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Encyclopedia > Stress (medicine)

In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. Stressful stimuli can be mental, physiological, anatomical or physical[1] reactions. The term 'stress' in this context was coined by Austro-Canadian endocrinologist Hans Selye, who defined the General Adaptation Syndrome or GAS paradigm in 1936. medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Homeostasis is the property of an open system, especially living organisms, to regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable, constant condition, by means of multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustments, controlled by interrelated regulation mechanisms. ... Antonym of psychical. ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. ... Look up stimulus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual. ... Motto none Anthem (German) Land of Mountains, Land on the River Austria() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Vienna Official languages German Recognised regional languages Slovene, Croatian, Hungarian1 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Heinz Fischer  -  Chancellor Alfred Gusenbauer Independence  -  Austrian State Treaty in force July... Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ... Hans Hugo Bruno Selye, CC (Selye János, 1907 - 1982), was a Canadian endocrinologist of Austrian-Hungarian origin. ...

Contents

Types of stress

Responses to stress include adaptation, psychological coping such as stress management, anxiety, and depression. Where stress enhances function (physical or mental, such as through strength training or challenging work) it may be considered eustress. Persistent stress that is not resolved through coping or adaptation may lead to escape (anxiety) or withdrawal (depression) behavior. In psychology, coping is the process of managing taxing circumstances, expending effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and seeking to master, minimize, reduce or tolerate stress or conflict. ... A cluttered environment with too many tasks can lead to stress. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder, or unipolar depression when compared to bipolar disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... Strength training is a blanket term for all exercises that develop the strength and size of skeletal muscles. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


The fulcrum of the stress response is a disparity between experience (real or imagined) and personal expectations and resources. A person living in a fashion consistent with personally-accepted expectations has no stress even if the conditions might be interpreted as adverse from some outside perspective — rural people may live in comparative poverty, and yet be unstressed if there is a sufficiency according to their expectations. If there is chronic disparity between experience and expectations, stress may be relieved by adjustment of expectations to meet the ongoing experiences or conditions. Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China An artists rendering of an aerial view of the Maryland countryside: Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), Aerial Series: Ploughed Fields, Maryland, 1974, acrylic and mixed materials on apertured double canvas, 52... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...


Stress can also be triggered by alarming experiences, either real or imaginary.[2]


General Adaption Syndrome

This is a model on stress, researched mainly by Hans Selye[3][4] on rats and other animals. His research involved exposing animals to unpleasant or harmful stimuli such as injections, extreme cold and even vivisection. Hans Hugo Bruno Selye, CC (Selye János, 1907 - 1982), was a Canadian endocrinologist of Austrian-Hungarian origin. ... Etymologically, Vivisection refers to the dissection of, or any cutting or surgery upon, a living organism. ...


He found that all animals showed a very similar series of reactions, broken into three stages. He describes this universal response to the stressors as the General Adaption Syndrome or GAS in 1936.


Stage one: alarm

When the threat or stressor is identified or realised, the body's stress response is a state of alarm. During this stage adrenaline will be produced in order to bring about the fight or flight response. There is also some activation of the HPA axis, producing cortisol. This article or section should include material from Fight-or-flight The flight or fight response, also called the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in the 1920s as a theory that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is a major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress and has important functions in regulating various body processes such as digestion, the immune system and energy usage. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that is involved in the response to stress; it increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels, may cause infertility in women, and suppresses the immune system. ...


Stage two: resistance

If the stressor persists, it becomes necessary to attempt some means of coping with the stress. Although the body begins to try to adapt to the strains or demands of the environment, the body cannot keep this up indefinitely, so its resources are gradually depleted.


Stage three: exhaustion

In the final stage in the GAS model, all the body's resources are eventually depleted and the body is unable to maintain normal function. At this point the initial autonomic nervous system symptoms may reappear (sweating, raised heart rate etc.). If stage three is extended, long term damage may result as the capacity of glands, especially the adrenal gland, and the immune system is exhausted and function is impaired resulting in decompensation. The result can manifest itself in obvious illnesses such as ulcers, depression or even cardiovascular problems, along with other mental issues. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Neuro-chemistry and Physiology

The neurochemistry of the general adaptation syndrome is now believed to be well understood, although much remains to be discovered about how this system interacts with others in the brain and elsewhere in the body.


