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Encyclopedia > Sturm und Drang

Sturm und Drang (the conventional translation is "Storm and Stress"; a more literal translation, however, might be storm and urge, storm and longing, or storm and impulse) is the name of a movement in German literature and music taking place from the late 1760s through the early 1780s in which individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in response to the confines of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic movements. The philosopher Johann Georg Hamann is considered to be the ideologue of Sturm und Drang, and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a notable proponent of the movement, though he and Friedrich Schiller ended their period of association with it, initiating what would become Weimar Classicism. German literature comprises those literary texts originating within Germany proper and written in the German language. ... // Music is an art form consisting of sound and silence expressed through time. ... This article is in need of attention. ... ... Johann Georg Hamann Johann Georg Hamann (August 27, 1730 - June 21, 1788) was an important philosopher of the German (Counter-)Enlightenment and Sturm und Drang movement. ...  , IPA: , (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German polymath. ... Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ... Weimar Classicism is, as many historians and scholars argue, a disputed literary movement that took place in Germany and Continental Europe. ...

Contents

Historical Background

The Counter-Enlightenment

Main article: Counter-Enlightenment

French Neoclassicism, a movement beginning in the early baroque, and its preoccupation with rational congruity, was the principle target of rebellion for authors who would be known as adherents to the Sturm und Drang movement. The overt sentimentalism and need to project an objective, anti-personal characterization or image was at odds with the latent desire to express troubling personal emotions and an individual subjective perspective on reality. Francisco de Goya, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (1799) Counter-Enlightenment is a term used in the second half of the twentieth century to refer to a movement that arose in the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries in opposition to the eighteenth century Enlightenment. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Rational may be: the adjective for the state of rationality acting according to the philosophical principles of rationalism a mathematical term for certain numbers; the rational numbers the software company Rational Software; now owned by IBM, and formerly Rational Software Corporation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Limited information sources, article is object for nothing but original research If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ...


The ideals of rationalism, empiricism, and universalism traditionally associated with the Enlightenment were combated by an emerging notion that the reality constructed in the wake of this monumental change in values was not an adequate reflection of the human experience and that a revolutionary restatement was necessary to fully convey the extremes of inner pain and torment, and the reality that personal motivations consist of a balance between the pure and impure. In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Universalism refers to any concept or doctrine that applies to all persons and/or all things for all times and in all situations. ...


Origin of the Term Sturm und Drang

The term Sturm und Drang first appeared as the title to a play about the American Revolution by German author Friedrich Maximilian Klinger, published in 1776, in which the author gives violent expression to difficult emotions and heralds individual expression and subjectivity over the natural order of rationalism. Though it is argued that literature and music associated with Sturm und Drang predate this seminal work, it is this point at which historical analysis begins to outline a distinct aesthetic movement occurring between the late 1760s through the early 1780s of which German artists of the period were distinctly self-conscious. Contrary to the dominant post-enlightenment literary movements of the time, this reaction, seemingly spontaneous in its appearance, came to be associated with a wide breadth of German authors and composers of the mid to late classical period.[1] John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that... Friedrich Maximilian von Klinger (February 17, 1752 - February 25, 1831) was a German dramatist and novelist. ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Its over and done But the heartache lives on inside And who is the one your clinging to instead of me tonight And where are you now Now that I need you Tears on my pillow Wherever you go Cry me a river that leads to your oceans Youll never... Expression may refer to: (in the vernacular) the act or particular way of expressing something (including an emotion through a facial expression or configuration) (in mathematics) a mathematical expression (in computing) a programming language expression (in computing) a vector graphics software Microsoft Expression (in genetics) the effect produced by a... Self-consciousness is the knowledge of ones own presence. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article describes the ancient classical period: for the classical period in music (second half of the 18th century): see Classical music era. ...


