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Encyclopedia > Strom Thurmond
James Strom Thurmond


In office
December 24, 1954April 4, 1956
November 7, 1956January 3, 2003
Preceded by Charles E. Daniel
Thomas A. Wofford
Succeeded by Thomas A. Wofford
Lindsey Graham

Born December 5, 1902
Edgefield, South Carolina
Died June 26, 2003, (aged 100)
Edgefield, South Carolina
Nationality Flag of United States United States
Political party Republican (1964–2003)
Democrat (1947–1948, 1954–1964)
Dixiecrat 1948
Spouse (1) Jean Crouch (dec.)
(2) Nancy Janice Moore (sep.)
Religion Southern Baptist

James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. He also ran for the presidency of the United States in 1948 under the segregationist States Rights Democratic Party banner. He garnered 39 electoral votes in that race, making him the first third party presidential candidate to receive electoral votes since Robert LaFollette in 1924. He later represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 to April 1956 and November 1956 to 1964 as a Democrat and from 1964 to 2003 as a Republican. He served as Senator through his 90s, and left office at age 100 as the oldest serving and longest-serving senator ever (although he was later surpassed in this regard by Robert C. Byrd).[1] Thurmond holds the record for the longest serving Dean of the United States Senate in U.S. history at 14 years. Thurmond conducted the longest filibuster ever conducted by a United States Senator in opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1957. Thurmond later moderated his position on race, but continued to defend his early segregationist campaigns on the basis of states' rights.[2] He was the third U.S. Senator to reach age 100 but the only one to do it while still in office. Image:Strom Thurmond. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35°12N... December 24 is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Ezra Daniel (November 11, 1895 - September 13, 1964) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. ... Thomas Albert Wofford (September 27, 1908 - February 25, 1978) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. ... Thomas Albert Wofford (September 27, 1908 - February 25, 1978) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. ... Lindsey Olin Graham (born July 9, 1955) is an American politician from South Carolina. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Edgefield is a town located in Edgefield County, South Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35°12N... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edgefield is a town located in Edgefield County, South Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35°12N... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Dixiecrats were a segregationist splinter-party of the Democratic Party in the mid-20th century who were determined to protect what they saw as the southern way of life against an oppressive United States federal government. ... The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States cooperative ministry agency serving missionary Baptist churches around the world. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35°12N... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The President of the United States (often abbreviated POTUS) is the head of state of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The States Rights Democratic Party, usually known as the Dixiecrat Party, was a short-lived splinter group that broke from the Democratic Party in 1948. ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college which chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ... In any two-party system of politics, a third party is a party other than the two dominant ones. ... Robert M. La Follette can refer to two United States politicians. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35°12N... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Robert C. Byrd Robert Carlyle Byrd (born November 20, 1917) is a West Virginia Democrat serving in the United States Senate. ... The Dean of the United States Senate is the longest-serving (in consecutive terms) United States Senator. ... As a form of obstructionism in a legislature or other decision making body, a filibuster is an attempt to extend debate upon a proposal in order to delay or completely prevent a vote on its passage. ... The Civil Rights Act of 1957, primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted in the United States since Reconstruction. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ...

Contents

Early career

James Strom Thurmond was born on December 5, 1902 in Edgefield, the son of John William Thurmond and Eleanor Gertrude Strom. He graduated from Clemson College (now Clemson University) in 1923 with a degree in horticulture. He was a farmer, teacher and athletic coach until 1929, when he became Edgefield County's superintendent of education, serving until 1933. Thurmond read law with his father and was admitted to the South Carolina Bar in 1930. He served as the Edgefield Town and County attorney from 1930-1938, and joined the United States Army Reserve in 1924. In 1933 Thurmond was elected to the South Carolina Senate and represented Edgefield until he was elected to the Eleventh Circuit judgeship. Edgefield is a town located in Edgefield County, South Carolina. ... Concern has been expressed that this article or section is missing information about: horticulture as used in anthropology, a label for agriculture as used in small-scale societies. ... The United States Army is the largest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ...


