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Encyclopedia > Stuart Sutcliffe
Stuart Sutcliffe
An Astrid Kirchherr photo of Sutcliffe in 1960.
Born 23 June 1940
Edinburgh, Scotland
Died 10 April 1962 (aged 21)
Hamburg, Germany
Occupation Artist, Bassist
Spouse Engaged to Astrid Kirchherr

Stuart Fergusson Victor Sutcliffe (23 June 194010 April 1962) was a British musician and artist who, until his early death, worked in a style related to Abstract Expressionism. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II... April 10 is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practising the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... ||/ | @___oo / / / (__,,,,| ) /^) ^/ _) ) /^/ _) ) _ / / _) / )// || | )_) < > |(,,) )__) || / )___) | ____( )___) )___ ______(_______;;; __;;; A bassist is not a musician, so much as a guy or girl trying to play an instrument with four strings and a long neck. ... Astrid Kirchherr (b. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Instrumentalist” redirects here. ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practising the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up style in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ...


Sutcliffe was an art school friend of John Lennon and was the original bassist of the British rock band The Beatles for two years. Sutcliffe and Lennon are credited with naming the group after Buddy Holly's band the Crickets. Sutcliffe enrolled in the Hamburg College of Art after leaving The Beatles and studied under future pop artist Eduardo Paolozzi. John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... ||/ | @___oo / / / (__,,,,| ) /^) ^/ _) ) /^/ _) ) _ / / _) / )// || | )_) < > |(,,) )__) || / )___) | ____( )___) )___ ______(_______;;; __;;; A bassist is not a musician, so much as a guy or girl trying to play an instrument with four strings and a long neck. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Beatles were an English rock band from Liverpool whose members were John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr. ... Charles Hardin Holley (September 7, 1936 – February 3, 1959), better known as Buddy Holly, was an American singer, songwriter, and a pioneer of rock and roll. ... The Crickets The Crickets were the backing band from Texas in the United States, formed by singer/songwriter Buddy Holly in the 1950s. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Paolozzis Newton, bronze (1995) in the courtyard of the British Library. ...


Sutcliffe met photographer Astrid Kirchherr in Hamburg whilst playing there, and they were later engaged. Sutcliffe is often referred to as "the Fifth Beatle". This is a list of notable photographers in the art, documentary and fashion traditions. ... Astrid Kirchherr (b. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... An engagement is an agreement by a couple to enter into marriage at some future time, usually accompanied by a formal or informal announcement to friends and family. ... The Fifth Beatle is an informal title that numerous commentators in the press and entertainment industry have applied to several people who were at one point a member of The Beatles, or who had a strong association with the Fab Four other than John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and...

Contents

Early years

Sutcliffe's self-portrait.
Sutcliffe's self-portrait.

Sutcliffe's father, Charles Sutcliffe, was a naval officer—who was often at sea during his son's early years. His mother, Millie, was a schoolteacher. Sutcliffe had a younger sister named Pauline. Image File history File links Sutcliffeselfportrait. ... Image File history File links Sutcliffeselfportrait. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Sea as seen from jetty in Frankston, Australia Look up maritime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A small but delicately handsome boy, Sutcliffe was born at the Simpson Memorial Maternity Pavilion Hospital in 1940, in Edinburgh, Scotland and brought up in the St Johns area of Huyton, Merseyside in England, attending the Prescot Grammar School.[1][2] Sutcliffe sang in the local church choir in Huyton.[3] When Sutcliffe's father did return home on leave, he invited his son and Rod Murray (Sutcliffe's room-mate) for a "real good booze-up" and slipped £10 into Sutcliffe's pocket before disappearing for another six months.[1] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II... Huyton is a suburban town on the eastern outskirts of Liverpool in the metropolitan county of Merseyside, England. ... Merseyside is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 1,365,900. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate 50... Prescot Grammar School is a historic grammar school in Prescot, Merseyside, England, now a co-educational comprehensive school known simply as Prescot School. It was founded in 1544 by Gilbert Latham, a local clergyman who left £140 in his will to fund a schoolmaster to run a free grammar school. ... Huyton is a suburban town on the eastern outskirts of Liverpool in the metropolitan county of Merseyside, England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Sutcliffe met John Lennon when they were both studying at the Liverpool College of Art. According to Lennon, Sutcliffe had a "marvellous art portfolio" at the age of fourteen and was a seriously talented painter who was one the "stars" of the school.[1][4] Liverpool College of Art Hope Street, Liverpool, England. ...


