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Encyclopedia > Stucco

Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied wet, and hardens when it dries. It is used as a coating for walls and ceilings and for decoration. In Europe the term render is more commonly used. Stucco may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials such as concrete, cinder block, or clay brick and adobe. Limestone Quarry Construction aggregate, or simply, aggregate, is the broad category of basic materials used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, and recycled concrete. ... A binder is a material used to bind together two or more other materials in mixtures. ...

Stucco from the House of Borujerdi-ha, 1850s, Kashan, Iran.


Example of Persian craftsmen artwork from local humble earth. ... Example of Persian craftsmen artwork from local humble earth. ... View facing south and main dome of talar. ... Tabatabaei House, early 1800s, Kashan. ...


The difference in nomenclature between stucco, plaster, and mortar is based more on use than composition. Until the later part of the nineteenth century, it was common to have plaster, which was used inside the building, and stucco, which was used outside the building, consist of the same primary materials: lime and sand (lime and sand are also used in mortar). Animal or plant fibers were often added for additional tensile strength. In the later part of the nineteenth century, Portland cement was added with increasing frequency in an attempt to improve its durability. At the same time, traditional lime plasters were being replaced by gypsum plaster. // Gypsum plaster Plaster of Paris, or simply plaster, is a type of building material based on calcium sulfate hemihydrate, nominally (CaSO₄)₂*H₂O. It is created by heating gypsum to about 150 ℃, 2(CaSO₄ · 2H₂O) → (CaSO₄)₂ · H₂O + 3 H₂O (released as steam). ... Mortar holding weathered bricks. ... Gypsum is a very soft mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. // Heating gypsum to between 100°C and 150°C (302°F) partially dehydrates the mineral by driving off exactly 75% of the water contained in its chemical structure. ...

Traditional stucco is made of lime, sand, and water. Modern stucco is made of Portland cement and water. Lime is often added to decrease the permeability and increase the workability of modern stucco. Sometimes additives such as acrylics and glass fibers are added to improve the structural properties of the plaster as well as its workability. This is usually done with what is considered a "one coat" stucco system—as opposed to the traditional 3 coat method. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Patterns in the sand Sand is a granular material made up of fine rock particles. ... Sampling fast set Portland cement Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage, as it is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and plaster. ...

Lime stucco is a relatively hard material that can be broken or chipped by hand without too much difficulty. The lime itself is usually white; color comes from the aggregate or any added pigments. Lime stucco has the property of being self-healing to a limited degree due to the slight solubility of lime (lime in solution can be deposited in cracks where it later solidifies). Portland cement stucco is very hard and brittle and can easily crack if the base on which it is applied is not stable. Typically its color was gray due to the innate color of most Portland cement (white Portland cement is also used). Today's stucco manufacturers offer a very wide range of colors that can be mixed integrally in the finish coat.

Traditional stucco

A stucco face from the ancient Greek city of Ai Khanoum, Afghanistan, 3rd-2nd century BCE.
A stucco face from the ancient Greek city of Ai Khanoum, Afghanistan, 3rd-2nd century BCE.

Traditionally Stucco is directly applied to a masonry surface such as brick or stone. In wood-framed buildings, stucco was applied over a wood lath, similar to the lath and plaster technique used on the interiors of buildings. Modern stucco is usually applied over an expanded metal lath that is fastened to the wall sheathing with staples, with a 2 layer moisture barrier in between. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Hellenistic foot fragment of a giant statue, from Ai-Khanoum, 2nd century BCE. Ai-Khanoum or Ay Khanum (lit. ... This article is about building materials. ... Lath seen from the back with brown coat oozing through Lath and plaster is a building process used mainly for interior walls in the United States until the late 1950s. ...

Stucco has also been used as a sculptural and artistic material. Baroque and Rococo architecture makes heavy use of stucco. Examples can be found in churches and palaces, where stucco is mostly used to provide a smooth, decorative transition from walls to ceiling, decorating and giving measure to ceiling surfaces. Stucco is an integral part of the art of belcomposto, the baroque concept that smoothly integrates the three classic arts, architecture, sculpture, and painting. Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... The Charioteer of Delphi, Delphi Archaeological Museum. ... Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, a master builder, from αρχι- chiefs, leader , builder, carpenter)[1] is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ...

Since stucco can be used for decorative purposes as well as for figurative representation, it provides an ideal transitive link from architectural details to wall paintings such as the typically baroque trompe l'oeil ceilings, as in the work of the Wessobrunner School. Here, the real architecture of the church is visually extended into a heavenly architecture with a depiction of Christ, the Virgin Mary or the Last Judgment at the center. Stucco is being used to form a semi-plastic extension of the real architecture that merges into the painted architecture. Salle des illustres, ceiling painting, by Jean André Rixens. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... [[: Le Image:Mural de Narbonne. ... The Wessobrunner School is the name for a group of stucco-workers that, beginning at the end of the 17th century, developed in the Benedictine Wessobrunn Abbey. ... Christ is the English of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... Our Lady redirects here. ... Last Judgment. ...

