FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Strong acid

A strong acid is an acid that dissociates completely in an aqueous solution (not in the case of sulfuric acid as it is diprotic), or in other terms, with a pKa < −1.74. This generally means that in aqueous solution at standard temperature and pressure, the concentration of hydronium ions is equal to the concentration of strong acid introduced to the solution. While strong acids are generally assumed to be the most corrosive, this is not always true (why not?). The carborane superacid (H(CHB11Cl11), which is one million times stronger than sulfuric acid, is entirely non-corrosive, whereas the weak acid hydrofluoric acid (HF) is extremely corrosive and can dissolve, among other things, glass and all metals except iridium. The equation for complete dissociation of an acid in aqueous solution is as follows: For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... Acid-base extraction in chemistry is a procedure using sequential liquid-liquid extractions to purify amines and acids from mixtures based on their chemical properties. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit is a chemical reaction that... The acid dissociation constant (Ka), also known as the acidity constant or the acid-ionization constant, is a specific equilibrium constant for the reaction of an acid with its conjugate base in aqueous solution [1]. // When an acid dissolves in water, it partly dissociates forming hydronium ions and its conjugate... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit An acidity function is a... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit Buffer solutions are solutions which resist change... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit The proton affinity, Epa, of... The self-ionization of water is the chemical reaction in which two water molecules react to produce a hydronium (H3O+) and a hydroxide ion (OH-): The reaction is also known as the autoionization or autodissociation of water. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, a Lewis acid can accept a pair of electrons and form a coordinate covalent bond, after the American chemist Gilbert Lewis. ... Headline text Happy Hannukah and a happy new year!! POOP e Butt ... An organic acid is an organic compound that is an acid. ... A superacid is an acid with an acidity greater than that of 100% sulfuric acid. ... A weak acid is an acid that does not fully ionize in solution; that is, if the acid was represented by the general formula HA, then in aqueous solution a significant amount of undissolved HA still remains. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... A Lewis base is any molecule or ion that can form a new covalent bond by donating a pair of electrons. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit An organic base is an organic compound which acts as a base. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... In chemistry, a superbase is an extremely strong base. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit As... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a weak base is a... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... A dissociative is a drug which reduces (or blocks) signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain, typically (but not necessarily, or limited to) the physical senses. ... The first solvation shell of a sodium ion dissolved in water An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. ... The acid dissociation constant (Ka), also known as the acidity constant or the acid-ionization constant, is a specific equilibrium constant for the reaction of an acid with its conjugate base in aqueous solution [1]. // When an acid dissolves in water, it partly dissociates forming hydronium ions and its conjugate... Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ... Corrosion is the destructive reaction of a metal with another material, e. ... 3D model of carborane acid, colors: Hydrogen - white, Chlorine - yellow, Boron - green, Carbon - black A carborane is a cluster composed of boron and carbon atoms. ... A superacid is an acid with an acidity greater than that of 100% sulfuric acid. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... A weak acid is an acid that does not fully ionize in solution; that is, if the acid was represented by the general formula HA, then in aqueous solution a significant amount of undissolved HA still remains. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point nonflammable Related Compounds Other anions Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Related compounds Hydrogen fluoride fluorosilicic acid Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...

HA(aq) → H+(aq) + A(aq)

In all other acid-water reactions, dissociation is not complete, so will be represented as an equilibrium, not a completed reaction. The typical definition of a weak acid is any acid that does not dissociate completely. The difference separating the acid dissociation constants of strong acids from all other acids is so small that this is a reasonable demarcation. A weak acid is an acid that does not fully ionize in solution; that is, if the acid was represented by the general formula HA, then in aqueous solution a significant amount of undissolved HA still remains. ... The acid dissociation constant (Ka), also known as the acidity constant or the acid-ionization constant, is a specific equilibrium constant for the reaction of an acid with its conjugate base in aqueous solution [1]. // When an acid dissolves in water, it partly dissociates forming hydronium ions and its conjugate...


Due to the complete dissociation of strong acids in aqueous solution, the concentration of hydronium ions in the water is equal to the re-duplication of the acid introduced to solution: [HA] = [H+] = [A]; pH = −log[H+].