Sutcliffe lived in Percy Street before moving to Hillary Mansions at 3 Gambier Terrace, which was occupied by Beatniks.[5][6] The flat was near the new Anglican Cathedral in the run-down area of Liverpool 8, with bare lightbulbs and a mattress on the floor in the corner. Lennon moved in with Sutcliffe in early 1960.[7][8] Beatnik can refer to two different things: A member of the Beat Generation An esoteric programming language This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... North elevation of Liverpool Anglican Cathedral. ...


After talking to Sutcliffe one night at the Cashbah Coffee Club -—owned by Pete Best's mother, Mona Best —- Lennon and Paul McCartney persuaded Sutcliffe to buy a Höfner 500/5 model, known in Europe as a President bass.[9][10] Sutcliffe's fingers would often be blistered during long rehearsals, as he had never played long enough for his fingers to become calloused, although he had previously played acoustic guitar.[11][12] Sutcliffe started acting as a booking agent for the group, and they often used his flat as a rehearsal room.[7] The Beatles, early 1962: (L-R) Pete, George, Paul and John. ... Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942) is an iconic Academy Award– and Grammy Award–winning English singer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist who first gained worldwide fame as one of the founding members of The Beatles. ... Karl Höfner GmbH & Co. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... This article is about calluses and corns of human skin. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


In July of 1960, the British Sunday newspaper The People ran an article entitled, "The Beatnik Horror", which featured a photograph taken in the flat below Sutcliffe's, with a teenaged Lennon lying on the floor. Allan Williams had set up the photograph. He took over from Sutcliffe booking concerts for "The Silver Beetles", as they were then known, which was Lennon, McCartney and Sutcliffe.[13] The Beatles' subsequent name-change came from an afternoon in the Renshaw Hall bar when Sutcliffe, Lennon, and Cynthia Powell thought up names similar to Buddy Holly's band, The Crickets, and came up with The Beatals.[14] Lennon later changed the name to "The Beatles", because he thought it sounded French and suggested Le Beat, or Beat-less.[15][16] The People, formerly known as the Sunday People, is a British red-top Sunday-only newspaper, owned by the Trinity Mirror Group. ... Former Liverpool businessman and promoter; original manager of The Beatles, who sent the young band to Hamburg, Germany, where they gained vital show business experience. ... The Beatles were a pop and rock music group from Liverpool, England, who continue to be held in the very highest regard for their artistic achievements, their huge commercial success, and their groundbreaking role in the history of popular music. ... Cynthia Lillian Lennon née Powell (born September 10, 1939) in Blackpool, Lancashire, England. ... The Crickets The Crickets were the backing band from Texas in the United States, formed by singer/songwriter Buddy Holly in the 1950s. ...