Following the outbreak of World War II, Judge Thurmond resigned from the bench to serve in the U.S. Army. In the Battle of Normandy (June 6August 25, 1944), he crash landed his glider with the 82nd Airborne Division. For his military service, he received 18 decorations, medals and awards, including the Legion of Merit with Oak Leaf Cluster, Bronze Star with Valor device, Purple Heart, World War II Victory Medal, European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal, Belgium's Order of the Crown, and the French Croix de Guerre. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (US 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B... June 6 is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army was constituted in the National Army as the 82nd Division on August 5, 1917, and was organized on August 25, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. ... The Legion of Merit is a military decoration of the United States armed forces that is awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. ... Bronze and Silver oak leaf clusters An Oak leaf cluster is a common device which is placed on military awards and decorations to denote those who have received more than one bestowal of a particular decoration. ... The Bronze Star Medal is a United States Armed Forces individual military decoration and is the fourth highest award for bravery, heroism or meritorious service. ... The Valor device, also known as V-device, V device, and Combat V, is an award of the United States military which is authorized by the military services as an attachment to certain awards and decorations. ... For other meanings see Purple Heart (disambiguation). ... WWII Victory Medal The World War II Victory Medal is a decoration of the United States military which was created by an act of Congress in July 1945. ... The European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal is a miliary decoration of the United States armed forces which was first created in 1942 by Executive Order of President Franklin Roosevelt. ... Please see Order of the Crown for other decorations bearing this name Order of the Crown Belgium The Order of the Crown is an Order of Belgium which was first created in the year 1897. ... The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of both Belgium and France which was first created in 1915. ...


Thurmond's political career began the days of Jim Crow laws, when South Carolina strongly resisted any attempts at integration. Running as a Democrat, Thurmond was elected Governor of South Carolina in 1946 and supported the state's segregation laws. In 1948, after President Harry S Truman desegregated the US Army and proposed the creation of a permanent FEPC, Thurmond became a candidate for President of the United States on the third party ticket of the Dixiecrat Party, which split from the national Democrats over the proposed constitutional innovation involved in federal intervention in segregation. Thurmond carried four states and received 39 electoral votes. One 1948 speech, met with cheers by supporters, included the following:listen  The term Jim Crow laws refers to a series of laws enacted mostly in the Southern United States in the later half of the 19th century that restricted most of the new privileges granted to African-Americans after the Civil War. ... A list of South Carolina Governors. ... For the victim of Mt. ... On June 25, 1941, President Roosevelt created the Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) by signing Executive Order 8802. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... In any two-party system of politics, a third party is a party other than the two dominant ones. ... The Dixiecrats were a segregationist splinter-party of the Democratic Party in the mid-20th century who were determined to protect what they saw as the southern way of life against an oppressive United States federal government. ... Image File history File links Strom_Thurmond_1948_Speech_Clip. ...

I wanna tell you, ladies and gentlemen, that there's not enough troops in the army to force the Southern people to break down segregation and admit the nigra [nigger][2]] race into our theaters, into our swimming pools, into our homes, and into our churches.

Thurmond ran for the United States Senate in 1950 against Senator Olin Johnston. Both candidates denounced President Harry Truman during the campaign. Johnston defeated Thurmond by 186,180 votes to 158,904 votes (54% to 46%). It was the only statewide election Thurmond would ever lose. Historic Southern United States. ... Olin DeWitt Talmadge Johnston (November 18, 1896 - April 18, 1965) was a Politician from the U.S. State of South Carolina. ... For the victim of Mt. ...


In 1952, Thurmond endorsed Republican Dwight Eisenhower for the Presidency. His support for Eisenhower over Democratic nominee Adlai Stevenson led state Democratic Party leaders to block Thurmond from receiving the nomination to the U.S. Senate in 1954, forcing him to run as a write-in candidate. 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Nomination is part of the process of selecting a candidate for either election to an office, or the bestowing of an honor or award. ... Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American politician, noted for intellectual demeanor and advocacy of liberal causes in the Democratic party. ...


