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Encyclopedia > Sturmabteilung
The seal of SA
The seal of SA

The Sturmabteilung , abbreviated SA, (German for "Storm division" or "Storm section", usually translated as "stormtroop(er)s"), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. It played a key role in Adolf Hitler's rise to power in the 1930s. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links De-Sturmabteilung. ... The Stormtroopers were special military troops which were formed in the last year of World War I as the German army developed new methods of attacking enemy trenches, called infiltration tactics. Men trained in these methods were known as in German as Sturmmann (literally storm man or assault man but... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ...


SA men were often called "brownshirts", for the colour of their uniforms, and to distinguish them from the Schutzstaffel (SS), who wore black and brown uniforms (compare the Italian blackshirts). Brown-coloured shirts were chosen as the SA uniform because a large batch of them was cheaply available after World War I, having originally been ordered for German troops serving in Africa. Hitler addressing SA members in the late 1920s The Sturmabteilung (SA, German for Storm Division and is usually translated as stormtroops or stormtroopers) functioned as a paramilitary organisation of the NSDAP – the German Nazi party. ... For other uses, see Uniform (disambiguation). ... SS redirects here. ... For the University of Nebraska–Lincoln football teams defense, see Blackshirts (football). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


The SA was also the first Nazi paramilitary group to develop pseudo-military titles for bestowal upon its members. The SA ranks would be adopted by several other Nazi Party groups, chief among them the SS. They were very important to Hitler's rise to power until they were superseded by the SS after the Night of the Long Knives. The ranks and insignia of the Sturmabteilung (SA) were the first paramilitary rank system to be developed by the Nazi Party in 1920. ... For other uses, see Night of the Long Knives (disambiguation). ...

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Hitler addressing SA members in the late 1920s

The term Sturmabteilung predates the founding of the Nazi party in 1919. It originally comes from the specialized assault troops used by Germany in World War I utilising Hutier infiltration tactics. Instead of a large mass assault, the Sturmabteilung was organized into small squads of a few soldiers each. The first official German stormtroop unit was authorized on 2 March 1915; German high command ordered the VIII Corps to form a detachment for the testing of experimental weapons and the development of appropriate tactics that could break tile deadlock on the Western front. On 2 October 1916 General Ludendorff ordered all German armies in the west to form a battalion of stormtroops. [1]. First applied during the German Eighth Army's siege of Riga, then again at the Battle of Caporetto, their wider use in March 1918 allowed the Germans to push back British and French lines tens of kilometers. Hitler standing next to members of the Sturmabteilung (SA) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Hitler standing next to members of the Sturmabteilung (SA) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Oskar von Hutier (August 27, 1857-December 5, 1934) was one of Germanys most successful and innovative generals of World War I. Hutier spent the first year of the war as a divisional commander in France, performing well but not distinguishing himself until the spring of 1915, when he... In warfare, infiltration tactics involve small, lightly-equipped infantry forces attacking enemy rear areas while bypassing enemy front-line strongpoints, isolating them for attack by follow-on friendly troops with heavier weapons. ... In the fire service a Squad is a Engine Company with a compliment of rescue tools. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In Munich in late 1920, Hitler created the Ordnertruppen, a body of ex-soldiers and beer hall brawlers in order to protect gatherings of the Nazi party from disruptions from Social Democrats and Communists. On November 4, 1921 the Nazi party held a large public meeting in the Munich Hofbräuhaus. After Hitler had spoken for some time the meeting erupted into a melee in which a small company of Ordnertruppen distinguished itself by thrashing the opposition. The Nazis called this event der Saalschlacht (meeting hall battle). After this the organisation came to be called the SA. Under their popular leader Ernst Röhm, the SA grew in importance within the Nazi power structure, initially growing in size to thousands of members. In 1922, the Nazi Party created a youth section, the Jugendbund, for young men between the ages of 14 and 18 years. Its successor, the Hitler Youth, remained under SA command until May 1932. For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Hofbräuhaus am Platzl is a beer hall in the city center of Munich, Germany. ... Stabschef Collar Insignia Stabschef was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that was the senior most position of the Sturmabteilung. ... Ernst Julius Röhm, also known as Ernst Roehm in English (Munich November 28, 1887 – July 2, 1934) was a German military officer, and the commander and co-founder of the Nazi Sturmabteilung — the SA. // Röhm was one of three children of Julius Röhm and his wife Emilie... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... The Jugendbund was a group similar to the Hitler Youth. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         For the SS division with the nickname Hitlerjugend see; 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend The Hitler Youth (German:   , abbreviated HJ) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party. ...