Sturm und Drang came to be associated with literature or music aiming to frighten the audience or imbue them with extremes of emotion until the dispersement of the movement into Weimar Classicism and the eventual transition into early Romanticism where socio-political aims were incorporated (these aims asserting unified values contrary to despotism and limitations on human freedom) along with a religious treatment of all things natural.[2] There is much debate regarding whose work should and should not be included in the canon of Sturm und Drang; there being an argument for limiting the movement to Goethe, Herder, Lenz and their direct German associates writing works of fiction and philosophy between 1770 and the early 1780s.[3] Weimar Classicism is, as many historians and scholars argue, a disputed literary movement that took place in Germany and Continental Europe. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... A herder is a worker who lives a semi-nomadic life, caring for various domestic animals, especially in places where these animals wander unfenced pasture lands. ... Lenz is a German family name. ...


The alternative perspective is that of a literary movement inextricably linked to simultaneous developments in prose, poetry, and drama extending its direct influence throughout the German-speaking lands until the end of the 18th century. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the originators of the movement viewed it as a time of premature exuberance which was then abandoned in later years for often conflicting artistic pursuits.[4]


Related Aesthetic and Philosophical Movements

Kraftmensch existed as a precursor to Sturm und Drang among dramatists beginning with F.M. Klinger, the expression of which is seen in the radical degree to which individuality need appeal to no outside force outside the self nor be tempered by rationalism.[5] These ideals are identical to those of Sturm und Drang, and it can be argued that the later name exists to catalog a number of parallel, co-influential movements in German literature rather than express anything substantially different than what German dramatists were achieving in the violent plays attributed to the Kraftmensch movement.
Individualism, in general, is a term used to describe a theoretical or practical emphasis of the individual, as opposed to, and possibly at the expense of, the group. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Ideals are principles or values that one actively pursues as goals. ... German literature comprises those literary texts originating within Germany proper and written in the German language. ...


Major philosophical/theoretical influences on the literary Sturm und Drang movement were Johann Georg Hamann (especially the 1762 text Aesthetica in nuce. Eine Rhapsodie in kabbalistischer Prose) and Johann Gottfried Herder - both from Königsberg, and both formerly in contact with Immanuel Kant. Significant theoretical statements of Sturm und Drang aesthetics by the movement's central dramatists themselves include Lenz' Anmerkungen übers Theater and Goethe's Von deutscher Baukunst and Zum Schäkespears Tag (sic). The most important contemporary document was the 1773 volume Von deutscher Art und Kunst. Einige fliegende Blätter, a collection of essays which included commentaries by Herder on Ossian and Shakespeare, along with contributions by Goethe, Paolo Frisi (in translation from the Italian), and Justus Möser. Johann Georg Hamann Johann Georg Hamann (August 27, 1730 - June 21, 1788) was an important philosopher of the German (Counter-)Enlightenment and Sturm und Drang movement. ... Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried von Herder (August 25, 1744 – December 18, 1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher, is best known for his influence on authors such as Goethe and the role he played in the development of the larger cultural movement known as romanticism. ... “Kant” redirects here. ... Paolo Frisi (April 13, 1728 - November 22, 1784) was an Italian mathematician and astronomer. ... Justus Möser (December 14, 1720 – January 8, 1794), German publicist and statesman, was born at Osnabruck. ...


See also: Empfindsamkeit, Primitivism, Ossianism Primitivism is an artistic movement which originated as a reaction to the Enlightenment. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oisín. ...


Sturm und Drang in Literature

Characteristics

The protagonist in a typical Sturm und Drang stage work, poem, or novel is driven to action not by pursuit of noble means nor by true motives, but by revenge and greed. Further, this action to which the primary character is drawn is often one of violence. Goethe's unfinished Prometheus exemplifies this along with the common ambiguity provided by the interspersion of humanistic platitudes next to outbursts of irrationality.[6] The literature with Sturm und Drang has an anti-aristocratic slant and places value on those things humble, natural, or intensely real (i.e. painful, tormenting, or frightening). A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ... Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... Guðrún agitates her sons, Hamðir and Sörli, to avenge their sister. ... Greed is excessive or uncontrolled desire for or pursuit of money, wealth, food, or other possessions, especially when this denies the same goods to others. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Prometheus (Goethe) Bedecke deinen Himmel, Zeus, Mit Wolkendunst Und übe, dem Knaben gleich, Der Diesteln köpft, An Eichen dich und Bergeshöhn! Mußt mir meine Erde Doch lassen stehn Und meine Hütte, Die du nicht gebaut, Und meinen Herd... Humanism[1] is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationality. ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ...


