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Struma was a ship chartered to carry Jewish refugees from Romania to British-controlled Palestine. The ship was sunk by a Soviet submarine on February 24, 1942 with the loss of 768 lives. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

Struma was commissioned by the Revisionist Zionist organizations in Romania, especially Betar, to carry Romanian Jews as illegal immigrants to British-controlled Palestine. Apart from the crew, there were approximately 790 passengers consisting of many Betar members but mostly of wealthy Romanian Jews who could afford to pay the high price of a ticket. The voyage had the approval of the Romanian government. Revisionist Zionism is a right wing tendency within the Zionist movement. ... The Betar Movement (ביתר, also spelled Beitar) is a youth movement founded in 1923 in Riga, Latvia, by Zionist leader Zeev Jabotinsky. ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ...

Most of the passengers were not permitted to see the vessel before the day of the voyage, and when they finally saw it they were shocked to discover it was far worse than they had imagined. Sleeping quarters were extremely cramped without enough space to sit up, and there were only two lifeboats. They were not told that the engine was in even worse condition; it had been recovered from a wreck on the bottom of the Danube River.

Several times after the Struma set sail from Constanta on the Black Sea on December 12, 1941, the engine gave out. After three days the ship was towed to Istanbul where it remained at anchor while secret negotiations were conducted over the fate of the passengers. The British government was determined to uphold its policy of refusing illegal immigrants entry to Palestine and urged the Turkish government to prevent the ship from sailing onwards, while the Turkish government refused to allow the passengers off the ship. After weeks of negotiation, the British agreed to honour the expired Palestinian visas possessed by a few passengers and these were allowed to continue overland. A few also managed to escape with the help of friends in high places, and one was admitted to an Istanbul hospital following a miscarriage. Constanţa (old names: Kustendji, Kustendja, Köstence, Constantza) is a seaport on the Black Sea and the capital of Constanţa county, Romania. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Shows the Location of the Province Istanbul The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul Istanbul (Turkish: Ä°stanbul) (a Turkish contraction of Greek εις την πολιν into the city, the former Constantinople, Κωνσταντινούπολις) is the largest city in Turkey, and arguably the most important. ...

On 12 February, the British agreed that the children aged 11 to 16 on the ship would be given Palestinian visas, but then a dispute broke out over the means of their carriage to Palestine. Britain refused to send a ship, while Turkey refused to allow them overland. While negotiation over this issue was still in progress, and without notifying Britain in advance, Turkey towed the Struma back into the Black Sea and abandoned it there on February 23. As the boat traveled along the Bosporus, many of the wealthy Turks who lived on the banks of the strait could hear the passengers' cries for help and see signs hung over the sides that read SAVE US in English and Hebrew. The engine would not start despite weeks of work that had been performed on it by Turkish engineers, and the ship drifted helplessly. On February 24, there was a huge explosion and the ship sank. Only one person survived, a man named David Stoliar who was found, clinging to the wreckage, by a rowboat sent out from one of the watchtowers maintained along the Turkish coast. Stoliar was imprisoned in Turkey for 6 weeks, then released and admitted to Palestine. Later he moved to Japan and then the United States. February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the strait; Bosphorus is also a university in Turkey. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... David Stoliar is the sole survivor of the 1942 ship the Struma, that was sailing from Romania to Palestine. ...

For many years there were competing theories about the explosion that sank the Struma, but in 1964 it was discovered by a German historian that a torpedo from a Soviet submarine had been responsible. Later this was confirmed from several other Soviet sources. The submarine had been acting under secret orders to sink all neutral shipping entering the Black Sea in order to reduce the flow of strategic materials to Nazi Germany. For the Nintendo 64 emulator, see 1964 (Emulator). ...

In July 2000, a Turkish diving team found a wreck on the sea floor at approximately the right place, and announced that they had discovered the Struma. A team led by UK technical diver and a grandson of one of the victims, Greg Buxton, later studied this and several other wrecks in the area but could not positively identify any as the Struma. On September 3, 2000, a ceremony was held at the site to commemorate the tragedy. It was attended by 60 relatives of Struma victims, representatives of the Jewish community of Turkey, the Israeli ambassador and prime minister's envoy, as well as British and American delegates. September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years). ... This article is about the year 2000. ...

Further reading

  • D. Frantz and C. Collins - Death on the Black Sea: The Untold Story of the Struma and World War II's Holocaust at Sea (HarperCollins, 2003) ISBN 0066212626.
  • http://www.struma.org

See also

Exodus ship after British takeover (note damage to makeshift barricades). ... the Patria sinking The Patria was a ship which sank in Haifa harbor on November 25, 1940, with the loss of approximately 267 lives (over 200 Jews and 50 crew and British soldiers). ...

External links

  Results from FactBites:
eMedicine - Struma Ovarii : Article Excerpt by: Bradford W Fenton, MD, PhD (386 words)
Background: Struma ovarii was first described in 1899 and is extremely rare, with only 150 reported cases in the medical literature.
Because of the nature of thyroid tissue in the ovary, the definition of malignancy and the management of struma have been debated by those who believe the tumor favors an ovarian versus a thyroid neoplasm.
Struma ovarii is defined by the presence of an ovarian tumor containing thyroid tissue as the predominant cell type.
Thyrotoxicosis from Cancer (1487 words)
Struma ovarii is a rare tumor occurring in a teratoma or dermoid in the ovary.
It is not advised to treat patients with thyrotoxic struma ovarii with radioiodide because of the possibility that the tumor is malignant, which cannot be determined on clinical grounds, and secondly because of the unknown radiation effects on the other elements of the teratoma.
Struma ovarii, in itself a rare tumor occurring in a teratoma or dermoid in the ovarium, rarely causes hyperthyroidism.
  More results at FactBites »



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