ottokar the first line of rulers of Styria became extinct; the region fell successively to the Babenberg family, rulers of Austria, as stipulated in the Georgenberg Pact; after their extinction to the control of Hungary (1254-60); to King Ottokar of Bohemia; in 1276 to the Habsburgs, who provided it with Habsburgs for Styrian dukes during the years 1379-1439 and 1564-1619. Originally from Bamberg in Franconia, now northern Bavaria, the Babenbergs or Babenberger ruled Austria as counts of the march and dukes from 976 - 1248, before the rise of the house of Habsburg. ... This is a list of margraves, dukes, archdukes, and emperors of Austria. ... The Georgenberg Pact was signed on August 17, 1186 on the Georgenberg above Enns and consisted of two parts. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fukakusa of Japan Emperor Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan September 3 - Mongols defeated by Mameluks at Battle of Ain Jalut Samogatians and Curonians defeats Teutonic knights in Battle of Durbe Births Maximus Planudes, Byzantine grammarian and theologian Deaths Monarchs/Presidents... Otakar II (also spelled Ottokar or Přemysl Otakar/Ottokar) (c. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... Events Robert of Geneva, the butcher of Cesena was elected as Pope Clement VII. This led to a schism in the Catholic church with one pope in Rome (Pope Gregory XI and the antipope (Clement VII) in Avignon. ... Events Battle of Grotnik, which ended the hussite movement in Poland Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway is declared deposed in Sweden. ... Events March 8 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ...


At the time of the Ottoman invasions in the 16th and 17th centuries the land suffered severely and was depopulated. The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly twenty times; churches, monasteries, cities, and villages were destroyed and plundered, while the population was either killed or carried away into slavery. Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


Religious history of Styria

The Protestant Reformation made its way into the country about 1530. Duke Karl (ruling 1564-90), whose wife was the Catholic Duchess Maria of Bavaria, introduced the Counter-Reformation into the country; in 1573 he invited the Jesuits into Styria and in 1586 he founded the Catholic University of Graz. In 1598 his son and successor Ferdinand suppressed all Protestant schools and expelled the teachers and preachers: Protestant doctrines were maintained only in a few isolated mountain valleys, as in the valley of the Inn and the valley of the Mur. On a narrow reading of the Peace of Augsburg, 1555, with its principle of cuius regio eius religio, only the nobility were not forced to return to the Roman Church; each could have Protestant services privately in his own house. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which emerged in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... Events June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Archduke Charles II of Inner Austria ( Vienna June 3, 1540 – July 10, 1590 in Graz) was an Archduke of Austria and Regent of Inner Austria from the House of Habsburg from 1564. ... Events March 8 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Events March 14 - Battle of Ivry - Henry IV of France again defeats the forces of the Catholic League under the Duc de Mayenne. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Events January - articles of Warsaw Confederation signed, sanctioning religious freedom in Poland. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The University of Graz (founded 1585), a university located in Graz, Austria, is the second-largest university in Austria. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the house of Habsburg, ruled 1620-1637. ... The Peace of Augsburg was a treaty signed between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League on September 25, 1555 at the city of Augsburg in Germany. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Cuius regio, eius religio is a phrase in Latin that means, Whose the region is, his religion. ...


After Ferdinand had become Holy Roman Emperor in 1619 and had defeated his Protestant opponents in the Battle of the White Mountain near Prague in 1620, he forbade all Protestant church services whatsoever (1625). In 1628 he commanded the nobility also to return to the Catholic faith. A large number of noble families, consequently, emigrated from the country; but most of them either returned, or their descendants did so, becoming Catholics and recovering their possessions. Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... Battle of White Mountain Conflict Thirty Years War Date November 8, 1620 Place Bílá Hora near Prague Result Bohemian defeat In the Battle of White Mountain, 1620 November 8, (Bílá hora is the name of White Mountain in Czech) an army 15,000 Bohemians and mercenaries under Christian... Prague (Czech: Praha, German: Prag, see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... Events September 6 - English emigrants on the Mayflower depart from Plymouth, England for the future New England and arrive at the end of the year. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Events March 1 - writs were issued in February 1628 by Charles I of England that every county in England (not just seaport towns) pay ship tax by this date. ...


In the second half of the 17th century renewed action against the Protestants in the isolated mountain valleys resulted in the expulsion of Protestant ministers with the peasants who would not give up Protestantism; about 30,000 chose compulsory emigration to Transylvania over conversion. Only an Edict of Toleration issued by Emperor Joseph II as late as 1781 put an end to religious repression. The Protestants then received the right to found parish communities and to exercise their religion in those enclaves undisturbed. Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, invariably on the basis of ethnicity or religion. ... Transylvania (Romanian: Transilvania or Ardeal; Hungarian: Erdély; German: Siebenbürgen; see also other languages) forms the western and central parts of Romania. ... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1848 all the provinces of the Habsburg Monarchy received complete liberty of religion and of conscience, parity of religions, and the right to the public exercise of religion. 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ...