The Beatles and Hamburg

Sutcliffe's playing style was elementary, mostly sticking to root notes of chords.[17] Bill Harry, founder and editor of the Mersey Beat newspaper, complained to Sutcliffe that he should be concentrating on art and not music, as he thought that Sutcliffe was a competent but not brilliant bassist.[18] While Sutcliffe is often described in Beatles biographies as appearing very uncomfortable onstage, and as often playing with his back to the audience, Pete Best denies this, recalling Sutcliffe as usually good-natured and "animated" before an audience.[19] McCartney has said that Sutcliffe was a typical art student, with bad skin and pimples, although in Hamburg, his stature grew after he began wearing dark Ray-Ban sunglasses and tight trousers.[20] The root (basse fondamentale) of a chord is the note upon which that chord is perceived or labelled as built or centered, the root of a chord in root position or normal form. ... Typical fingering for a second inversion C major chord on a guitar. ... Mersey Beat was a music publication in Liverpool, England in the early 1960s. ... ||/ | @___oo / / / (__,,,,| ) /^) ^/ _) ) /^/ _) ) _ / / _) / )// || | )_) < > |(,,) )__) || / )___) | ____( )___) )___ ______(_______;;; __;;; A bassist is not a musician, so much as a guy or girl trying to play an instrument with four strings and a long neck. ... This article is about a skin disease commonly found during adolescence. ... The Ray-Ban Wayfarer is an iconic design of sunglasses available with polarized lenses and spring hinges, manufactured by Ray-Ban since 1952. ...


On 5 December 1960, George Harrison was sent back to England for being under-age. McCartney and Best were deported for attempted arson at the Bambi Kino, which left Lennon and Sutcliffe in Hamburg.[21][22] Lennon took a train home, but as Sutcliffe had a cold he stayed in Hamburg.[23] Sutcliffe later borrowed airfare money from Astrid Kirchherr in order to fly to Liverpool in early January of 1961, though he returned to Hamburg in March with the other Beatles.[24] December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... George Harrison, MBE (25 February 1943[1][2] – 29 November 2001[3]) was an Academy Award and Grammy Award-winning English rock guitarist, singer, songwriter, author and sitarist best known as the lead guitarist of The Beatles. ... Bruno Koschmider was a german entrepreneur in Hamburg, Germany. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, often known as the common cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system (nose and throat). ...


At that point, Sutcliffe lent Paul McCartney his President bass until the latter could earn enough money to buy a bass guitar of his own. Sutcliffe asked McCartney not to change the strings around, so McCartney had to play it upside down.[25] In 1967, The Beatles included a photo of Sutcliffe among those on the cover of the Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album (he appears at the extreme left, next to fellow-artist Aubrey Beardsley). The Beatles U.S. chronology Revolver (1966) Sgt. ... Aubrey Beardsley Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (August 21, 1872 – March 16, 1898) was an influential English illustrator, and author, best known for his erotic illustrations. ...


Astrid Kirchherr

Main article: Astrid Kirchherr
Sutcliffe and Kirchherr in 1960.

Kirchherr was raised by her widowed mother, Nielsa Kirchherr, in Eimsbütteler Strasse in the wealthy Hamburg suburb of Altona.[26] Sutcliffe met Kirchherr in the Kaiserkeller club, where she went to watch The Beatles perform. After a photo session with them, Kirchherr invited the group to her mother's house for tea and showed them her bedroom, decorated in all black —- including the furniture -— with silver foil on the walls, and a large tree branch hanging from the ceiling. Sutcliffe began dating Kirchherr shortly thereafter.[27] Astrid Kirchherr (b. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ... Housing subdivision near Union, Kentucky, a suburb of Cincinnati, Ohio. ... Altona may refer to various places: Altona, Victoria, a seaside suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Altona, Illinois, a village located in Knox County, Illinois Altona, Indiana, a town located in DeKalb County, Indiana Altona, Hamburg, the westmost district in the city of Hamburg, Germany Altona, Manitoba, a town located in...


Sutcliffe wrote to friends that he was infatuated with Kirchherr, and asked her friends which colours, films, books, and painters she liked. Pete Best commented that the beginning of their relationship was, "like one of those fairy stories".[28] Kirchherr and Sutcliffe got engaged in November, 1960, and exchanged rings, as is the German custom.[20] Sutcliffe wrote to his parents that he was engaged to Kirchherr, something they were shocked to learn, as they assumed he would give up his career as an artist.[29]


Kirchherr and Sutcliffe traveled to Liverpool in the summer of 1961, as Kirchherr wanted to meet Sutcliffe's family and to see his home city before their marriage.[30]