From April 1924 until late February 1925 the SA was known as the Frontbann to avoid the temporary ban on the Nazi party. The SA carried out numerous acts of violence against socialist groups throughout the 1920s, typically in minor street-fights called Zusammenstöße ('collisions'). The SS eventually took over their original role. The term Frontbann refers to a reorganized and renamed version of the Sturmabteilung or SA. It translates directly into Front Band. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ...

A rare, complete set of Nazi SA tin soldiers, from the 1940s.
A rare, complete set of Nazi SA tin soldiers, from the 1940s.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2013 KB)A rare set of tin soldiers depicting Nazi S.A. troops. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2013 KB)A rare set of tin soldiers depicting Nazi S.A. troops. ...

Conflicts with other organizations

After Hitler took power in 1933, the SA became increasingly eager for power and saw themselves as the replacement for the German army. This angered the regular army (Reichswehr) who already resented the Nazi party. It also led to tension with other leaders within the party who saw Röhm's increasingly powerful SA as a threat to their own personal ambitions. Originally an adjunct to the SA, the Schutzstaffel (SS) was placed under the direct control of Heinrich Himmler in part to restrict the power of the brownshirts and their leaders. Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reichswehr flag (1921-1935). ... SS redirects here. ... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and the Nazi hierarchy. ...


Although some of these conflicts were based on personal rivalries, there were also key socioeconomic conflicts between the SS and SA. SS members generally came from the middle class, while the SA had its base among the unemployed and working class. The SA were more radical than the SS, with its leaders arguing the Nazi revolution had not ended when Hitler achieved power, but rather needed to implement socialism in Germany. Despite its sympathy for its own brand of socialism, the SA would often pick street fights with Communists and Social Democrats. The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Unemployment rates in the United States. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...


Perhaps the greatest single factor leading to the downfall of the SA however, was Röhm's decision to directly challenge the army, or Reichswehr. After Hitler's seizure of power in 1933, Röhm lobbied Hitler to appoint him Minister of Defense, a position held by the conservative General Werner von Blomberg. While Blomberg and others in the traditional military saw the SA as a source of recruits for an enlarged army, Röhm wanted the SA to become the new German military itself. Röhm naturally wanted himself to lead this new German army. Limited by the Treaty of Versailles to one hundred thousand soldiers, army leaders were concerned that they could be swallowed up by the much larger SA.[2] In January 1934, Röhm presented Blomberg with a memorandum demanding that SA should replace the army as the nation's ground forces, and that the Reichswehr become a training adjunct to the SA.[3] President Paul von Hindenburg would not stand for this, and threatened to impose martial law if Hitler did not act against Röhm.[4] Reichswehr flag (1921-1935). ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Werner von Blomberg. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ...


After this ultimatum, Hitler ordered the arrest and subsequent execution of the leadership of the SA, which took place on June 30-July 2, 1934, on what is known as the Night of the Long Knives. At Hitler's behest, senior Nazis including Himmler faked a dossier that purported to show that Röhm had received payment from the French to carry out a coup against Hitler. Hitler personally led the SS raid on the Hanselbauer Hotel in Bad Wiessee, where Röhm and SA-Senior Group Leader Edmund Heines were garrisoned. Victor Lutze became the new leader of the SA, and the organization was soon marginalized in the Nazi power structure in favor of the SS. Membership in the organization dropped from 2.9 million in August 1934 to 1.2 million in April 1938.[5] It became little more than an old comrades association, appearing at the Nuremburg Rallies and called out for lining the streets for parades. Another factor contributing to the decline of the SA was that with the reintroduction of conscription in 1935 and the buildup of the German Army members of the Hitler Youth enrolled in the Wehrmacht rather than "graduating" to the SA. The SA remained active until the end of the war, but its only significant action after 1934 was Kristallnacht, when all SS and SA units were activated to riot against Jews, destroying Jewish businesses and synagogues. After that period until the end of the war, virtually all of its functions were taken over by the SS. is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Night of the Long Knives (disambiguation). ... Bad Wiessee is a spa town on Lake Tegernsee, Bavaria, Germany. ... Edmund Heines (* July 21, 1897 in Munich; † June 30, 1934 in Munich) was one of Ernst Röhms lovers in the 1920s. ... Categories: Stub | 1890 births | 1943 deaths | Nazi leaders ... Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop...


Leaders

The leader of the SA was known as the Oberster SA-Führer, translated as Supreme SA Leader. The following men held this position throughout the existence of the SA: Leadership ranks of the Sturmabteilung were titles and positions held by the supreme commanders of the Sturmabteilung (SA) of the Nazi Party between the years of 1920 and 1945. ... Hermann Göring as the SA Commander in 1923 Oberste SA-Führer was a title used by the Sturmabteilung from 1920 to 1945. ...

