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Encyclopedia > Structure
Look up structure in
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Structure is a fundamental and sometimes intangible notion covering the recognition, observation, nature, and stability of patterns and relationships of entities. From a child's verbal description of a snowflake, to the detailed scientific analysis of the properties of magnetic fields, the concept of structure is an essential foundation of nearly every mode of inquiry and discovery in science, philosophy, and art.[1] A structure may be any of several things: In general, for the structure of a thing -- how the parts of it relate to each other, how it is put together -- see Structure. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Intangibles are qualities in an individual or group of individuals, especially those organized in an official group (e. ... For other uses, see Recognition (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Observation (disambiguation). ... This view of the Earth taken in 1972 is the first and only photograph to date showing an entire hemisphere lit by sunlight. ... Look up stability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Pattern (disambiguation). ... Look up relationship in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An entity is something that has a distinct, separate existence, though it need not be a material existence. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... The characterization element can require extended and extensive study, even centuries. ... For the indie-pop band, see The Magnetic Fields. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ...

Contents

Types of structure

Abstract structure

An abstract structure is an informal object that is defined by a set of laws, properties, and relationships in a way that is logically if not always historically independent of the structures and their properties. An important example is a mathematical structure. An abstract structure is a set of laws, properties and relationships that is defined independently of any physical objects. ... In mathematics, a structure on a set is some additional mathematical objects that, loosely speaking, attach to the set, making it easier to visualize or work with. ...


Biological structure

Main articles: Morphometry and Systems biology

In biology, structures exist at all levels of organisation, ranging hierarchically from the atomic and molecular to the cellular, tissue, organ, organismic, population and ecosystem level. Usually, a higher-level structure is composed of multiple copies of a lower-level structure. Systems biology is a term used very widely in the biosciences, particularly from the year 2000 onwards, and in a variety of contexts. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... The general meaning of atomic is irreducible. That is, reduced to the smallest possible part. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... Cellular redirects here. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ...


Chemical structure

Main article: Chemical structure

Chemistry is the science treating matter at the atomic to macromolecular scale, the reactions, transformations and aggregations of matter, as well as accompanying energy and entropy changes during these processes. The chemical structure refers to both molecular geometry and to electronic structure. The structural formula of a chemical compound is a graphical representation of the molecular structure showing how the atoms are arranged. A protein structure is the three dimensional coordinates of the atoms within (macro) molecules made of protein. Chemical structure refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together. ... Chemical structure refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together. ... The structural formula of a chemical compound is a graphical representation of the molecular structure showing how the atoms are arranged. ... Proteins are an important class of biological macromolecules present in all biological organisms, made up of such elements as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. ...


Built structure

A structure usually refers to any large, man-made object permanently fixed to Earth's surface, as a result of construction. These are divided into buildings and nonbuilding structures, and make up the infrastructure of a human society. There are also animal-built structures, such as anthills and beaver dams. For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... Nonbuilding structures, also referred to simply as structures, are those not designed for continuous human occupancy. ... Categories: Stub | Myrmecology ... For other uses, see Beaver (disambiguation). ...


Musical composition

Music is an art form consisting of sound and silence expressed through time. The term musical form, a type of structure, refers to two related concepts: The term musical form refers to two related concepts: the type of composition (for example, a musical work can have the form of a symphony, a concerto, or other generic type -- see Multi-movement forms below) the structure of a particular piece (for example, a piece can be written in...

  • the type of composition (for example, a musical work can have the form of a symphony, a concerto, or other generic type)
  • the structure of a particular piece (for example, a piece can be written in binary form, sonata form, as a fugue, etc.)

Social structure

Main article: Social structure

A social structure is a pattern of relations. They are social organization of individuals and various life. Structures are applicable to people in how a society is as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships. This is known as the social organization of the group. Sociologists have studied the changing structure of theses groups. Structure and agency is the two confronted theories about human behaviour. The debate surrounding the influence of structure and agency on human thought and behaviour is one of the central issues in sociology. In this context "agency" refers to the capacity of individual humans to act independently and to make their own free choices. "Structure" here to those factors such as social class, religion, gender, ethnicity, customs etc. which seem to limit or influence the opportunities that individuals have. See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


References

  1. ^ Pullan, Wendy (2000). Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521782589. 

See also

Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... A binary tree, a simple type of branching linked data structure. ... In mathematics, a structure on a set is some additional mathematical objects that, loosely speaking, attach to the set, making it easier to visualize or work with. ... Nonbuilding structures, also referred to simply as structures, are those not designed for continuous human occupancy. ... A protein primary structure is a chain of amino acids. ... Proteins are an important class of biological macromolecules present in all biological organisms, made up of such elements as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. ... In biochemistry, many proteins are actually assemblies of more than one protein molecule, which in the context of the larger assemblage are known as protein subunits. ... A representation of the 3D structure of the myoglobin protein. ... Structural geology is the study of the three dimensional distribution of rock bodies and their planar or folded surfaces, and their internal fabrics. ... In biochemistry and chemistry, the tertiary structure of a protein or any other macromolecule is its three-dimensional structure, as defined by the atomic coordinates. ...

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Sociology before the Russian Revolution (2753 words)
The new current, Structuralism, continued the project of positivism to find an objective, rational and “scientific” methodology for analysing the data of perception, needing to account for the deep structural crises and transformative processes which were manifested in turn-of-the-century Europe, for which positivism was patently inadequate.
The other source of structural linguistics is N S Trubetzkoy, a Russian Nobleman who sought to unite transcendental philosophy and empiricist and rationalist science around a concept of a universal soul, with faith as a pre-condition of experience, not entirely dissimilar from Wundt’s psycho-physical parallelism.
Structural psychology begins from Wilhelm Wundt’s “experimental psychology”;: the mind was defined in terms of the simplest definable components and then to find the way in which these components fit together in complex forms using the tool of controlled introspection.
Structuralism and Post-structuralism (6831 words)
It became a standard assumption in narratology that the structure of a story was homologous with the structure of a sentence; this assumption allowed the apparatus of sentence-linguistics to be applied to the development of a metalanguage for describing narrative structure...
Structuralism, then, would appear to be a refuge for all immanent criticism against the danger of fragmentation that threatens thematic analysis: the means of reconstituting the unit of a work, its principle of coherence...
The 'total structure' which it identified as the enemy was an historically particular one: the armed, repressive state of late monopoly capitalism, and the Stalinist politics which pretended to confront it but were deeply complicit with its rule.
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