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Encyclopedia > Strike action
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César Chávez · Samuel Gompers
Jimmy Hoffa · A. Philip Randolph
Ken Saro-Wiwa · Lowell girls
James Larkin · Bob White

more names Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labor relations. ... New Unionism is a term which has been used twice in the history of the labour movement, both times involving moves to broaden the union agenda. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... Social Movement Unionism is a trend of theory and practice in contemporary trade unionism. ... Syndicalism refers to a set of ideas, movements, and tendencies which share the avowed aim of transforming capitalist society through action by the working class on the industrial front. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Timeline of organized labor history 1790s - 1800s - 1810s - 1820s - 1830s - 1840s - 1850s - 1860s - 1870s - 1880s - 1890s - 1900s - 1910s - 1920s - 1930s - 1940s - 1950s - 1960s - 1970s - 1980s 1797 (United States) Profit sharing originated at Albert Gallatins glass works in New Geneva, Pennsylvania. ... Labor rights or workers rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law. ... is the employment of children under an age determined by law or custom. ... The 8-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement (a. ... Occupational safety and health (OSH) is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. ... A Collective agreement is a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... This is a list of trade unions and union federations by country. ... This is a list of federations of trade unions. ... The International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) is the worlds largest trade union federation. ... The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) was established in the wake of the Second World War to bring together trade unions across the world in a single international organization, much like the United Nations. ... The International Workers Association (IWA) (Spanish: AIT - Asociación Internacional de los Trabajadores, and in German: IAA-Internationale ArbeiterInnen Assoziation) is an international anarcho-syndicalist federation of various labour unions from different countries. ... The following is a list of deliberate absence from work related to specific working conditions (strikes) or due to general unhappiness with the political order (general strikes). ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... A sympathy strike is a labour strike that is initiated by workers in one industry and supported by workers in a separate but related industry. ... A sitdown strike is a form of civil disobedience in which an organized group of workers, usually employed at a factory or other centralized location, take possession of the workplace by sitting down at their stations, effectively preventing their employers from replacing them with scab labor or, in some cases... Work-to-rule is a job action in which employees do no more than the minimum required by the rules of a workplace, and follow safety or other regulations to the letter in order to cause a slowdown. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... César Estrada Chávez (March 31, 1927 – April 23, 1993) was a Mexican American farm worker, labor leader, and civil rights activist who co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers. ... Samuel Gompers (January 27, 1850[1] - December 13, 1924) was an American labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. ... For other uses, see Hoffa (disambiguation). ... Asa Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 – May 16, 1979) was a prominent twentieth century African-American civil rights leader and founder of the first black labor union in the U.S. // Randolph was born in Crescent City, Florida. ... Kenule Beeson Saro-Wiwa (October 10, 1941 - November 10, 1995) was a Nigerian author, television producer and environmental activist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Statue of James Larkin on OConnell Street, Dublin (Oisín Kelly 1977) James (Big Jim) Larkin (Irish: Séamas Ó Lorcáin)(1874-1947), an Irish trade union leader and socialist activist, was born in Liverpool, England on 28 January 1874, of Irish parents. ... Binomial name Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bobwhite Quail or Northern Bobwhite, Colinus virginianus, is a ground_dwelling bird native to North America. ...

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Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by employees to perform work. A strike usually takes place in response to employee grievances. Strikes became important during the industrial revolution, when mass labour became important in factories and mines. In most countries, they were quickly made illegal, as factory owners had far more political power than workers. Most western countries partially legalized striking in the late 19th or early 20th centuries. In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... Labor history (or labour history) is a broad field of study concerned with the development of the labor movement and the working class. ... A Boeing employee speaks at a trade union rally The field of industrial relations looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a union. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... A grievance is a formal statement of complaint, generally against an authority figure. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ...