The story of hopeless love and eventual suicide presented in Goethe's sentimental novel The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774) is an example of the author's tempered introspection regarding his love and torment. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... The sentimental novel is an 18th century literary genre which celebrates the emotional and intellectual concepts of sentiment , sentimentalism and sensibility. ... The Sorrows of Young Werther (Die Leiden des jungen Werther, originally published as Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) is an epistolary and loosely autobiographical novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, first published in 1774. ...


Friedrich Schiller's drama, Die Räuber (1781), provided the groundwork for melodrama to become a recognized dramatic form through a plot portraying the conflict between two aristocratic brothers, Franz and Karl Moor. Franz is portrayed as a villain attempting to cheat Karl out of his inheritance, though the motives for his action are complex and initiate a thourough investigation of good and evil. Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ... Die Räuber (The Robbers) is a drama by Friedrich Schiller. ... Poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ...


Both of these works are seminal examples of Sturm und Drang in German literature. German literature comprises those literary texts originating within Germany proper and written in the German language. ...


Notable literary works

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)  , IPA: , (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German polymath. ...

  • Zum Schäkespears Tag 1771
  • Sesenheimer Lieder 1770-71
  • Prometheus 1772-1774
  • Götz von Berlichingen (Drama) 1773
  • Clavigo 1774
  • Die Leiden des jungen Werthers (Novel) 1774
  • Mahomets Gesang 1774
  • Adler und Taube 1774
  • An Schwager Kronos 1774
  • Gedichte der Straßburger und Frankfurter Zeit 1775
  • Stella. Ein Schauspiel für Liebende 1776
  • Die Geschwister 1776

Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805) In Greek mythology, Prometheus (Greek: forethought) is the Titan chiefly honored for stealing fire from Zeus in the stalk of a fennel plant and giving it to mortals for their use. ... An 18th Century engraving of Götz von Berlichingen. ... Die Leiden des jungen Werther (In English: The Sorrows of Young Werther) is a loosely autobiographical novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, first published in 1774. ... Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ...

Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz (1751-1792) Die Räuber (The Robbers) is a drama by Friedrich Schiller. ... Intrigue and Love (or sometimes Love and Intrigue), (German, Kabale und Liebe), is a play, written by the German dramatist and writer Friedrich Schiller and first performed on 15 April 1784 in Frankfurt, and then two days later on 16 April 1784 in the National Theatre in Mannheim in Schiller... To Joy (An die Freude in German, in English often familiarly called the Ode to Joy rather than To Joy) is an ode written in 1785 by the German poet and historian Friedrich Schiller, known especially for its musical setting by Beethoven in the fourth and final movement of his... Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz (* January 12, 1751 - May 24, 1792) German writer of the Sturm und Drang period who was born in Seßwegen/Cēsvaine, Livonia and died in Moscow. ...

  • Anmerkung über das Theater nebst angehängtem übersetzten Stück Shakespeares 1774
  • Der Hofmeister oder Vorteile der Privaterziehung' (Drama) 1774
  • Lustspiele nach dem Plautus fürs deutsche Theater 1774
  • Die Soldaten (Drama) 1776

Friedrich Maximilian Klinger (1752-1831) Friedrich Maximilian von Klinger (February 17, 1752 - February 25, 1831) was a German dramatist and novelist. ...

  • Das leidende Weib 1775
  • Sturm und Drang (Drama) 1776
  • Die Zwillinge (Drama) 1776
  • Simsone Grisaldo 1776

Gottfried August Bürger (1747-1794) Gottfried August Bürger Gottfried August Bürger (January 1, 1748 - June 8, 1794), German poet, was born at Molmerswende near Halberstadt, of which village his father was the Lutheran pastor. ...