In 1930, to ensure the loyalty of the SA to himself, Adolf Hitler assumed command of the entire organization and remained Oberster SA-Führer for the remainder of the group's existence to 1945. The day to day running of the SA was conducted by the Stabschef SA (SA Chief of Staff). After 1931, it was the Stabschef who was generally accepted as the Commander of the SA, acting in Hitler's name. Emil Maurice (January 19, 1897–February 6, 1972) was an early member of the Nazi Party. ... An ex-naval Lieutenant from the Erhardt Brigade, Hans Ulrich Klintzsch served as leader of the SA Stormtroopers from 1921 until May 11th 1923, at which point he returned to his former unit and ceded control to Hermann Göring. ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring ( ) (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ... Franz Pfeffer Von Salomon (?,?)- He was a Free Corps member and veteran from World War One, he made a name for himself by organizing resistances groups to stop the French occupying the Ruhr. ... Hitler redirects here. ... For other uses of the term Stabschef please refer to Chief of Staff Stabschef (Chief of Staff) was a paramilitary rank in the Sturmabteilung (SA), the paramilitary stormtroopers associated with the Nazi movement. ...


The following personnel held the position of Chief of Staff of the SA:

Ernst Julius Röhm, also known as Ernst Roehm in English (Munich November 28, 1887 – July 2, 1934) was a German military officer, and the commander and co-founder of the Nazi Sturmabteilung — the SA. // Röhm was one of three children of Julius Röhm and his wife Emilie... Viktor Lutze (December 28, 1890–May 2, 1943) was an SA officer (Obergruppenführer) in Nazi Germany. ... Wilhelm Schepmann was an SA officer (Obergruppenführer) in Germany. ...

Organization

The SA was organized throughout Germany into several large formations known as Gruppen. Within each Gruppe, there existed subordinate Brigaden and in turn existed regiment sized Standarten. SA-Standarten operated out of every major German city and were split into even smaller units, known as Sturmbanne and Stürme. British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ...


The command nexus for the entire SA operated out of Stuttgart and was known as the Oberste SA-Führung. The SA supreme command had many sub-offices to handle supply, finance, and recruiting. Unlike the SS, however, the SA did not have a medical corps nor did it establish itself outside of Germany, in occupied territories, once World War II began. For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The SA also had several military training units, the largest of which was the SA-Marine which served as an auxiliary to the Kriegsmarine and performed search and rescue operations as well as harbor defense. The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... Search and Rescue (acronym SAR) is an operation mounted by emergency services, often well-trained volunteers, to find someone believed to be in distress, lost, sick or injured either in a remote or difficult to access area, such as mountains, desert or forest (Wilderness search and rescue), or at sea...


Similar to the Waffen-SS wing of the SS, the SA also had an armed military wing, known as Feldherrnhalle. These formations expanded from regimental size in 1940 to a fully-fledged armored corps Panzerkorps Feldherrnhalle in 1945. Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... Honorary cufftitle worn on the left cuff of all Feldherrnhalle personnel. ... Honorary cufftitle worn on the right cuff of all Feldherrnhalle personnel. ...


Maxims

  • "Terror must be broken by terror" [6]
  • "All opposition must be stamped into the ground" [6]

Film and media

The SA were prominent in Nazi propaganda newsreels of the late 1920s and early 1930s. For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ...


The SA make an appearance in several films depicting the end of the Weimar Republic: Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature...

  • scenes in the 1972 film Cabaret depict the savage beating of a nightclub bouncer by a group of SA men

In the Season 18 episode of The Simpsons, Rome-old and Juli-eh, Bart and Lisa get into a battle with a group of delivery people in brown uniforms. When they attack the children's castle, Bart says, "Who knew guys in brown shirts could cause so much trouble?" Cabaret is a 1972 film. ... A bouncer at the door of a strip club in San Francisco, USA. A bouncer or doorman is an informal term for security guards employed at venues such as bars, nightclubs or concerts to provide security, check legal age, and refuse entry to a venue based on criteria such as... Rome-old and Juli-eh is an episode of The Simpsons eighteenth season, which originally aired on March 11, 2007. ...


P. G. Wodehouse satirises the Brown Shirts in his Jeeves and Wooster books with Roderick Spode, 8th Earl of Sidcup and his The Black Shorts.