Strikes are sometimes used to put pressure on governments to change policies. Occasionally, strikes destabilise the rule of a particular political party. A notable example is the Gdańsk Shipyard strike led by Lech Wałęsa. This strike was significant in the struggle for political change in Poland, and was an important mobilised effort that contributed to the fall of governments in communist East Europe. GdaÅ„sk Shipyard, the birthplace of Solidarity. ... “WaÅ‚Ä™sa” redirects here. ...


The strike tactic has a very long history. Towards the end of the 20th dynasty, under Pharaoh Ramses III in ancient Egypt in the 12th century BC, the workers of the royal necropolis organized the first known strike or workers' uprising in history. The event was reported in detail on a papyrus at the time, which has been preserved, and is currently located in Turin.[1] In the modern era, sailors in 1768, in support of demonstrations in London, "struck" or removed the top-gallant sails of merchant ships at port, thus crippling the ships. The Twentieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt was founded by Setnakhte, but its only important member was Ramesses III, who modelled his career after Ramesses II the Great. ... Usermaatre Meryamun Powerful one of Maat and Ra, Beloved of Amun Nomen Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Issue Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pareherwenemef, Pentawer, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiye-Mereniset Died... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... (13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC - other centuries) (1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC - 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC - 1130s BC - 1120s BC - 1110s BC - 1100s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1200 BC - Ancient Pueblo Peoples... For the record label, see Necropolis Records. ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Turin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

Contents

Legal prohibitions on strikes

In China

In "Marxist-Leninist" regimes, such as the former USSR or the People's Republic of China, striking is illegal and viewed as counter-revolutionary. Since the government in such systems claims to represent the working class, it has been argued that unions and strikes were not necessary. Most other totalitarian systems of the left and right also ban strikes. At one point Stalin remarked that unions were completely unnecessary, as workers would be striking against themselves. Most modern communists, socialists and anarchists however oppose this radically. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... A counterrevolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314...


In the UK

The Industrial Relations Act 1971 was repealed through the Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1974, sections of which were repealed by the Employment Act 1982. The Industrial Relations Act 1971 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom. ... The Employment Act 1982 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (1982 c. ...


In 2003, there was a Firefighter dispute in the United Kingdom. The armed forces had to provide temporary cover, using outdated machinery. The strike action was not illegal under British labour law, although it was condemned by many. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... British labour law is that body of law which regulates the rights, restrictions obligations of trade unions, workers and employers in Britain. ...


The Code of Practice on Industrial Action Ballots and Notices, and sections 22 and 25 of the Employment Relations Act 2004, which concern industrial action notices, commenced on 1st October 2005.


Legislation was enacted in the aftermath of the 1919 police strikes forbidding British police from both taking industrial action and discussing the possibility with colleagues. The Police Federation created at the time to deal with employment grievances and provide representation to police officers, has increasingly put pressure on the government and repeatedly threatened strike action [1]. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The British police are a group of similar but independent police services which operate in the United Kingdom. ... Police Federation may refer to: Police Federation of England and Wales Police Federation for Northern Ireland Scottish Police Federation This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ...


In the USA

The Railway Labor Act bans strikes by United States airline and railroad employees except in narrowly defined circumstances. The National Labor Relations Act generally permits strikes, but provides for a mechanism to enjoin strikes in industries in which a strike would create a national emergency. The federal government most recently invoked these statutory provisions to obtain an injunction against a slowdown by the International Longshore and Warehouse Union in 2002. The Railway Labor Act is a United States federal law that governs labor relations in the railway and airline industries. ... The International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU) is a labor union which primarily represents dock workers won the West Coast of the United States, Hawaii and Alaska; it also represents hotel workers in Hawaii, cannery workers in Alaska and warehouse workers throughout the West. ...