Senate career

1950s

In 1954 he became the only person ever elected to the U.S. Senate as a write-in candidate, campaigning, at the recommendation of Governor James Byrnes, on the pledge to face a contested primary in the future. He resigned in 1956, triggering an election. He ran in the primary, fulfilling his promise, and was elected to the vacancy caused by his own resignation. His career in the Senate remained uninterrupted until his retirement 46 years later, despite his mid-career party switch. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A write-in candidate is a candidate in an election whose name does not appear on the ballot, but for whom voters may vote nonetheless by writing in the persons name. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1879 - April 9, 1972) was a confidante of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and at one point was suggested as his running mate for Vice President. ...


Thurmond supported racial segregation with the longest filibuster ever conducted by a single Senator, speaking for 24 hours and 18 minutes in an unsuccessful attempt to derail the Civil Rights Act of 1957. Other Southern Senators, who had agreed as part of a compromise not to filibuster this bill, were upset with Thurmond because they thought his defiance made them look bad to their constituents.[3] A filibuster is a process, typically an extremely long speech, that is used primarily to stall the legislative process and thus derail a particular piece of legislation, rather than to make a particular point in the content of the diversion per se. ... The Civil Rights Act of 1957, primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted in the United States since Reconstruction. ...


1960s

Throughout the Sixties, Thurmond generally received relatively low marks from both the press as well as his fellow Senators in the performance of his Senate duties, often missing votes and rarely proposing or sponsoring noteworthy legislation. He voted against the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and against the confirmation of Thurgood Marshall as the first African-American Supreme Court Justice. President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... The United States Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed requiring would-be voters to take literacy tests and provided for federal registration of African American voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible voters registered. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... The supreme court functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged, in some countries, provinces and states. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ...


On September 16, 1964, Thurmond, increasingly at odds with the Democratic Party switched his party affiliation, becoming a Republican. In South Carolina and other states of the Deep South, white segregationists generally supported Barry Goldwater over Lyndon Johnson, whose support of the Civil Rights Act and integration rankled them. Thurmond played an important role in South Carolina's support for Republican presidential candidates Barry Goldwater in 1964 and Richard Nixon in 1968. // 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales by his followers. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... In politics, party switching is any change in party affiliation of a partisan public figure, usually one who is currently holding elected office. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


South Carolina had supported the Democrats in every national election from the end of Reconstruction to 1960. Goldwater won the state by a large margin in 1964. In 1968, despite the presence of George Wallace on the ballot, Richard Nixon, running the first GOP "Southern Strategy" campaign appealing to disaffected southern white voters, was able to gain South Carolina's electoral votes, running slightly ahead of Wallace. Due to the antagonism of South Carolina white voters towards the national Democratic Party, Hubert Humphrey received less than 30% of the total vote, carrying only majority black districts. Reconstruction was the attempt from 1865 to 1877 in U.S. history to resolve the issues of the American Civil War, when both the Confederacy and slavery were destroyed. ... George Corley Wallace, or officially George C. Wallace, Jr. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... In American politics, the Southern strategy refers to the focus of the Republican party on winning U.S. Presidential elections by securing the electoral votes of the U.S. Southern states. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Jr. ...


At the '68 Republican Convention in Miami Beach, Thurmond played a key role in keeping Southern delegates committed to Nixon, despite the sudden last-minute entry of California Governor Ronald Reagan into the race. Thurmond also quieted conservative fears over rumors that Nixon planned to ask either Charles Percy or Mark Hatfield -- both liberal Republicans -- to be his running mate, by making it known to Nixon that both men were unacceptable for the vice-presidency to the South. Nixon ultimately asked Maryland Governor Spiro Agnew -- an acceptable choice to Thurmond -- to join the ticket. Convention has at least two very distinct but related meanings. ... Miami Beach is a city located in Miami-Dade County, Florida. ... A delegate is an individual (or a member of a group called a delegation) who represents the interests of a larger organization (e. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ... Charles H. Percy (born September 27, 1919) was chairman of the Bell & Howell Corporation from 1949 to 1964 and Republican United States Senator for Illinois from 1967 to 1985. ... Mark Odom Hatfield (born July 12, 1922) is an American politician from Oregon. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the 39th Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the 55th Governor of Maryland. ...