The body reacts to stress first by releasing the catecholamine hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, and the glucocorticoid hormones, cortisol and cortisone. tyrosine epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Norepinephrine (INN) or noradrenaline (BAN) is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ... Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that is involved in the response to stress; it increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels, may cause infertility in women, and suppresses the immune system. ... Cortisone (IPA:ˈkôrtəˌsōn) is a steroid hormone. ...


The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is a major part of the neuroendocrine system, involving the interactions of the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the adrenal glands. The HPA axis is believed to play a primary role in the body's reactions to stress by balancing hormone releases from the adrenaline-producing adrenal medulla, and from the corticosteroid-producing adrenal cortex. Stress can significantly impact many of the body's immune systems, as can an individual's perceptions of, and reactions to, stress. The term psychoneuroimmunology is used to describe the interactions between the mental state, nervous and immune systems, as well as research on the interconnections of these systems. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is a major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress and has important functions in regulating various body processes such as digestion, the immune system and energy usage. ... Neuroendocrinology is the study of the interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system. ... The hypothalamus, also known as the master gland, links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. ... The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea that sits in a small, bony cavity (pituitary fossa) covered by a dural fold (sellar diaphragm) at the base of the brain. ... In mammals, the adrenal gland (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines, including cortisol... In mammals, the adrenal glands are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Layers of cortex. ... Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) investigates the relations between the psychophysiological and immunophysiological dimensions of living beings. ...


History of stress

It was gradually realized that such concepts as anxiety, antagonism, exhaustion, frustration, distress, despair, overwork, pre-menstrual tension, over-focusing, confusion, mourning, and fear could all come together in a general broad term, stress. The popular use of the term in modern folklore expanded rapidly and created an industry of popular psychology, self-help, psychotherapy, and sometimes quackery. There were a series of films in the 30s, 40s, & 50s that dealt with mad scientists playing with hormones that seem related to this folklore. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Antagonism is defined as hostility that results in active resistance, opposition, or contentiousness. ... Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) (also called PMT or Premenstrual Tension) is a collection of physical, psychological, and emotional symptoms related to a womans menstrual cycle. ... Fear is a powerful biological feeling of unpleasant risk or danger, either real or imagined. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Though the term self-help can refer to any case whereby an individual or a group betters themselves economically, intellectually or emotionally, the connotations of the phrase have come to apply particularly to psychological or psychotherapeutic nostrums, often purveyed through the popular genre of the self-help book. ... // Psychotherapy is a range of techniques based on dialogue, communication and behavior change and which are designed to improve the mental health of a client or patient, or to improve group relationships (such as in a family). ... Pietro Longhi: The Charlatan, 1757 Quackery is a derogatory term used to describe questionable medical practices. ...


The use of the term stress in serious and recognized cases, such as those of post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosomatic illness, has scarcely helped clear analysis of the generalized "stress" phenomenon. Nonetheless, some varieties of stress from negative life events (distress) and from positive life events (eustress) can clearly have a serious physical impact distinct from the troubles of what psychotherapists call the "worried well." Stress activates the sympathetic branch of the autonomous nervous system and the release of stress hormones including epinephrine, and cortisol. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful events that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that is involved in the response to stress; it increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels, may cause infertility in women, and suppresses the immune system. ...