Some jurisdictions prohibit all strikes by public employees (under such laws as the "Taylor Law" in New York). Other jurisdictions limit strikes only by certain categories of workers, particularly those regarded as critical to society: police and firefighters are among the groups commonly barred from striking in these jurisdictions. Some states, such as Michigan, Iowa or Florida, do not allow teachers in public schools to strike. Workers have sometimes circumvented these restrictions by falsely claiming inability to work due to illness — this is sometimes called a "sickout" or "blue flu". The term "red flu" has sometimes been used to describe this action when undertaken by firefighters. The Public Employees Fair Employment Act (more commonly known as the Taylor Law) refers to Article 14 of the New York State Civil Service Law, which defines the rights and limitations of unions for public employees in New York. ... This article is about the state. ... A Canadian firefighter A firefighter or fireman is trained and equipped to extinguish fires. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Largest metro area Des Moines metropolitan area Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... A sickout is a type of strike action in which the strikers call in sick. ... A sickout, or blue flu, is a type of strike action in which the strikers call in sick. ...


It is also illegal for an employee of the United States Federal Government to strike. Prospective federal employees must sign standard form 61, an affidavit not to strike. President Ronald Reagan terminated air traffic controllers after their refusal to return to work from an illegal strike in 1981. This article describes the government of the United States. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Controllers survey the field at Misawa Air Base, Japan. ... The Air traffic controllers strike of 1981 began on August 3, 1981. ...


Scabs

The term "scab" is a highly derogatory and "fighting word" most frequently used to refer to people who continue to work when trade unionists go on strike action. This is also known as crossing the picket line and can result in their being shunned or assaulted. The classic example from United Kingdom industrial history is that of the miners from Nottinghamshire, who during the 1984-85 miners' strike did not support strike action by fellow mineworkers in other parts of the country. Those who supported the strike claimed that this was because they enjoyed more favourable mining conditions and thus better wages. However, the Nottinghamshire miners argued that they did not participate because the law required a ballot for a national strike and their area vote had seen around 75% vote against a strike. Fighting words are written or spoken words, generally expressed to incite hatred or violence and to place the targets of the words in danger of harm. ... Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with, and habitually keeping away from an individual or group. ... Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. ... The miners strike of 1984-5 was a major piece of industrial action affecting the British coal industry. ...

Strike breakers, Chicago Tribune strike, 1986, Chicago, Illinois
Strike breakers, Chicago Tribune strike, 1986, Chicago, Illinois

People hired to replace striking workers are often derogatively termed scabs by those in favour of the strike. The terms strike-breaker, blackleg, and scab labour are also used. Trade unionists also use the epithet "scab" to refer to workers who are willing to accept terms that union workers have rejected and interfere with the strike action. Some say that the word comes from the idea that the "scabs" are covering a wound. However, "scab" was an old-fashioned English insult. An older word is "blackleg" and this is found in the old folk song, Blackleg Miner, which has been sung by many groups. Download high resolution version (452x682, 102 KB)photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran scab File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (452x682, 102 KB)photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran scab File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Blackleg Miner is a folk song. ...


During "economic" strikes in the U.S., scabs may be hired as permanent replacements.


Union scabbing

The concept of union scabbing refers to any circumstance in which union workers, who normally might be expected to honor picket lines established by fellow working folk during a strike, are inclined or compelled to cross those picket lines or, in some manner, otherwise engage in workplace activity which may prove injurious to the strike.


Unionized workers are sometimes required to cross the picket lines established by other unions due to their organizations having signed contracts which include no-strike clauses. The no-strike clause typically requires that members of the union not conduct any strike action for the duration of the contract. Members who honor the picket line in spite of the strike frequently face discipline, for their action may be viewed as a violation of provisions of the contract. Therefore, any union conducting a strike action typically seeks to include a provision of amnesty for all who honored the picket line in the agreement that settles the strike.


No strike clauses may also prevent unionized workers from engaging in solidarity actions for other workers even when no picket line is crossed. For example, striking workers in manufacturing or mining produce a product which must be transported. In a situation where the factory or mine owners have replaced the strikers, unionized transport workers may feel inclined to refuse to haul any product that is produced by strikebreakers, yet their own contract obligates them to do so.