  • Lenore 1773
  • Gedichte 1778
  • Wunderbare Reisen zu Wasser und zu Lande, Feldzüge und lustige Abenteuer des Freiherren von Münchhausen 1786

Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg (1737-1823) Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg (1737-1823), German poet and critic, was born at Tondern in Schleswig on the 3rd of January 1737. ...

  • Gedichte eines Skalden 1766
  • Briefe über Merkwürdigkeiten der Literatur 1766-67
  • Ugolino 1768

Johann Georg Hamann (1730-1788) Johann Georg Hamann Johann Georg Hamann (August 27, 1730 - June 21, 1788) was an important philosopher of the German (Counter-)Enlightenment and Sturm und Drang movement. ...

  • Sokratische Denkwürdigkeiten für die lange Weile des Publikums zusammengetragen von einem Liebhaber der langen Weile 1759
  • Kreuzzüge des Philologen 1762

Johann Jakob Wilhelm Heinse (1746-1803) Wilhelm Heinse (Johann Jakob) Wilhelm Heinse (February 16, 1749 - June 22, 1803), German author, was born at Langewiesen near Ilmenau in Thuringia. ...

  • Ardinghello und die glückseligen Inseln 1787

Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried von Herder (August 25, 1744 – December 18, 1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher, is best known for his influence on authors such as Goethe and the role he played in the development of the larger cultural movement known as romanticism. ...

  • Fragmente über die neuere deutsche Literatur 1767-68
  • Kritische Wälder oder Betrachtungen, die Wissenschaft und Kunst des Schönen betreffend, nach Maßgabe neuerer Schriften 1769
  • Journal meiner Reise im Jahre 1769
  • Abhandlung über den Ursprung der Sprache 1770
  • Von deutscher Art und Kunst, einige fliegende Blätter 1773
  • Volkslieder 1778-79
  • Vom Geist der Hebräischen Poesie 1782-83
  • Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit 1784-91

Sturm und Drang in Music

History

Musical theater stands as the meeting place where the literary movement Sturm und Drang enters the realm of musical composition with the aim of increasing emotional expression in opera. The obbligato recitative is a prime example. Here, orchestral accompaniment provides an intense underlay capable of vivid tone-painting to the solo recitative (recitative itself being influenced by Greek monody - the highest form of individual emotional expression in neo-platonic thought). Christoph Willibald Gluck's 1761 opera, Don Juan, exemplifies the emergence of Sturm und Drang in music including explicit reference in the program notes that the intent of the D minor finale was to evoke fear in the listener. Jean Jacques Rousseau's Pygmalion (1770) is a similarly important bridge in its use of underlying instrumental music to convey the mood of spoken drama to the audience. The first example of musical melodrama, Goethe and others important to German literature were influenced by this work.[7] Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theatre combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... Musical composition is: a piece of music the structure of a musical piece the process of creating a new piece of music // A piece of music exists in the form of a written composition in musical notation or as a single acoustic event (a live performance or recorded track). ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Recitative, a form of composition often used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas (and occasionally in operettas and even musicals), is melodic speech set to music, or a descriptive narrative song in which the music follows the words. ... Caccini, Le Nuove musiche, 1601, title page In poetry, monody is a poem in which one person laments anothers death. ... Christoph Willibald (von) Gluck (July 2, 1714 - November 15, 1787) was a German composer, one of the most important opera composers of the Classical music era, particularly remembered for Orfeo ed Euridice. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... Don Juan with his sword in Don Giovanni, by Mozart Don Juan is a legendary fictional libertine, whose story has been told many times by different authors. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 - July 2, 1778) was a Swiss-French philosopher, writer, political theorist, and self-taught composer of The Age of Enlightenment Biography of Rousseau The tomb of Rousseau in the crypt of the Panthéon, Paris Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzerland... Pygmalion is a Greek name, probably going back to Phoenician roots. ... Instrumental An instrumental is, in contrast to a song, a musical composition or piece without lyrics or any other sort of vocal music; all of the music is produced by musical instruments. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ...