Death

Stuart Sutcliffe collapsed in the middle of an art class in Hamburg. Nielsa Kirchherr had German doctors perform various tests, but they were unable to determine exactly what was causing the intense headaches from which he'd been suffering. Whilst living at the Kirchherrs' house in Hamburg, his condition grew steadily worse. After collapsing again, Sutcliffe was taken to a hospital by Kirchherr (who rode with him in the ambulance), but he died before reaching the hospital.[31][32]


On the 13 April 1962, Kirchherr met The Beatles at the Hamburg airport and told them that Sutcliffe had died from a brain haemorrhage a few days before.[31][22] April 13 is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A cerebral hemorrhage is a bleed into the substance of the cerebrum. ...


It has never been known precisely what caused the brain hemorrhage that took Sutcliffe's life. Some believe that the cause was an earlier head injury, sustained outside Lathom Hall after a live performance in January of 1961 (although Sutcliffe had been beaten up before).[33] According to former manager Allan Williams, Lennon and Best went to Sutcliffe's aid, fighting off his attackers before dragging him to safety. Sutcliffe sustained a fractured skull in the fight, and Lennon broke his little finger.[34] Head injury is a trauma to the head, that may or may not include injury to the brain (see also brain injury). ... Map sources for Lathom at grid reference SD458107 Lathom is a village in Lancashire, England about 5 km northeast of Ormskirk. ... Former Liverpool businessman and promoter; original manager of The Beatles, who sent the young band to Hamburg, Germany, where they gained vital show business experience. ...


Sutcliffe had refused medical attention at the time (and had not kept an X-ray appointment at the Sefton General Hospital). He saw a a doctor only months later in Germany, when he began experiencing severe headaches and acute sensitivity to light.[35] Kirchherr said later that some of the headaches left Sutcliffe temporarily blind.[30][32]


After Sutcliffe's death, Kirchherr wrote a letter to Millie Sutcliffe, apologising for being too ill to attend his funeral in Liverpool and saying how much she and Lennon missed him:

Oh mum he [Lennon] is in a terrible mood now, he just can't believe that darling Stuart never comes back. He just crying his eyes out John is marvellous to me, he says that he know Stuart so much and he love him so much that he can understand me."[36]

Art

Hamburg Painting no. 2

Sutcliffe displayed artistic talent at an early age.[1][37] Helen Anderson (a fellow student) remembered his early works as being very aggressive, with dark moody colours, which was not the type of painting she expected from such a quiet student.[4] Image File history File links Sutcliffe_painting. ... Image File history File links Sutcliffe_painting. ...


One of Sutcliffe's paintings was shown at the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool as part of the John Moores exhibition from November 1959 until January 1960. After the exhibition, John Moores bought Sutcliffe's canvas for £75, which was then equal to 6-7 weeks' wages for an average working man.[7] This page is about the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. ... Sir John Moores (1896-1993) was a British merchant. ...


After meeting Kirchherr, Sutcliffe decided to leave The Beatles and enrolled at the Hamburg College of Art in June 1961, under the tutelage of Paolozzi who respected Sutcliffe's talent, and later wrote a report stating that although Sutcliffe had missed some lessons because of illness, he was considered by Paolozzi to be one of his "best students".[20][38][39]


Sutcliffe's few surviving works reveal influence from the British and European abstract artists contemporary with the Abstract Expressionist movement in the United States. His earlier figurative work is reminiscent of the kitchen sink school, particularly of John Bratby, though Sutcliffe was producing abstract work by the end of the 1950s, including The Summer Painting, purchased by Moores. Rod Murray remembered that the painting was painted on a board, not a canvas, and had to be cut into two pieces (because of its size) and hinged. Murray added that only one of the pieces actually got to the exhibition but sold nonetheless.[40] A European is primarily a person who was born into one of the countries within the continent of Europe. ... Kitchen sink realism was a recognisable English cultural movement in the late 1950s and early 1960s. ... John Bratby (1928 - 1992) was a British painter who founded the kitchen sink style of art that was influential in the late 1950s. ...