Historically the practice of union scabbing has been a contentious issue in the union movement, and a point of contention between adherents of different union philosophies. For example, supporters of industrial unions, which have sought to organize entire workplaces without regard to individual skills, have criticized craft unions for organizing workplaces into separate unions according to skill, a circumstance that makes union scabbing more common. Union scabbing is not, however, unique to craft unions. Industrial unionism is a labor union organizing method through which all workers in the same industry are organized into the same union — regardless of skill or trade — thus giving workers in one industry, or in all industries, more leverage in bargaining and in strike situations. ... by Leon CunninghamCraft unionism refers to an approach to union organizing in the United States and elsewhere that seeks to unify workers in a particular industry along the lines of the particular craft or trade that they work in. ...


Methods used by employers to deal with strikes

Most strikes called by unions are somewhat predictable; they typically occur after the contract has expired. However, not all strikes are called by union organizations — some strikes have been called in an effort to pressure employers to recognize unions. Other strikes may be spontaneous actions by working people.


Whatever the cause of the strike, employers are generally motivated to take measures to prevent them, mitigate the impact, or to undermine strikes when they do occur.


Strike preparation

Companies which produce products for sale will frequently increase inventories prior to a strike. Salaried employees may be called upon to take the place of strikers, which may entail advance training. If the company has multiple locations, personnel may be redeployed to meet the needs of reduced staff.


Strike breaking

Some companies negotiate with the union during a strike; other companies may see a strike as an opportunity to eliminate the union. This is sometimes accomplished by the importation of replacement workers, or strikebreakers. Historically, strike breaking has often coincided with union busting. For the short story by Isaac Asimov, see Strikebreaker (short story). ...


It was also called 'Black legging' in the early 20th century, during the Russian socialist movement.[2]


Union busting

One method of inhibiting a strike is elimination of the union that may launch it, which is sometimes accomplished through union busting. Union busting campaigns may be orchestrated by labor relations consultants, and may utilize the services of agencies that engage in intelligence gathering, or that provide asset protection services. Similar services may be engaged during attempts to defeat organizing drives. Pinkerton guards escort strikebreakers in Buchtel, Ohio, 1884 Union busting is a practice that is undertaken by an employer or their agents to prevent employees from joining a labor union, or to disempower, subvert, or destroy unions that already exist. ... A Boeing employee speaks at a trade union rally The field of industrial relations looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a union. ... Labor spies may be referred to as spies, operatives, agents, agents provocateurs, saboteurs, infiltrators, informants, spotters, special police, or detectives. ...


Lockout

Another counter to a strike is a lockout, the form of work stoppage in which an employer refuses to allow employees to work. Two of the three employers involved in the Caravan park grocery workers strike of 2003-2004 locked out their employees in response to a strike against the third member of the employer bargaining group. Lockouts are, with certain exceptions, lawful under United States labor law. A lockout is a work stoppage in which an employer prevents employees from working. ... United States labor law is a heterogeneous collection of state and federal laws. ...


History

Further information: List of strikes

The following is a list of deliberate absence from work related to specific working conditions (strikes) or due to general unhappiness with the political order (general strikes). ...

Films

Non-Fiction

Final Offer is a Canadian film documenting the 1984 contract negotiations between the United Auto Workers Union (UAW) and GM. Ultimately, it provided a historical record of the birth of the Canadian Auto Workers Union (CAW) as Bob White, then head of the Canadian sector of the UAW, led his... Harlan County, USA is a 1976 documentary film documenting the efforts of 180 coal miners on strike in Harlan County, Kentucky in 1974. ... Barbara Kopple (born July 30, 1946) is an American film director primarily known for her work in documentary film. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Genre- Documentary Director-Barbara Kopple Awards- Academy Award, Best Documentary film, 1990 American Dream is a documentary film which centers around union meatpacking workers at Hormel Foods in Austin, Minnesota in 1985-1986. ... Barbara Kopple (born July 30, 1946) is an American film director primarily known for her work in documentary film. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... The meat packing industry is an industry that handles the slaughtering, processing and distribution of animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep and other livestock. ... Hormel Foods Corporation (NYSE: HRL) is probably best known as the producer of SPAM luncheon meat. ... Interstate 90 Business Loop (Oakland Avenue) runs through the center of Austin. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Bastard Boys is an Australian television miniseries broadcast on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation in 2007, about the 1998 Australian waterfront dispute. ... The Australian waterfront dispute of 1998 was a severe and protracted industrial relations dispute, primarily between the Maritime Union of Australia (MUA) and Patrick Corporation, a stevedoring and transportation company led by chief executive officer Chris Corrigan. ...