At this time, too, Thurmond took the lead in thwarting Lyndon Johnson's attempt to elevate Justice Abe Fortas to the post of chief justice of the United States. Thurmond's devotion to the original structure of the federal Constitution, coupled with his general conservatism, had left him quite unhappy with the Warren Court, and he was happy simultaneously to disappoint Johnson and to leave the task of replacing Warren to Johnson's presidential successor, Richard Nixon.


1970s

Thanks to his close relationship with the Nixon Administration, Thurmond found himself in a position to deliver a great deal of Federal money, appointments and projects to his state. With a like-minded president in the White House, Thurmond became a very effective Washington power broker. Indeed, his staffers said that his aim was to become South Carolina's "indispensable man" in D.C.


In 1976, Thurmond was torn between wanting to support incumbent President Gerald R. Ford for the Republican nomination and making good on a promise he had given to Reagan back in '68 to support him when he finally did run. Ultimately, Thurmond remained neutral during the primary contest (which saw Reagan take South Carolina's votes). Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ...


In 1979, rather than support frontrunner Reagan for the 1980 nomination, Thurmond made the surprise announcement that he was backing Secretary of the Treasury John Connally instead. As a result, despite his Judiciary Committee chairmanship, Thurmond had relatively little influence with the Reagan Administration. The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the finance minister of the Federal Government of the United States. ... Connallys signature, as used on American currency John Bowden Connally, Jr. ...


Moderation of views on race

In the 1970s, Thurmond endorsed racial integration earlier than many other southern politicians. He also hired African American staffers, enrolled his white daughter in an integrated public school, and supported blacks nominees for federal judgeships. The Washington Post reported that a Thurmond staffer advised him to abandon his segregationist views after one of his proteges, Congressman Albert Watson, was badly defeated in a race for governor of South Carolina.[citation needed] Thurmond would also support extension of the Voting Rights Act and making the birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr. a federal holiday, though he never publicly renounced his preference for racial segregation.[2] The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... A federal judge is a judge appointed in accordance with Article III of the United States Constitution. ... ... Albert William Watson (August 30, 1922 - September 25, 1994) was a South Carolina politician. ... A list of South Carolina Governors. ... The National Voting Rights Act of 1965 (42 U.S.C. Â§ 1973-1973aa-6)[1] outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the United States take literacy tests to qualify to register to vote, and it provided for federal registration of voters in areas that had less than 50... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ... The Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


Later career

Thurmond with President Ronald Reagan
Thurmond with President Ronald Reagan

Thurmond became President Pro Tempore of the Senate in 1981, and held the largely ceremonial post for three terms, alternating with his longtime rival Robert Byrd depending on the partisan composition of the Senate. On December 5, 1996, Thurmond became the oldest serving member of the U.S. Senate, and on May 25, 1997, he became the longest serving member (41 years and 10 months). He cast his 15,000th vote in September 1998. He was more moderate than fellow Southern Republicans such as Senator Jesse Helms, including in joining the minority of Republicans who voted for the Brady Bill. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ... The United States Senate, according to the United States Constitution, (Article I), is required to choose a President Pro Tempore (or, president for a time, often shortened to President Pro Tem), who presides over the Senate in the absence of the Vice President. ... Robert Carlyle Byrd (born November 20, 1917) is the senior United States Senator from West Virginia and a member of the Democratic Party. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jesse Alexander Helms, Jr. ... The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, also known as the Brady Bill, was passed by the United States Congress, signed into law by President Bill Clinton on November 30, 1993, and went into effect on February 28, 1994. ...


There was controversy towards the end of Thurmond's Senate career over his mental condition. Some, including some close friends, claimed that he had lost mental acuity and should not have been serving in the Senate. Concern was also raised when he served as President Pro Tempore of the Senate, which is third in line for the presidency. However, his supporters argued that while he lacked physical stamina due to his age, mentally he remained aware and attentive and maintained a very active work schedule in showing up for every floor vote. The presidential line of succession defines who may become or act as President of the United States upon the incapacity, death, resignation, or removal from office (by impeachment and subsequent conviction) of a sitting president or a president-elect. ...


