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Encyclopedia > Stuart Kauffman

Stuart Alan Kauffman (born September 28, 1939) is a theoretical biologist and complex systems researcher, who has given much thought to the origin of life on Earth. He is best known for arguing that the complexity of biological systems and organisms might result as much from self-organization and far-from-equilibrium dynamics as from Darwinian natural selection. September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of organisms. ... There are many definitions of complexity, therefore many natural, artificial and abstract objects or networks can be considered to be complex systems, and their study (complexity science) is highly interdisciplinary. ... Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. ... Self-organization refers to a process in which the internal organization of a system, normally an open system, increases automatically without being guided or managed by an outside source. ... The Galápagos Islands hold 13 species of finches that are closely related and differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ...


Kauffman presently holds a joint appointment at the University of Calgary in Biological Sciences and in Physics and Astronomy. He is also an iCORE chair. The University of Calgary is a public university located in the north-western quadrant of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ...


He graduated from Dartmouth in 1960, was awarded the BA(Hons) by Oxford University in 1963, and completed a medical degree (M.D.) at the University of California, San Francisco in 1968. After a brief medical career, he moved into developmental genetics, holding appointments first at the University of Chicago, then at the University of Pennsylvania from 1975 to 1995, where he rose to Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Kauffman held a MacArthur Fellowship, 1987-1992. Dartmouth College is a private academic institution in Hanover, New Hampshire, in the United States. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... UCSF in 1908, with the streetcar that used to run on Parnassus Avenue The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) is one of the worlds leading centers of health sciences research, patient care, and education. ... Developmental biology or embryology (Greek εμβρυολογία) is the study of the process by which organisms grow and develop. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... The University of Pennsylvania (or Penn[3][4]) is a private, nonsectarian research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Biophysics (also biological physics) is an interdisciplinary science that applies the theories and methods of physics, to questions of biology. ... The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation is a private, independent grantmaking institution. ...


Kauffman rose to prominence through his association with the Santa Fe Institute (a non-profit research institute dedicated to the study of complex systems), where he was faculty in residence from 1986 to 1997, and through his work on models in various areas of biology. These included autocatalytic sets in origin of life research, gene regulatory networks in developmental biology, and fitness landscapes in evolutionary biology. The Santa Fe Institute (or SFI) is a non-profit research institute dedicated to the study of complex systems in Santa Fe, New Mexico founded by George Cowan, David Pines, Stirling Colgate, Murray Gell-Mann, Nick Metropolis, Herb Anderson, Peter A. Carruthers, and Richard Slansky in 1984 to study complex... An abstract model (or conceptual model) is a theoretical construct that represents physical, biological or social processes, with a set of variables and a set of logical and quantitative relationships between them. ... Biology (from Greek βίος λόγος, see below) is the study of life. ... An autocatalytic set is a collection of entities, each of which is able to catalyze the creation of others within the set, such that as a whole, the set was able to catalyze its own replication. ... Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. ... A gene regulatory network (also called a GRN or genetic regulatory network) is a collection of DNA segments in a cell which interact with each other and with other substances in the cell, thereby governing the rates at which genes in the network are transcribed into mRNA. // Overview Genes can... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ... In evolutionary biology, fitness landscapes or adaptive landscapes are used to visualize the relationship between genotypes (or phenotypes) and replicatory success. ... Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change, multiplication, and diversity over time. ...


Some fellow biologists working in Kauffman's area reserve judgement on Kauffman's claims about self-organization and evolution. A case in point is the introduction to the 2002 book Self Organization in Biological Systems.


In 1996, Kauffman started BiosGroup, a Santa Fe, New Mexico-based for-profit company that employs complex systems methodology to attempt to solve business problems. BiosGroup was acquired by NuTech Solutions in early 2003. As of 2003, Kauffman was a director of NuTech. Nickname: The City Different Location in the State of New Mexico Coordinates: Country United States State New Mexico County Santa Fe Founded 1607 Mayor David Coss Area    - City 96. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Selected publications

  • 1991 (August), "Antichaos and Adaptation," Scientific American.
  • 1993. Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution. Oxford University Press. Technical monograph. ISBN 0-19-507951-5
  • 1995. At Home in the Universe. Oxford University Press. Popular treatment of many of the ideas in Origins. ISBN 0-19-511130-3
  • 2000. Investigations. Oxford University Press. Speculative definitions of life. ISBN 0-19-512105-8
  • 2004, Prolegomenon to a General Biology in William A. Dembski, Michael Ruse, eds., Debating Design: From Darwin to DNA. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82949-6
  • 2004, "Autonomous Agents" in John D. Barrow, P.C.W. Davies, and C.L. Harper Jr., eds., Science and Ultimate Reality: Quantum Theory, Cosmology, and Complexity. Cambridge University Press.

Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... William A. Dembski William Albert Bill Dembski (born July 18, 1960) is an American mathematician, philosopher, theologian and proponent of intelligent design in opposition to the theory of evolution through natural selection. ... Michael Ruse (born June 21, 1940 in Birmingham, England) is a philosopher of science, a professor of philosophy and zoology largely concerned with the argument between creationism and evolutionary biology. ... John David Barrow FRS (born November 29, 1952, London) is an English cosmologist, theoretical physicist, and mathematician. ... Paul Charles William Davies (born April 22, 1946) is a British-born, internationally acclaimed physicist, writer and broadcaster, who holds the position of College Professor at Arizona State University. ...

External links

  • An online chat with Stuart Kauffman on a complexity organization website.
  • EvoWiki entry on Stuart Kauffman
  • "The adjacent possible" video presentation by Kauffman on autonomous agents.
  • iCORE Chair, Biocomplexity and Informatics [1]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Stuart Kauffman - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (405 words)
Stuart Alan Kauffman (born September 28, 1939), originally trained as a physician, is a theoretical biologist and complex systems researcher, who studies the origin of life.
Kauffman is presently a professor at the University of Calgary with a joint appointment between biological sciences and physics and astronomy.
Kauffman rose to prominence through his association with the Santa Fe Institute (a non-profit research institute dedicated to the study of complex systems, where he was one of the faculty in residence from 1986 to 1997) and through his work on models in various areas of biology.
At home in the universe by Stuart Kauffman (4288 words)
Kauffman proceeds to suggest that increasing the concentration of the building blocks can get over of the problem of difference in energy, but of course this actually gets over the problem of entropy (which he ignored before), and does not affect the energy difference.
Kauffman is so keen to offer insights from his idealised models, that on page 107 he actually suggesst that a cell type corresponds to a state cycle with about 317 states of cell activity, and that the cell cycle (of duplication) corresponds to going through a state cycle.
Kauffman continues to suggest that if mix all the proteins in the world (his estimation 10**12) with all the molecules (his estimation 10**7), and calculate that as a result "A vast explosion of diversity would carom off the perplexed walls of Noah's groaning vessel" (p.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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