Nevertheless, in comparison to the influence of Sturm und Drang on literature, the influence on musical composition remained limited and many efforts to label music as conforming to this thought current are tenuous at best. Vienna, the seat of the major German-speaking composers - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Joseph Haydn specifically - was a cosmopolitan city with an international culture. Hence, those writing instrumental music in the city were writing more expressive music in minor modes with innovative melodic elements as the result of a longer progression in artistic movements occurring throughout Europe. The clearest connections can be realized in opera and the early predecessors of program music such as Haydn's Farewell Symphony. Musical composition is: a piece of music the structure of a musical piece the process of creating a new piece of music // A piece of music exists in the form of a written composition in musical notation or as a single acoustic event (a live performance or recorded track). ... “Wien” redirects here. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ... Portrait by Thomas Hardy, 1792 Franz Joseph Haydn[1] (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was one of the most prominent composers of the Classical period, and is called by some the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. A life-long resident of Austria, Haydn spent... Look up cosmopolitan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Instrumental An instrumental is, in contrast to a song, a musical composition or piece without lyrics or any other sort of vocal music; all of the music is produced by musical instruments. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... Program music is music intended to evoke extra-musical ideas, images in the mind of the listener by musically representing a scene, image or mood [1]. By contrast, absolute music stands for itself and is intended to be appreciated without any particular reference to the outside world. ... (Franz) Joseph Haydn (in German, Josef; he never used the Franz) (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading composer of the classical period. ... Joseph Haydns Symphony No. ...


Characteristics

The music associated with Sturm und Drang is predominantly written in a minor key conveying a sense of difficult or depressing sentiment. The major themes of a piece tend to be angular, with large leaps and unpredictable melodic contour. Tempos change rapidly and unpredictably, as do dynamics in order to reflect strong changes in emotion. Pulsing rhythms and syncopation are common as are racing lines in the soprano or alto registers. For string players, tremolo is a point of emphasis. A minor scale in musical theory can be viewed as the sixth mode of the major scale. ... In music, a theme is the initial or primary melody. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The first two measures of Mozarts Sonata XI, which indicates the tempo as Andante grazioso and a modern editors metronome marking: = 120. “Andante” redirects here. ... The word dynamics can refer to: in physics, a branch of mechanics; see dynamics (mechanics). ... Rhythm (Greek = flow, or in Modern Greek, style) is the variation of the length and accentuation of a series of sounds or other events. ... In music, syncopation is when a stressing of a normally unstressed beat in a bar or failure to sound a tone on an accented beat occurs. ... Look up soprano in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tremolo is a musical term with two meanings: A rapid repetition of the same note, a rapid variation in the amplitude of a single note, or an alternation between two or more notes. ...


Joseph Haydn's Sturm und Drang Period

A Sturm und Drang period is often attributed to Viennese composer Joseph Haydn between the late 1760s through the early 1770s. Works during this period often feature an impassioned or agitated element, although pinning this as worthy of inclusion in the Sturm und Drang movement is difficult. Haydn never states this self-conscious literary movement as the motivation for his new compositional style.[8] Though Haydn may have not considered his music as a direct statement affirming these anti-rational ideals (there is still an overarching adherence to form and motivic unity), one can draw a connection to the influence of musical theater upon his instrumental works with Haydn's writing essentially two degrees removed from Goethe and his compatriots. The Viennese language is an East Central Austro-Bavarian dialect spoken mostly in the Austrian capital of Vienna. ... Portrait by Thomas Hardy, 1792 Franz Joseph Haydn[1] (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was one of the most prominent composers of the Classical period, and is called by some the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. A life-long resident of Austria, Haydn spent... (Franz) Joseph Haydn (in German, Josef; he never used the Franz) (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading composer of the classical period. ... Self-consciousness is the knowledge of ones own presence. ... (Franz) Joseph Haydn (in German, Josef; he never used the Franz) (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading composer of the classical period. ... Rational may be: the adjective for the state of rationality acting according to the philosophical principles of rationalism a mathematical term for certain numbers; the rational numbers the software company Rational Software; now owned by IBM, and formerly Rational Software Corporation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theatre combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... (Franz) Joseph Haydn (in German, Josef; he never used the Franz) (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading composer of the classical period. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ...


Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Sturm und Drang

Mozart's Symphony No. 25 (1773), otherwise known as the 'Little' G Minor Symphony, is unusual for a classical symphony as it is in a minor key, being one of two minor symphonies written by Mozart in his career. Beyond its minor key, the symphony demonstrates rhythmic syncopation along with the jagged themes associated with musical Sturm und Drang.[9] More interesting is the emancipation of the wind instruments in this piece with the violin yielding to colorful bursts from the oboe and flute. Exhibiting the ordered presentation of agitation and stress expected in the literature of Sturm und Drang, it is the influence of Valhal's manic-depressive minor key pieces on Mozart's writing rather than a self-conscious adherence to a German literary movement which can be held responsible for Mozart's harmonic and melodic experiments in Symphony No 25.[10] Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... The Symphony No. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... A minor scale in musical theory can be viewed as the sixth mode of the major scale. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In music, syncopation is when a stressing of a normally unstressed beat in a bar or failure to sound a tone on an accented beat occurs. ... A wind instrument consists of a tube containing a column of air which is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set into the end of the tube. ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... Johann Baptist Vanhal (Jan KÅ™titel Vaňhal) also spelled Wanhal or Wanhall (May 12, 1739 - August 20, 1813) was a composer. ... Manic depression, with its two principal sub-types, bipolar disorder and major depression, was first clinically described near the end of the 19th century by psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin, who published his account of the disease in his Textbook of Psychiatry. ... Self-consciousness is the knowledge of ones own presence. ... In acoustics and telecommunication, the harmonic of a wave is a component frequency of the signal that is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. ... Look up Melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In music, a melody is a series of linear events or a succession, not a simultaneity as in a chord. ... The Symphony No. ...


Notable Composers and Works

Carl Philipp Emmanuel Bach Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (Weimar, March 8, 1714 – December 14, German musician and composer, the second son of Johann Sebastian Bach. ...

  • Symphonies, keyboard concertos and sonatas

Johann Christian Bach Johann Christian Bach (September 5, 1735 – January 1, 1782) was a composer of the Classical era, the eleventh and youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach. ...

Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (June 21, 1732—January 26, 1795), the ninth son of Johann Sebastian Bach, sometimes referred to as the Bückeburg Bach. Born at Leipzig, Germany, he was taught music by his father. ...

Wilhelm Friedemann Bach An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ... A cantata (Italian, sung) is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment and generally containing more than one movement. ... Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, in a portrait by Wilhelm Weitsch Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (November 22, 1710 – July 1, 1784) was the eldest, and by common repute the most gifted son, of Johann Sebastian Bach; a famous organist, a famous improvisor, and a complete master of counterpoint. ...

  • Adagio und Fuge in D minor Falk 65

Georg Anton Benda Georg Anton [Jirí Antonin] Benda Bohemian composer, born 1722 died 1795. ...

  • Melodrama Medea
  • Melodrama Ariadne auf Naxos
  • Melodrama Pygmalion

Johann Gottfried Eckard Poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

Joseph Haydn A piano sonata is a sonata written for unaccompanied piano. ... Portrait by Thomas Hardy, 1792 Franz Joseph Haydn[1] (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was one of the most prominent composers of the Classical period, and is called by some the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. A life-long resident of Austria, Haydn spent...

Joseph Martin Kraus The Symphony No. ... The Symphony No. ... Symphony No. ... The Symphony No. ... The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... Joseph Martin Kraus (1756-1792) as a student in Erfurt. ...