See also

The flag of the British Union of Fascists showing the Flash and Circle symbolic of action within unity The British Union of Fascists (BUF) was a political party of the 1930s in the United Kingdom. ... For the 1970 film see Black Brigade (film) Black Brigades (Italian: Brigate Nere) were one of the fascist paramilitary groups operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. ... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps) was originally applied to voluntary armies. ... The National Socialist Motor Corps (Nationalsozialistisches Kraftfahrerkorps), also known as the National Socialist Drivers Corps, was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi party that existed between the years of 1931 and 1945. ... Honorary cufftitle worn on the right cuff of all Feldherrnhalle personnel. ... The Stormtroopers were special military troops which were formed in the last year of World War I as the German army developed new methods of attacking enemy trenches, called infiltration tactics. Men trained in these methods were known as in German as Sturmmann (literally storm man or assault man but... Paramilitary groups were formed throughout the Weimar Republic in the wake of Germanys defeat in World War I and the ensuing German Revolution. ...

References

  1. ^ German Strotrooper Ian Drury Osprey 2003
  2. ^ Evans, Richard (2005). The Third Reich in Power. Penguin Group, 22. ISBN 0143037900. 
  3. ^ Wheeler-Bennett, John (2005). The Nemesis of Power: The German Army in Politics 1918-1945, 2nd edition, 726. 
  4. ^ Evans, Richard (2005). The Third Reich in Power. Penguin Group, 30. ISBN 0143037900. 
  5. ^ Evans, Richard (2005). The Third Reich in Power. Penguin Group, 40. ISBN 0143037900. 
  6. ^ a b Mitcham, Samuel W. (1996). Why Hitler?. Praeger, 139. ISBN 0275954854. 

Penguin Group is the second largest trade book publisher in the world. ... Penguin Group is the second largest trade book publisher in the world. ... Penguin Group is the second largest trade book publisher in the world. ...

Further reading

  • Allen, William Sheridan, The Nazi Seizure of Power: The Experience of a Single German Town 1930-1935 by (Quadrangle Books, 1965).
  • Bessel, Richard, Political Violence and The Rise of Nazism : The Storm Troopers in Eastern Germany, 1925-1934, (Yale University Press, 1984, ISBN 0300031718).
  • Campbell, Bruce, The SA Generals and The Rise of Nazism, (University Press of Kentucky, 1998, ISBN 0813120470).
  • Evans, Richard, The Coming of the Third Reich. Penguin Group, 2004.
  • Evans, Richard, The Third Reich in Power. Penguin Group, 2005.
  • Halcomb, Jill, The SA: A Historical Perspective, (Crown/Agincourt Publishers, 1985, ISBN 0934870136).
  • Hatch, Nicolas H. (trans. and ed.), The Brown Battalions: Hitler's SA in Words and Pictures (Turner, 2000, ISBN 1563115956).
  • Kershaw, Ian, Hitler: 1889-1936 Hubris. W. W. Norton & Company, 1999.
  • Littlejohn, David, The Sturmabteilung: Hitler’s Stormtroopers 1921 – 1945. Osprey Publishing, London, 1990
  • Fischer, Conan, Stormtroopers: A Social, Economic, and Ideological Analysis, 1929-35, (Allen & Unwin, 1983, ISBN 0049430289).
  • Fuller, James David, Collectors Guide to SA Insignia, (Matthäus Publishers, Postal Instant Press, 1985, ISBN 0931065046).
  • Maracin, Paul, The Night of the Long Knives: 48 Hours that Changed the History of the World. The Lyons Press, 2004.
  • Merkl, Peter H., The Making of a Stormtrooper, (Princeton University Press, 1980, ISBN 0-691-07620-0).

Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ... The University Press of Kentucky (UPK) is the scholarly publisher for the Commonwealth of Kentucky, and was organized in 1969 as successor to the University of Kentucky Press. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ...

External links

  • Axis History Factbook – SA
  • Spartacus Educational – Sturm Abteilung (SA)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nationalsozialismus.de » Sturmabteilung (SA) (1182 words)
Die Sturmabteilung (SA) war die paramilitärische Kampforganisation der NSDAP während der Weimarer Republik und spielte eine entscheidende Rolle beim Aufstieg der Nationalsozialisten.
November 1921 bekam der NSDAP-Versammlungsschutz den Namen “Sturmabteilung”.
Mit der Ruhigstellung der Sturmabteilung präsentierte er sich dem Ausland und dem deutschen Bürgertum als rechtschaffener Staatsmann.
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SturmAbteilung (SA) was founded in 1921 under the name Schutz- und Sportabteilungen [Protection and Sport Division].
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