Thurmond did not seek re-election in 2002 and left the Senate in January of 2003, as America's longest-serving senator. On June 26, 2003, he died at 9:45 p.m at the age of 100, at a hospital in Edgefield, where he had been living since retiring. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Family

President George H.W. Bush presents Thurmond with the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
President George H.W. Bush presents Thurmond with the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
  • He and his first wife, Jean Crouch (1926–1960) were married in 1947. She died of cancer 13 years later; there were no children.
  • Married his second wife, Nancy Janice Moore, Miss South Carolina of 1965, in 1968 when he was 66 years old and she only 23. She had been working in his Senate office off and on since 1967. It is often said that he ran for president before she was born. This is false; however, he was old enough to be eligible. They separated in 1991, but never divorced.
  • Fathered what was believed to be his first legitimate child at the age of 68. His four children with Nancy are: Nancy Moore (1971–1993), who was killed in a traffic accident; James Strom, Jr. (1972– ); Juliana Gertrude (1974– ); and Paul Reynolds (1976– ).
  • Became a grandfather publicly for the first time on June 17, 2003, just nine days before his death. He first became a grandfather secretly decades earlier when Ms. Washington-Williams had her first child.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... June 17 is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Illegitimate Daughter

Shortly after Thurmond's death on June 26, 2003, Essie Mae Washington-Williams publicly revealed that she was Strom Thurmond's illegitimate daughter. She was born to an African American maid, Carrie "Tunch" Butler (1909–1947), on October 12, 1925, when Butler was 16 and Thurmond was 22. Thurmond met Washington-Williams when she was 16. He helped pay her way through college and later paid her sums of money in cash or, through a nephew, checks. These payments extended well into her adult life.[4] Washington-Williams has stated that she did not reveal she was Thurmond's daughter during his lifetime because it "wasn't to either advantage of either one of us"[4] and that she kept silent out of love and respect for her father.[5] She denies that there was an agreement between the two to keep her connection to Thurmond silent.[4] June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Essie Mae Washington-Williams (born on October 12, 1925) is the oldest known daughter of the United States Senator Strom Thurmond. ... // Illegitimacy is a term that was once in common use for the status of being born to parents who were not validly married to one another. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After Washington-Williams came forward, the Thurmond family publicly acknowledged her parentage. Many close friends and staff members had long suspected this to have been the case, stating that Thurmond had always taken a great amount of interest in Washington-Williams and that she was granted a degree of access to the Senator more appropriate to a family member than to a member of the public.


Political timeline

  • Governor of South Carolina (1947–1951)
  • States Rights Democratic presidential candidate (1948)
  • Eight-term Senator of South Carolina, USA (December 1954–April 1956 and November 1956–January 2003)
    • Democrat (1954–April 1956 and November 1956–September 1964)
    • Republican (September 1964–January 2003)
    • President pro tempore (1981–1987; 1995–January 3, 2001; January 20, 2001June 6, 2001)
    • Set record for the longest Congressional filibuster (1957)
    • Set record for oldest serving member at 94 years (1997)
    • Set the then-record for longest tenure in the Senate at 43 years (1997)
    • Became the only senator ever to serve at the age of 100

Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35°12N... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A filibuster is a process, typically an extremely long speech, that is used primarily to stall the legislative process and thus derail a particular piece of legislation, rather than to make a particular point in the content of the diversion per se. ... A centenarian is a person who has attained the age of 100 years or more. ...