Contents

Determining Acid Strength

The strength of an acid, in comparison to other acids, can be determined without the use of pH calculations by observing the following characteristics:


1. Electronegativity: The higher the EN of a conjugate base in the same period, the less acidic. Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... In the field of chemistry, in the Brønsted-Lowry (protonic) theory of acids and bases, a conjugate base is the basic member, X-, of a pair of compounds that differ only by the presence or absence of a proton at a certain position. ...


2. Atomic Radius: With increasing atomic radius, acidity also increases. For example, HCl and HI, both strong acids, ionize 100% in water to become their respective ionic constituents. However, HI is stronger than HCl. This is because the atomic radius of an atom of iodine is much larger than that of a chlorine atom. As a result, the negative charge over the I- anion is dispersed over a larger electron cloud and it's attraction for the proton (H+) is not as strong as the same attraction in HCl. Therefore, HI is ionized (deprotonated) more readily.


3. Charge: The more positively charged a species is, the more acidic (neutral molecules can be stripped of protons more easily than anions, and cations are more acidic than comparable molecules).


Some Common Strong Acids (As Ionizers)

(Strongest to the weakest)

Perchloric acid has the formula HClO4 and is a colorless liquid soluble in water. ... Hydroiodic acid (sometimes also spelled hydriodic acid) is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen iodide (HI) (Concentrated solution is usually 48 - 57% HI). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into hydrogen bromide. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , Flash point Non-flammable. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+. // Nomenclature According to IUPAC ion nomenclature, it should be referred to as oxonium. ... In chemistry, a formal charge (FC) on an atom in a molecule is defined as: FC = number of valence electrons of the atom - number of Lone pair electrons on this atom - half the total number of electrons participating in covalent bonds with this atom. ... Chloric acid, HClO3, is an oxoacid of chlorine, and the formal precursor of chlorate salts. ... Bromic acid, HBrO3, is a bromine oxoacid. ... The compound perbromic acid, HBrO4, is an oxygen acid of bromine. ... Iodic acid, HIO3-, can be obtained as a white solid. ... Periodic acid is HIO4 or H5IO6. ...

Extremely Strong Acids (As Ionizers)

(Strongest to weakest)

Fluoroantimonic acid HFSbF5 is a mixture of hydrogen fluoride and antimony pentafluoride in a various ratios. ... A superacid is an acid with an acidity greater than that of 100% sulfuric acid. ... Fluorosulfuric acid is FSO3H; it is one of the strongest acids commercially available. ... Triflate, more formally known as trifluoromethanesulfonate, has the structure CF3SO3-. It is an extremely stable polyatomic ion, being the conjugate base of triflic acid (CF3SO3H), one of the strongest acids known and a super acid. ...

See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into base (chemistry). ... A weak acid is an acid that does not fully ionize in solution; that is, if the acid was represented by the general formula HA, then in aqueous solution a significant amount of undissolved HA still remains. ...

References

  • Hill, John W., et al. "General Chemistry." 4th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2005.

External links

  • http://www.cm.utexas.edu/academic/courses/Spring2002/CH301/McDevitt/strong.htm
  • http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/Journal/Issues/2000/Jul/abs849.html
  • Titration of acids - freeware for data analysis and simulation of potentiometric titration curves

  Results from FactBites:
 
Strong acid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (242 words)
This generally means that in aqueous solution at standard temperature and pressure, the concentration of hydronium ions is equal to the concentration of strong acid introduced to the solution.
While strong acids are generally assumed to be the most corrosive, this is not always true.
The difference separating the acid dissociation constants of strong acids from all other acids is so great that this is a reasonable demarkation.
Hydrochloric acid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2517 words)
It is a strong acid, the major component of gastric acid and of wide industrial use.
Strong acid titrants are useful because they give more distinct endpoints in a titration, making the titration more precise.
Hydrochloric acid is a fundamental chemical, and as such it is used for a large number of small-scale applications, such as leather processing, household cleaning, and building construction.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m