Sutcliffe's works bear some comparison with those of John Hoyland and Nicolas de Staël, though they are more lyrical. His later works are typically untitled, constructed from heavily impastoed slabs of pigment in the manner of de Staël, and overlaid with scratched or squeezed linear elements creating enclosed spaces. Hamburg Painting no. 2 was purchased by Liverpool's Walker Art Gallery and is one of a series entitled "Hamburg" in which the surface and color changes produced atmospheric energy. European artists (including Paolozzi) were influencing Sutcliffe at the time.[41] The Walker Art Gallery has other works by Sutcliffe, which are "Self-portrait" (in charcoal) and "The Crucifixion".[42][43] Nicolas de Staël (January 5, 1914, Saint Petersburg - March 16, 1955, Antibes) (French nationality, of Russian origin) was a painter known for his use of a thick impasto and his highly abstract landscape painting. ... This page is about the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. ...


Lennon later hung a pair of Sutcliffe's paintings in his house (Kenwood) in Weybridge. McCartney had a Paolozzi sculpture in his Cavendish Avenue home.[44][45] Home of John Lennon from the summer of 1964 until the late spring of 1968, located on St. ...


Anthology 1

The Beatles' compilation album Anthology 1, consisting mostly of previously unreleased recordings from the band's early years, was released in 1995. Sutcliffe is pictured on the front cover, as he was on Sgt. Pepper 28 years before. More importantly, he is featured playing bass with the Beatles on three songs that the band recorded in 1960: "Hallelujah, I Love Her So", "You'll Be Mine", and "Cayenne". These songs are, to date, the only officially sanctioned recordings of Sutcliffe playing with the Beatles. The Beatles Anthology 1 was released in late 1995, and includes rarites and alternatives tracks from their days as the Quarry Men, through the Decca auditions and the album Beatles for Sale. ... Youll Be Mine is a short song, composed by Lennon/McCartney in The Beatles early years. ... Cayenne was an instrumental track by The Beatles on the 1995 album Anthology 1. ...