Other information

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • While attending Clemson College he was a member of the Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity (Eta Alpha Chapter).
  • Intervened in 1971 when Reverend Sun Myung Moon had trouble entering the United States.
  • Was a Senate colleague of Prescott Bush—the father of U.S. President George H. W. Bush and grandfather of U.S. President George W. Bush.
  • His boyhood nickname was "Banjo".
  • Paul Thurmond was elected to the Charleston County Council in 2006.
  • Ronald Williams, son of Essie Mae Washington-Williams, has claimed that he was a registered Republican before Strom Thurmond was. In the pre-Civil Rights south, when Democrats generally supported segregation, blacks usually gravitated toward the Republican Party. Martin Luther King, Sr. was a Republican until the 1960 presidential election.
  • A reservoir on the GeorgiaSouth Carolina border is named after him: Lake Strom Thurmond.
  • Thurmond lost his record of longest-serving senator on June 10, 2006 to Democratic Senator Robert Byrd.
  • The University of South Carolina is home to the Strom Thurmond Fitness Center, the largest fitness complex on any college campus.
  • Made the longest filibuster in the history of the United States Senate in opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1957: 24 hours and 18 minutes.
  • Charleston Southern University has a Strom Thurmond Building, which houses the school's business offices, bookstore, and post office.
  • Thurmond Building at Winthrop University is named for him. He served on Winthrop's Board of Trustees from 1936–38 and again from 1947–51 when he was governor of South Carolina.
  • A statue of Strom Thurmond is located on the grounds of the South Carolina State Capitol as a memorial to his service to the state.
  • Strom Thurmond High School is located in his hometown of Edgefield, South Carolina.
  • Senator Trent Lott lost his position as Senate Minority Leader after saying “When Strom Thurmond ran for president [in 1948], we voted for him. We’re proud of it. And if the rest of the country had followed our lead, we wouldn’t have had all these problems over the years, either” at Strom Thurmond's 100th birthday party in December 2002. Given that Thurmond's 1948 Dixiecrat campaign publicly supported the policies of white supremacy and racial segregation, many civil rights groups condemned Lott's statements as representing support for racism. Although Lott denied this, the furor created by his statements forced him to resign as Minority Leader.
  • The Rev. Al Sharpton was reported on February 24, 2007 to be a descendent of slaves owned by the Thurmond family. Sharpton has asked for a DNA test.[6]
  • The U.S. Air Force has a C-17 Globemaster named "The Spirit of Strom Thurmond".
  • The Strom Thurmond Institute is located on the campus of Clemson University. George H. W. Bush was on hand at the ground breaking ceremony while he was the Vice President.
  • At the time of Thurmond's death, the only living Senator who had been in the Senate before him was George Smathers and Russell B. Long. Smathers died on January 20, 2007.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Pi Kappa Alpha International Fraternity (ΠΚΑ) is an international, secret, social, Greek-letter, college fraternity. ... Sun Myung Moon in 2005. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... Prescott Sheldon Bush (May 15, 1895 – October 8, 1972) was a United States Senator from Connecticut and a Wall Street executive banker with Brown Brothers Harriman. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It is one of 19 that supplies New York City with drinking water. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35°12N... Sunset over Lake Strom Thurmond Lake Strom Thurmond , also known as Clarks Hill Lake in Georgia, is a reservoir at the border between Georgia and South Carolina in the Savannah River Basin. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Robert Carlyle Byrd (born November 20, 1917) is the senior United States Senator from West Virginia and a member of the Democratic Party. ... The University of South Carolina, Columbia (USC or Carolina) is a public, co-educational, research university located in Columbia, South Carolina, United States. ... The Civil Rights Act of 1957, primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted in the United States since Reconstruction. ... Charleston Southern University, founded in 1964, is an independent comprehensive university located near historic Charleston and the beautiful beaches of the South Carolina coastline. ... Winthrop University (formerly Winthrop College) is an American public, four-year liberal arts college in Rock Hill, South Carolina, within the greater Metrolina (NC / SC) area. ... South Carolina State House, c. ... Edgefield is a town located in Edgefield County, South Carolina. ... Chester Trent Lott, Sr. ... The Senate Minority Leader is a member of the United States Senate who is elected by his or her party conference to serve as the chief Senate spokesmen for his or her party and to manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the Senate. ... The Dixiecrats were a segregationist splinter-party of the Democratic Party in the mid-20th century who were determined to protect what they saw as the southern way of life against an oppressive United States federal government. ... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or... Reverend Al Sharpton The Reverend Alfred Charles Sharpton Jr. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The C_17 Globemaster III is a strategic airlifter manufactured by Boeing IDS, used by the United States Air Force and the Royal Air Force. ... George Smathers George Armistead Smathers (born November 14, 1913) is an American lawyer and politician who represented Florida in the United States Senate for eighteen years, from 1951 until 1969, as a member of the Democratic Party. ... Russell Billiu Long Russell Billiu Long (November 3, 1918 – May 9, 2003) was an American politician who served in the United States Senate as a Democrat from Louisiana from 1948 until 1987. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "Robert Byrd to Become Longest-Serving Senator in History", Associated Press, June 11, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-24. 
  2. ^ a b c Noah, Timothy. "The Legend of Strom's Remorse: a Washington Lie is Laid to Rest", Slate. Retrieved on 2006-11-07. 
  3. ^ Caro, Robert (2002). Master of the Senate: The Years of Lyndon Johnson, New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-394-52836-0
  4. ^ a b c 60 Minutes interview, December 17, 2003
  5. ^ cite news |work=Associated Press |title=Thurmond's Family 'Acknowledges' Black Woman's Claim as Daughter |date=December 17, 2003 |url=http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,105820,00.html}}
  6. ^ "Slavery links families", New York Daily News, February 25, 2007. 