Ecclesiastically the province was historically divided into two Catholic prince-bishoprics, Seckau and Lavant. Ever since the time of their foundation both have been suffragans of the Archdiocese of Salzburg. The Prince-Bishopric of Sekau was established in 1218; since 1786 the see of the prince-bishop has been Graz. The Prince-Bishopric of Lavant was founded as a bishopric in 1228, and raised to a prince-bishopric in 1446; since 1847 Marburg an der Drau (Maribor) has been the see of the prince-bishop. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // Events Damietta is besieged by the knights of the Fifth Crusade. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Events The Sixth Crusade is launched by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX. Conrad IV of Germany becomes titular King of Jerusalem, with Frederick II as regent. ... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The old part of Maribor Lent Drava Maribor (German: Marburg an der Drau) is a city in Slovenia, the seat of the Maribor urban municipality. ...


Styria contains many old abbeys and monasteries: the collegiate foundation of the Reformed Augustinian Canons of Vorau (founded 1163); the Benedictine abbeys at Admont (1074) (Catholic Encyclopedia article); at St. Lambrecht (1066); at Seckau (founded as a house of the Augustinian Canons in 1140, suppressed in 1782, from 1883 a monastery, since 1887 abbey of the Beuronese Benedictines); the Cistercian abbey at Rein (1120); the Franciscan monastery at Graz (since 1515; founded in 1230 as a monastery of the Minorites), at Maria-Lankowitz (1467), at Maria-Nazareth (1632); the Minorite monasteries at Graz (1526), and of St. Peter and Paul at Pettau (Ptuj 1239); the Capuchin monasteries at Cilli (Celje 1611), Leibnitz (1634), Hartberg (1654), and Schwanberg (1706). The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ... Events Owain Gwynedd is recognized as ruler of Wales. ... ... Admont is a town in Styria, Austria with a population of 2775 (as of 2001). ... Events Births February 12 - Conrad, King of Germany and Italy (d. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned King of England the day after Edward the Confessor dies. ... Seckau is a Marktgemeinde in the region of Styria, Austria. ... Events Henry Jasomirgott was made count palatine of the Rhine. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1883 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1887 is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar). ... The longest lasting of the western Catholic monastic orders, the Benedictine Order traces its origins to the adoption of the monastic life by St. ... The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ... Rein generally refers to the reins used in horseback riding and horse driving. ... Events Welcher of Malvern creates a system of measurement for the earth using degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude and longitude. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... The Graz Schlossberg Clock Tower Graz [graːts] (Slovenian: Gradec IPA: /gra. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Kingdom of Leon unites with the Kingdom of Castile. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Events January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Area: 66. ... // Events Births June 17 - King Edward I of England (died 1307) December 17 - Kujo Yoritsugu, Japanese shogun (died 1256) Peter III of Aragon (died 1285) John II, Duke of Brittany (died 1305) Ippen, Japanese monk (died 1289) Deaths March 3 - Vladimir III Rurikovich, Grand Prince of Kiev (born 1187) March... The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (OFM Cap) is an order of friars in the Roman Catholic Church, the chief and only permanent offshoot of the Franciscans. ... Celje (German Cilli, Hungarian Cille) (46. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... Leibnitz town hall with Mariensäule Leibnitz is a city in Styria, Austria and, as of 2001, has about 6892 inhabitants. ... Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and...


19th century Styria

The Semmering Railway, completed in 1854, was a triumph of engineering in its time, the oldest of the great European mountain railways; it was remarkable for its numerous and long tunnels and viaducts spanning mountain valleys, running from Gloggnitz in Lower Austria to M├╝rzzuschlag in Styria, and passing through some exceedingly beautiful scenery. The railway brought tourists to alpine lake resorts and mineral springs at Rohitsch and Gleichenberg, the brine springs of Aussee, and the thermal springs of Tuffer, Neuhaus and Tobelbad. Semmering Railway at Mürzzuschlag, around 1900 The Semmering Railway, Austria, which starts at Gloggnitz and leads over the Semmering to Mürzzuschlag is commonly referred to as the worlds first mountain railway, especially given the very difficult terrain and difference in height. ... 1854 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Bad Aussee, Austria Mährisch-Aussee, see Úsov Alt-Aussee This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Neuhaus refers to: Albert Neuhaus Gert Neuhaus Gustav Neuhaus Heinrich Neuhaus Max Neuhaus Richard John Neuhaus Stanislav Neuhaus Amt Neuhaus Neuhaus Tower This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