Sympathetic nervous output produces the fight-or-flight response, causing the body to divert bloodflow to large muscles as the body prepares to run away from or fight something. Less blood flows to the digestive system and other organs that do not assist in fleeing or fighting, producing dry mouth, motor agitation, sweating, pallor, enlarged pupils and over the long term, insomnia. Modern stressors can cause continual sympathetic nervous system activation with very little opportunity for the parasympathetic nervous system to activate. When the parasympathetic system is active, the bowel and other non-muscle organs receive good blood-flow, the pupils constrict, and the glands all function well and secrete their various compounds. Absence of the autonomic parasympathetic activation leads to poor digestion and may lead to poor healing and organ function.[citation needed] The fight-or-flight response, also called the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in 1929. ... The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, or the alimentary canal, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... Pallor is an abnormal loss of skin or mucous membrane color. ... The human eye The pupil is the central transparent area (showing as black). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Grays FIG. 838– The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses. ... Autonomic nervous system innervation, showing the sympathetic and parasympathetic (craniosacral) systems, in red and blue, respectively The parasympathetic nervous system is one of three divisions of the autonomic nervous system. ... Human submaxillary gland. ...


Common factors of stress

Both negative and postive stressors can lead to stress. Some common categories and examples of stressors include:

One evaluation of the different stresses in people's lives is the Holmes and Rahe stress scale. “Hurting” redirects here. ... This cosmetics store has lighting levels over twice recommended levels and sufficient to trigger headaches and other health effects Over-illumination is the presence of lighting intensity (illuminance) beyond that required for a specified activity. ... Birth is the process in animals by which an offspring is shot out from the body of its mama. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... For the record label, see Divorce Records. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In education, certification, counseling, the military, and many other fields, a test or an exam (short for examination) is a tool or technique intended to measure students expression of knowledge, skills and/or abilities. ... For other uses, see Conflict (disambiguation). ... This article or section includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A child sleeping Sleep is the state of natural rest observed in humans and throughout the animal kingdom, including in all mammals and birds, and in many reptiles, amphibians and fish. ... Child abuse is the physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment or neglect of children by parents, guardians, or others. ... In 1967, psychiatrists Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe examined the medical records of over 5,000 medical patients as a way to determine whether stressful life events might cause illnesses. ...


See also

Oxidative stress is a medical term for damage to animal or plant cells (and thereby the organs and tissues composed of those cells) caused by reactive oxygen species, which include (but are not limited to) superoxide, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite or hydrogen peroxide. ...

References

  1. ^ Rippetoe-Kilgore, Mark and Lon. 2006. Practical Programming for Strength Training. ISBN 0-9768-0540-5
  2. ^ Ron de Kloet, E; Joels M. & Holsboer F. (2005). "Stress and the brain: from adaptation to disease". Nature Reviews Neuroscience 6 (6): 463-475. PMID 15891777. 
  3. ^ Seyle, Hans (1936). "A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents". Nature. 
  4. ^ Seyle, Hans (1950). "Diseases of adaptation". Wisconsin medical journal 49 (6). 

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Hans Hugo Bruno Selye, CC (Selye János, 1907 - 1982), was a Canadian endocrinologist of Austrian-Hungarian origin. ... Hans Hugo Bruno Selye, CC (Selye János, 1907 - 1982), was a Canadian endocrinologist of Austrian-Hungarian origin. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Stress (medicine) - guideofcasinos.com (1129 words)
Stress (roughly the opposite of relaxation) is a medical term for a wide range of strong external stimuli, both physiological and psychological, which can cause a physiological response called the general adaptation syndrome, first described in 1936 by Hans Selye in the journal Nature.
Such stress raises the level of adrenaline and corticosterone in the body, which in turn increases the heart-rate, respiration, blood-pressure and puts more physical stress on bodily organs.
Finally, serenity is a disposition free or mostly free from the effects of stress, and in some cultures it is considered a state which may be cultivated by various forms of training.
Stress (medicine) (532 words)
Stress is a medical term for a wide range of strong external stimuli, both physiological and psychological, which can cause a physiological response called the general adaptation syndrome, first recognised in 1956 by Hans Selye.
Such stress raises the level of adrenaline and corticosterone in the body, which in turn increases the heart-rate, respiration, blood-pressure and puts more physical stress on bodily organs.
The use of the term stress in serious recognized cases such as those of post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosomatic illness has scarcely helped clear analysis of the generalized 'stress' phenomenon.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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