Islamic art makes use of stucco as a decorative means in mosques and palaces. Indian architecture knows stucco as a material for sculpture in an architectural context. The term Islamic art denotes the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ...

Due to its "aristocratic" look, baroque looking stucco decoration was used frequently in upper-class apartments of the 19th and early 20th century. Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ...

It was also employed in the 1950's in pre-molded forms for decorating the joins between walls and ceilings inside houses. It was generally painted the same color as the ceiling and used in designs where a picture rail or rat rail was in use.

Stucco used as an exterior coating on a residential building.
Stucco used as an exterior coating on a residential building.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3456x2304, 3145 KB) Stucco used as an exterior coating on a residential building in California. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3456x2304, 3145 KB) Stucco used as an exterior coating on a residential building in California. ...

Modern stucco

Modern Stucco usually consists of 1 layer of wire lath and 2 layers of portland cement-based plaster. This is due to its rapid strength development and durability. However, cement's crystalline structure cannot accommodate significant movements in the building structure (as lime does) and is thus prone to cracking. This is why an additional acrylic finish on top is often applied. It adds flexibility for surface movements and waterproof.

First a wire mesh is attached to vapor permeable, water-resistant "tar" paper if stucco is being applied to a wood framed structure or light-gauge steel frame structure. The paper protects the sheathing and interior of the wall from outside moisture intrusion without trapping moisture vapor in the wall. A wide variety of accessories such as weep screeds, control and expansion joints, corner-aids and architectural reveals are sometimes also incorporated into the lath. Wire lath is used to give the plaster something to attach to and may be expanded-metal lath, woven-wire lath, or welded-wire lath. In Europe, wire lathing with fired clay an integral "brick-mesh" is used in many applications instead of expanded metal lathing.

The first layer of plaster is called a "scratch coat", consisting of plastic cement and sand. A brush is used to scratch the surface horizontally or in a criss cross pattern to provide a key for the second layer.

The next layer is called the "brown coat" or leveling coat. It also consists of sand, cement and lime. It is leveled with tools called "Darbys", "Rods" and "Federege" scraped smooth, and floated to provide a nice even surface onto which to apply the finish coat. It is then allowed to dry (cure) for 7-10 days minimum to allow "checking" (shrinkage)and cracking to take place. Sometimes the dry surface is sprayed with water for one or more days to speed up the curing process.

The exterior stucco layer is the final layer and is referred to as the "finish coat". There are 2 different recommend types of finish coats:

1. Color Coat, is a colored sand, cement and lime mixed finish and is typically 3 mm (1/8") thick. A base coat of stucco is applied over the 2nd coat of cement (brown coat). This then can be floated with water for a sandy finish or later textured over with a trowel to create various styles of troweled finishes. Pre-mixed stucco is what's mostly used and comes in coarse graded sand and finer graded sand for creating a very smooth troweled finish. It also comes made in a variety of colors.

2. Acrylic Finish, is a acrylic based finish from 1,0 mm to 4,0 mm thick. It can be applied in any from Traditional stucco known way and is the most recommend finish for long lasting quality. It also can be ordered in any color.

3. Hard Coating, is a not recommend method of adding a finish to the stucco wall. back in the 60's and 70's mostly, people throw all kind of material like glass chunks, stones or marbles (calcium carbonate finishes with crushed natural marbles (Marmalrino)into the wet stucco wall. Not only is this kind of finish coat very heavy and inflexible but also hard to repair.

See also

EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS The term Exterior Insulating Finishing Systems, as speicifically written as words, and posted by via this specific wording on WikiPedia, is not the correct term for this product. ... // Gypsum plaster Plaster of Paris, or simply plaster, is a type of building material based on calcium sulfate hemihydrate, nominally (CaSO₄)₂*H₂O. It is created by heating gypsum to about 150 ℃, 2(CaSO₄ · 2H₂O) → (CaSO₄)₂ · H₂O + 3 H₂O (released as steam). ... Tadelakt is a bright, waterproof lime plaster which can be used on the inside of buildings and on the outside. ...

External links

  Results from FactBites:
eMedicine - Stucco Keratosis : Article by Raymond T Kuwahara (865 words)
Stucco keratosis was first described by Kocsard and Ofner in 1965 and later by Willoughby and Soter in 1972.
Stucco keratosis is a keratotic papule that is usually found on the distal lower acral extremities of males.
Stucco keratosis appears to be produced by thickening of the epidermis.
Plasterers and stucco masons (1855 words)
Stucco masons apply durable plasters, such as polymer-based acrylic finishes and stucco, to exterior surfaces.
Plasterers and stucco masons should not be confused with drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers—discussed elsewhere in the Handbook—who use drywall instead of plaster when erecting interior walls and ceilings.
Stucco may also be applied directly to a wire lath with a scratch coat, followed by a brown coat and then a finish coat.
  More results at FactBites »



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