Fiction

  • Statschka Strike, Director: Sergei Eisenstein, Soviet Union 1924
  • Brüder brothers, Director: Werner Hochbaum, Germany 1929–On the general strike in the port of Hamburg, Germany in 1896/97
  • The Stars Look Down, Director: Carol Reed, England 1939 – Film about a strike over safety standards at a coal mine in North-East England - based on the Cronin novel
  • Salt of the Earth, Director: Herbert J. Biberman, USA 1953–Fictionalized account of an actual zinc-miners' strike in Silver City, New Mexico, in which women took over the picket line to circumvent an injunction barring "striking miners" from company property
  • I'm All Right Jack, Director: John Boulting, UK 1959–Satirical film about the postwar corruption of British industrialists and unions
  • La Reprise du travail aux usines Wonder, Director: Jacques Willemont France 1968–A short film on the resumption of work after May '68
  • Ådalen 31, Director Bo Widerberg, Sweden 1969.
  • Matewan, Director: John Sayles, USA 1987–A fictionalized history of one episode in the labour wars between West Virginia coal miners and mineowners during the 1920s
  • Bread and Roses, Director: Ken Loach(UK), USA 2000 – A film about janitors fighting for the right to unionize in contemporary Los Angeles
  • Newsies, Director: Kenny Ortega, USA 1992–A musical loosely based on the New York Newsboys Strike of 1899.
  • Billy Elliot, Director: Stephen Daldry, (UK) 2000 – story about a young boy in a Northern English town who wants to become a ballet dancer; set on the backdrop of the 1984 Miners' Strike in the United Kingdom.
  • Babylon 5: In one episode the civilian workers on the station who work the docks for incoming ships go on strike. As they are government employees their strike is considered illegal, and a government negotiator is sent. The way the negotiator deals with the strike helps demonstrate the negative turn politics are taking on Earth.
  • Hoffa, Director: Danny DeVito, United States of America 1992; a story about the rise and fall of Teamster leader James "Jimmy" Hoffa (Jack Nicholson) as told by his loyal associate Bobby Ciaro (Danny DeVito).

Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн) (January 23, 1898 – February 11, 1948) was a revolutionary Soviet Russian film director and film theorist noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and Oktober. ... Brothers is either: The plural of brother Brothers, Oregon Wagga Brothers Rugby League Football Club The feeling that men should Treat_one_another_as_brothers This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Stars Look Down is a novel by A. J. Cronin, initially published in 1935. ... Sir Carol Reed (30 December 1906 – 25 April 1976) was an English film director, winner of an Academy Award for his film version of the musical, Oliver! (1968). ... A. J. Cronin is the pen-name of the Scottish novelist Archibald Joseph Cronin (July 19, 1896 - January 9, 1981). ... For other uses, see Salt of the earth. ... Herbert J. Biberman (1900 - 1971) was a US movie director. ... Location in the State of New Mexico Coordinates: , Country State County Grant Founded 1878 Government  - Mayor James R. Marshall Area  - Town  10. ... Im All Right Jack is a British comedy film directed and produced by John and Roy Boulting. ... John and Roy Boulting were English film-makers, who became known for their popular series of satirical comedies in the 1950s and 1960s. ... May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up. ... Ã…dalen 31, is a massacre that occurred in the small Swedish town of Ã…dalen in 1931. ... Bo Widerberg, (born June 8, 1930 in Malmö, SkÃ¥ne län, Sweden, died May 1, 1997 in BÃ¥stad, SkÃ¥ne län, Sweden). ... Matewan is a 1987 drama by John Sayles, illustrating the events of a coal mine-workers strike and attempt to unionize in 1920 in Matewan, a small town in the hills of West Virginia. ... Photo of John Sayles by Robert Birnbaum John Thomas Sayles (born September 28, 1950) is an independent American film director and writer who frequently takes a small part in his own and other indie films. ... Ken Loach Kenneth Loach (born June 17, 1936), known as Ken Loach, is an English television and film director, known for his naturalistic style and socialist themes. ... Newsies is a 1992 Disney live action film musical starring Christian Bale, David Moscow, and Bill Pullman. ... The Newsboys Strike of 1899 was a youth-led campaign to force change in the way that Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst compensated their child labor force. ... For other uses, see Billy Elliot (disambiguation). ... Stephen David Daldry, CBE (born May 2, 1961 in Dorset, England, United Kingdom) is a British movie director and producer. ... The miners strike of 1984-5 was a major piece of industrial action affecting the British coal industry. ... Hoffa is a 1992 biographical film based on the life and mysterious death of Teamsters Union leader Jimmy Hoffa. ... Daniel Michael DeVito Jr. ...