Film Portrayals

Sutcliffe's role in the Beatles' early career, as well as the factors that led him to leave the group, is dramatised in the film Backbeat, in which he was portrayed by Stephen Dorff. He was also portrayed by David Wilkinson in the film Birth of the Beatles and by Lee Williams in In My Life: The John Lennon Story (2000). Backbeat is a 1994 movie that chronicles the early days of The Beatles in Hamburg, Germany. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Birth of the Beatles is a 1979 biopic TV movie, produced by Dick Clarks company (Dick Clark Productions), that focusses on the early history of 1960s rock band The Beatles. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Spitz 2005. p105
  2. ^ Prescot Grammar School uniform liverpoolmuseums.org.uk - Retrieved: 13 May 2007
  3. ^ Photo of Sutcliffe in church choir liverpoolmuseums.org.uk - Retrieved: 13 May 2007
  4. ^ a b Spitz 2005. p107
  5. ^ Spitz 2005. p172
  6. ^ Painting by Sutcliffe in Percy Street flat liverpoolmuseums.org.uk - Retrieved: 13 May 2007
  7. ^ a b c Miles 1998. p50
  8. ^ Cynthia Lennon – “John” 2006. p63
  9. ^ Sutcliffe's President Bass rockmine.com - Retrieved: 9 May 2007
  10. ^ Sutcliffe's cheque book - liverpoolmuseums.org.uk - Retrieved: 13 May 2007
  11. ^ Cynthia Lennon – “John” 2006. p64
  12. ^ Sutcliffe’s first guitar liverpoolmuseums.org.uk - Retrieved: 13 May 2007
  13. ^ Miles 1998. p53
  14. ^ Spitz 2005. p175
  15. ^ Cynthia Lennon – “John” 2006. p65
  16. ^ Renshaw Hall bar liverpoolmuseums.org.uk - Retrieved: 9 May 2007
  17. ^ Spitz 2005. pp184-185
  18. ^ Spitz 2005. pp173-174
  19. ^ An Evening With Pete Best, Part I: The Interview rickresource.com - Retrieved: 20 Jan, 2007
  20. ^ a b c Miles 1998. p65
  21. ^ Cynthia Lennon “John” 2006. p93.
  22. ^ a b The BeatlesTimeline beatles.ncf.ca - Retrieved: 9 May 2007
  23. ^ Spitz 2005. p230
  24. ^ Spitz 2005. p242
  25. ^ Miles 1998. pp74-75
  26. ^ Miles 1998. p64
  27. ^ Spitz 2005. p224
  28. ^ Spitz 2005. p225
  29. ^ Spitz 2005. p235
  30. ^ a b Spitz 2005. p278
  31. ^ a b Spitz 2005. p305
  32. ^ a b Cynthia Lennon– “John”. p110.
  33. ^ Spitz 2005. p240
  34. ^ Spitz 2005. p241
  35. ^ Sefton General Hospital report liverpoolmuseums.org.uk - Retrieved: 13 May 2007
  36. ^ Astrid’s letter to Millie Sutcliffe liverpoolmuseums.org.uk - Retrieved: 13 May 2007
  37. ^ Cynthia Lennon – “John” 2006. p47
  38. ^ Hamburg identity card, 1961 liverpoolmuseums.org.uk - Retrieved: 13 May 2007
  39. ^ Eduardo Paolozzi’s Report liverpoolmuseums.org.uk - Retrieved: 13 May 2007
  40. ^ Spitz 2005. p168
  41. ^ 'Hamburg Painting No. 2' 1961 liverpoolmuseums.org.uk - Retrieved: 12 May 2007
  42. ^ Sutcliffe's self-portrait (in charcoal) liverpoolmuseums.org.uk - Retrieved: 13 May 2007
  43. ^ “The Crucifixion” by Sutcliffe liverpoolmuseums.org.uk - Retrieved: 12 May 2007
  44. ^ Miles 1998. p170
  45. ^ Miles 1998. p258

References

Cynthia Lillian Lennon née Powell (born September 10, 1939) in Blackpool, Lancashire, England. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Avon is a paperback imprint of HarperCollins. ... Barry Miles (commonly known as, and called, simply Miles) is an author who has written biographies of Paul McCartney, William Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg as well as books about John Lennon, the Beatles and Frank Zappa. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Many Years From Now, is the official biography of Sir Paul McCartney, by Barry Miles. ... Vintage Books was founded in 1954 by Alfred A. Knopf as a trade paperback home for its authors. ... Random House is a publishing division of the German media conglomerate Bertelsmann based in New York City. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Little, Brown and Company is a publishing house established by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown. ... NY redirects here. ...

See also

The Quarry Men (sometimes Quarrymen) were a little-known skiffle group formed around Liverpool, England in March 1957 by John Lennon. ... The Beatles were an English rock band from Liverpool whose members were John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr. ... Astrid Kirchherr (b. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Stuart Sutcliffe Estate: Books & Films (426 words)
Stuart Sutcliffe's strange, sudden death in Hamburg at the age of 21 is now part of Beatles folklore, but his importance to the Beatles-he was one of the founding members and a close friend of John Lennon-has never been fully examined.
Stuart's close friendship with John Lennon and his love affair with Astrid Kirchherr are each explored more intimately than ever before.
The second volume is a finely produced full-colour facsimile of one of Stuart's sketchbooks, filled with paintings and drawings from Liverpool and Hamburg, which highlights Stuart's artistic development and state of mind at the time.
Stuart Sutcliffe Estate (231 words)
Stuart Sutcliffe is known as The Fifth Beatle, John Lennon’s best friend, the James Dean of Hamburg.
Stuart and Lennon were roommates whilst at the Art College in Liverpool.
Stuart re-named the band, The Beetles, after the biker chick gang in the Marlon Brando movie The Wild Ones; John changed the spelling to The Beatles.
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