20th century

Following World War I, Styria was divided in the Treaty of Saint Germain. Lower Styria with the cities of Celje and Maribor became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, while the rest remained with Austria as the State of Styria. Other than in Carinthia, no fighting resulted from this, in spite of minority populations on both sides (the larger cities of Lower Styria were largely German-speaking). Combatants Entente Powers Central Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties > 5 million military deaths > 3 million military deaths World War I, also known as the First World War and (before 1939) the Great War, the War of the Nations, War to End All Wars was a world conflict... The Treaty of Saint-Germain, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new republic of Austria on the other. ... Styria (Štajerska in Slovenian) is an informal province (pokrajina) in northeast Slovenia, known for its white wine. ... Celje (German Cilli, Hungarian Cille) (46. ... The old part of Maribor Lent Drava Maribor (German: Marburg an der Drau) is a city in Slovenia, the seat of the Maribor urban municipality. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... Styria (die Steiermark in German, Å tajerska in Slovenian) is a state or Land, located in the south east of Austria. ... Coat of arms of the Dukes of Carinthia, today state coat The Duchy of Carinthia (German language: Kärnten, Slovenian: KoroÅ¡ka) was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until it dissolved in 1918. ...


Lower Styria was reattached to the Reichsgau Styria from 1942 to 1945, when it was returned to Yugoslavia. Today, it makes up about the eastern third of Slovenia. A Reichsgau was a province within the Greater Germany of 1938 to 1945 (from the start of territorial annexation to the fall of the Third Reich). ... This article is about the year. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages, in Cyrillic Југославија) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ...


Margraves and Dukes of Styria

After Ottokar IV, Styria fell to the Austrian Babenberg dynasty. For later rulers, see List of rulers of Austria. Ottokar I, Count of Steyr (died 1064), was the founder of the dynasty of the Otakars. ... Events Sunset Crater Volcano first erupts. ... Adalbero (died 1086 or 1087) was Margrave of Styria from 1064 until 1082. ... Events Sunset Crater Volcano first erupts. ... Events Domesday Book is completed in England Emperor Shirakawa of Japan starts his cloistered rule Imam Ali Mosque is rebuilt by the Seljuk Malik Shah I after being destroyed by fire. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... Ottokar II (died 1122) was Margrave of Styria). ... Events Resolution of Investiture Controversy in the Concordat of Worms Pierre Abélard writes Sic et Non Births Ben Lancaster, Gradutate, Dynamite dancer. ... Leopold the Strong (died 1129) was Margrave of Styria from 1122 to 1129. ... Events Resolution of Investiture Controversy in the Concordat of Worms Pierre Abélard writes Sic et Non Births Ben Lancaster, Gradutate, Dynamite dancer. ... Events Emperor Toba of Japan begins his cloistered rule sharing power with Sutuku, ex-emperor Shirakawas son. ... Ottokar III (born 1124, died December 31, 1164), was Margrave of Styria from 1129 until 1164. ... Events Emperor Toba of Japan begins his cloistered rule sharing power with Sutuku, ex-emperor Shirakawas son. ... // Events Count Henry I of Champagne marries Marie de Champagne. ... Ottokar IV (1163 – May 5, 1192) was Margrave of Styria and Duke from 1180 onwards, when Styria, previously a margraviate subordinated to the duchy of Carinthia, was raised to the status of an independent duchy. ... // Events Count Henry I of Champagne marries Marie de Champagne. ... // Events The Third Crusade ends in disaster. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Originally from Bamberg in Franconia, now northern Bavaria, the Babenbergs or Babenberger ruled Austria as counts of the march and dukes from 976 - 1248, before the rise of the house of Habsburg. ... This is a list of margraves, dukes, archdukes, and emperors of Austria. ...


Coat of Arms

The coat of arms of the duchy pictured a standing white heraldic panther breathing red flames on a fir green field, with a shield crowned with the ducal hat. A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... The ducal hat of the Duchy of Styria is jagged crown made out of gilded silver. ...


See also

Styria (die Steiermark in German, Å tajerska in Slovenian) is a state or Land, located in the south east of Austria. ... Styria (Å tajerska in Slovenian) is an informal province (pokrajina) in northeast Slovenia, known for its white wine. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Styria (duchy) - definition of Styria (duchy) in Encyclopedia (1046 words)
Styria was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until it dissolved in 1918.
When Styria came under the hegemony of Charlemagne as a part of Karantania (Carinthia), erected as a border territory against the Avar and Slavs, there was a large influx of Bavarii and other Christianized Germanic peoples, whom the bishops of Salzburg and the patriarchs of Aquileia kept faithful to Rome.
During the reign of Margrave Ottokar IV (1164-92) Styria was raised to a duchy by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, in 1180.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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