  • Oratorio Der Tod Jesu VB 17 (1776)
  • Symphony in F major VB 130 (1776)
  • Symphony in C sharp minor VB 140 (1782)
  • Symphony in C minor VB 142 (1783)
  • Ouverture Olympie VB 29 (1792)

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ...

Christoph Willibald Gluck The Symphony No. ... Christoph Willibald (von) Gluck (July 2, 1714 - November 15, 1787) was a German composer, one of the most important opera composers of the Classical music era, particularly remembered for Orfeo ed Euridice. ...

Luigi Boccherini Painting of ballet dancers by Edgar Degas, 1872. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... Orfeo ed Euridice is an opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck. ... Luigi Boccherini Luigi Rodolfo Boccherini (February 19, 1743 – May 28, 1805) was a classical era composer and cellist from Italy, whose music retained a courtly and galante style while he matured somewhat apart from the major European musical centers. ...

  • Symphony in D minor La Casa del Diavolo G. 506 (1771)

Ignaz Holzbauer Ignaz Jakob Holzbauer, born 1711 Vienna, died 1783 in Mannheim Germany Teacher of Johann Friedrich Anton Fleischmann pianist. ...

Jean Jacques Rousseau Singspiel (song-play) is a form of German-language music drama, similar to modern musical theater, though it is also referred to as a type of operetta or opera. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 - July 2, 1778) was a Swiss-French philosopher, writer, political theorist, and self-taught composer of The Age of Enlightenment Biography of Rousseau The tomb of Rousseau in the crypt of the Panthéon, Paris Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzerland...

  • Pygmalion (1770)

Johann Heinrich Rolle

  • Oratorio Der Tod Abels (1771)
  • Oratorio Abraham (1777)
  • Oratorio Lazarus (1779)
  • Oratorio Thirza und ihre Söhne (1781)

Johann Baptist Vanhal Johann Baptist Vanhal (Jan Křtitel Vaňhal) also spelled Wanhal or Wanhall (May 12, 1739 - August 20, 1813) was a composer. ...

  • Symphony in D minor
  • Symphony in G minor
  • Symphony in E minor

Ernst Wilhelm Wolff

Johann Gottfried Müthel A piano concerto is a concerto for solo piano and orchestra. ... Johann Gottfried Müthel (January 17, 1728 – July 14, 1788) was a German composer and noted keyboard virtuoso. ...

  • Keyboard concertos and sonatas

Bernhard Joachim Hagen Bernhard Joachim Hagen (born April 1720 in or near Hamburg (?); died December 9, 1787 in Ansbach) was a German composer, violinist and lutenist. ...

F.L.A.Kunzen A medieval era lute. ...

  • Symphonies

Leopold Kozeluch Leopold Kozeluch (born Jan Antonín Koželuh, alternatively also Leopold Koželuh, Leopold Kotzeluch) (June 26, 1747 – May 7, 1818) was a Czech composer and teacher of classical music. ...

  • Symphonies

F.A.Rössler-Rosetti

  • Symphonies

Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf August Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf (November 2, 1739 – October 24, 1799) was an Austrian composer and violinist. ...

  • Symphonies

Sturm und Drang in Visual Art

Characteristics

The parallel movement in the visual arts can be witnessed in paintings of storms and shipwrecks showing the terror and irrational destruction wrought by nature. These pre-romantic works were fashionable in Germany from the 1760s on through the 1780s, illustrating a public audience for emotionally provocative artwork. Additionally, disturbing visions and portrayals of nightmares were gaining an audience in Germany as evidenced by Goethe's possession and admiration of paintings by Fuseli capable of 'giving the viewer a good fright.'[11] Many times, the term art is used to refer to the visual arts. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... Galunggung in 1982, showing a combination of natural events. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution. ... This page is about a type of dream. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... Henry Fuseli (in German Johann Heinrich Füssli) (February 7, 1741 - April 16, 1825) was a British painter and writer on art, of German-Swiss family. ...