Other meanings

  • Sometimes "go on strike" is used as slang for machinery or equipment not working due to malfunction, e.g. "My computer's scanner's gone on strike".

Look up scanner in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

See also

Organized Labour Portal
This article has a
Translation summary:

This article is in need of attention. ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... A rent strike is a method of protest commonly employed against large landlords such as universities. ... The following is a list of deliberate absence from work related to specific working conditions (strikes) or due to general unhappiness with the political order (general strikes). ... Crowd gathered outside old City Hall during the Winnipeg General Strike, June 21, 1919 The Winnipeg General Strike of 1919 was one of the most influential strikes in Canadian history. ... The 1891 Shearers Strike is one of Australias oldest and most important industrial disputes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Occupation of factories is a method of the workers movement used to prevent lock outs. ... The Seattle General Strike of February 6 to February 11, 1919, was a general stoppage of work by over 65,000 individuals in the city of Seattle. ... A union organizer (sometimes spelled organiser) is one type of employee or elected official of a trade union. ...

References

  1. ^ François Daumas, (1969). Ägyptische Kultur im Zeitalter der Pharaonen, pp. 309. Knaur Verlag, Munich.
  2. ^ Arthur Koestler, Darkness at Noon, p. 60.

For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...

References

  • Norwood, Stephen H. Strikebreaking and Intimidation. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2002. ISBN 0807827053
  • Silver, Beverly J. Forces of Labor: Workers' Movements and Globalization Since 1870. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0521520770
  • Smith, Stephanie. Household Words: Bloomers, Sucker, Bombshell, Scab, Nigger, Cyber. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006. ISBN 0816645531

External links

  • News and histories of strikes from around the world
  • "Black Workers and the Labor Movement: Toward a Paradigm of Unity in Afro-American Studies." Intro to Afro-American Studies. eBlackStudies.com.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Strike action - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1904 words)
Strike action, often simply called a strike is the mass refusal by employees to perform work due to certain grievances.
Strikes that involve all workers, or a number of large and important groups of workers, in a particular community or region are known as general strikes.
A sympathy strike is, in a way, a small scale version of a general strike in which one group of workers refuses to cross a picket line established by another as a means of supporting the striking workers.
UK miners' strike (1984-1985) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3735 words)
A strike nearly happened in 1981, when the government had a similar plan to close 23 pits, but the threat of a strike was then enough to force the government to back down[1].
On March 12, 1984 Arthur Scargill, President of the NUM declared that the strikes in the various coal fields were to be a national strike and called for strike action from NUM members in all coal fields.
This confrontation between striking miners and police, dubbed by some 'The Battle of Orgreave', was the subject of a TV re-enactment in 2001, conceived and organized by artist Jeremy Deller and recorded by Mike Figgis for Channel 4.
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