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ...

Further reading

  • "Abe Fortas: A Biography," by Laura Kalman: Yale University Press, 1990.
  • Dear Senator : A Memoir by the Daughter of Strom Thurmond by Essie Mae Washington-Williams, William Stadiem: Regan Books (February 1, 2005). ISBN 0-06-076095-8.
  • The Dixiecrat Revolt and the End of the Solid South, 1932–1968 by Kari Frederickson: University of North Carolina Press (March 26, 2001). ISBN 0-8078-4910-3.
  • "The Faith We Have Not Kept," by Strom Thurmond: Viewpoint Books, 1968.
  • Ol' Strom: An Unauthorized Biography of Strom Thurmond by Jack Bass, Marilyn W. Thompson: University of South Carolina Press (January 1, 2003). ISBN 1-57003-514-8.
  • Strom: The Complicated Personal and Political Life of Strom Thurmond by Jack Bass and Marilyn W.Thompson: Public Affairs 2005. ISBN 1-58648-297-1.
  • Strom Thurmond & the Politics of Southern Change by Nadine Cohodas: Mercer University Press (December 1, 1994). ISBN 0-86554-446-8.

February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ...

External links

Articles

Obituaries

Preceded by
Ransome Judson Williams
Governor of South Carolina
1947–1951
Succeeded by
James F. Byrnes
Preceded by
None
Dixiecrat Presidential Candidate
1948 (3rd)
Succeeded by
None
Preceded by
Charles E. Daniel
United States Senator (Class 2) from South Carolina
December 24, 1954April 4, 1956
Served alongside: Olin Johnston
Succeeded by
Thomas A. Wofford
Preceded by
Thomas A. Wofford
United States Senator (Class 2) from South Carolina
November 7, 1956January 3, 2003
Served alongside: Olin Johnston, Donald S. Russell, Ernest Hollings
Succeeded by
Lindsey Graham
Preceded by
Warren Magnuson
Washington
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
1981–1987
Succeeded by
John C. Stennis
Mississippi
Preceded by
Ted Kennedy
Massachusetts
Chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee
1981–1987
Succeeded by
Joe Biden
Delaware
Preceded by
John C. Stennis
Mississippi
Dean of the United States Senate
January 3, 1989–January 3, 2003
Succeeded by
Robert Byrd
West Virginia
Preceded by
Sam Nunn
Georgia
Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee
1995–1999
Succeeded by
John Warner
Virginia
Preceded by:
Robert Byrd
West Virginia
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
January 3, 1995January 3, 2001
Succeeded by:
Robert Byrd
West Virginia
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
January 20, 2001June 6, 2001
Preceded by:
None; Position created.
President pro tempore emeritus of the United States Senate
June 6, 2001January 3, 2003
Preceded by
Jennings Randolph
Oldest living U.S. Senator
May 8, 1998June 26, 2003
Succeeded by
Hiram Fong
Preceded by
?Jimmie Davis?
Oldest living US governor
?2000?–2003
Succeeded by
Luis A. Ferré
Preceded by
Charles Poletti
Earliest serving US governor
2002–2003
Succeeded by
Sid McMath

 
 

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