Notable Artists

Claude Joseph Vernet (August 14, 1714 - December 3, 1789), French painter, was born at Avignon. ... Fuseli talking to Johann Jakob Bodmer, 1778-1781. ...

See also

Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution. ... Francisco de Goya, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (1799) Counter-Enlightenment is a term used in the second half of the twentieth century to refer to a movement that arose in the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries in opposition to the eighteenth century Enlightenment. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oisín. ... Primitivism is an artistic movement which originated as a reaction to the Enlightenment. ... Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried von Herder (August 25, 1744 – December 18, 1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher, is best known for his influence on authors such as Goethe and the role he played in the development of the larger cultural movement known as romanticism. ... Friedrich Maximilian von Klinger (February 17, 1752 - February 25, 1831) was a German dramatist and novelist. ... Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ...  , IPA: , (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German polymath. ... Durmstrang Magical Institute is a fictional magic school in the Harry Potter books, similar to Hogwarts. ...

External links

  • Sturm und Drang. The Columbia Encyclopedia
  • Sturm und Drang. Literary Encyclopedia

Footnotes

  1. ^ Preminger, Alex; Brogan, T. V. F. (Eds). (1993) The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. Princeton: Princeton University. pg. 1
  2. ^ Pascal, Roy. (Apr., 1952). The Modern Language Review, Vol. 47, No. 2. pp. 129-151. pg. 32
  3. ^ ibid. Pg 129
  4. ^ Heckscher ,William S. (1966 - 1967) Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art, Vol. 1, No. 2. pp. 94-105. Pg. 94.
  5. ^ Leidner, Alan. (Mar., 1989). C. PMLA, Vol. 104, No. 2, pp. 178-189. Pg. 178
  6. ^ Alan Liedner Pg. 178
  7. ^ Heartz/Bruce, Daniel and Alan Brown. (Accessed 21 March 2007). 'Sturm und Drang', Grove Music Online, "http://www.grovemusic.com/shared/views/article.html?section=music.27035"
  8. ^ Brown, A. Peter. (Spring, 1992). The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 10, No. 2. pp. 192-230. Pg. 198
  9. ^ Wright, Craig and Bryan Simms. (2006) Music in Western Civilization. Belmont: Thomson Schirmer. Pg. 423
  10. ^ A. Peter Brown. Pg. 198
  11. ^ Daniel Heartz/Bruce Pg. 1

March 21 is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Bibliography

  • Baldick, Chris. (1990) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. Oxford: Oxford University.
  • Brown, A. Peter. (Spring, 1992). The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 10, No. 2. pp. 192-230.
  • Heartz/Bruce, Daniel and Alan Brown. (Accessed 21 March 2007). Sturm und Drang, Grove Music Online, "http://www.grovemusic.com/shared/views/article.html?section=music.27035"
  • Heckscher, William S. (1966 - 1967) Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art, Vol. 1, No. 2. pp. 94-105.
  • Leidner, Alan. (Mar., 1989). C. PMLA, Vol. 104, No. 2, pp. 178-189.
  • Pascal, Roy. (Apr., 1952). The Modern Language Review, Vol. 47, No. 2. pp. 129-151.
  • Preminger, Alex; Brogan, T. V. F. (Eds). (1993) The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. Princeton: Princeton University.
  • Wright, Craig and Bryan Simms. (2006) Music in Western Civilization. Belmont: Thomson Schirmer.
Philosophy Portal

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sturm und Drang (4273 words)
The phenomenon known as "Sturm und Drang" is by no means restricted to the literature of Germany.
There is a period of "Sturm and Drang" in all literatures, as there is, to a greater or less degree, in the life of every individual.
The "Geniezeit"--the phrase "Sturm und Drang" was not employed until a later date--was in truth a period of genius: not only were its leaders--Herder, Goethe, Schiller--men of unquestionable eminence, but even the minor writers of the time were poets to whose gifts the word genius is more applicable than talent.
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