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Encyclopedia > Stress (linguistics)
Suprasegmentals
Syllable
Mora
Tone
Tone contour
Pitch accent
Register
Downstep
Upstep
Downdrift
Tone terracing
Floating tone
Tone sandhi
Tone letter
Stress
Secondary stress
Vowel reduction
Length
Chroneme
Gemination
Vowel length
Extra-short
Prosody
Intonation (pitch)
Pitch contour
Pitch reset
Stress
Rhythm
Metrical foot
Loudness
Prosodic unit
Timing (rhythm)
Vowel reduction

In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. The term is also used for similar patterns of phonetic prominence inside syllables. The word accent is sometimes also used with this sense. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In linguistics, prosody refers to intonation and vocal stress in speech. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ... Mora (plural moras or morae) is a unit of sound used in phonology that determines syllable weight (which in turn determines stress or timing) in some languages. ... Some web browsers may not be able to view this correctly; you may see transcriptions in parentheses after the character, like this: () instead of on top of the character as intended. ... The tone contours of Standard Mandarin Tone contours are numbers that represent the way pitch varies over a syllable. ... Pitch accent is a kind of accent system employed in many languages around the world. ... In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. ... Downstep is a phonemic or phonetic downward shift of tone between the syllables or words of a tonal language. ... In phonetics, upstep is a phonemic or phonetic upward shift of tone between the syllables or words of a tonal language. ... Downdrift is a linguistic phenomenon defined as the lowering of high tones that are separated by low tones. ... Tone terracing is a type of phonetic downdrift, where certain tones shift downward in pitch after other tones. ... A floating tone is a morpheme that contains no consonants, no vowels, but only tone. ... Tone sandhi (Sandhi is from Sanskrit meaning, putting together) refers to the pitch change in tones when different tones come together. ... The secondary stress is the degree of stress weaker than a primary accent placed on a syllable in the pronunciation of a word. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In phonetics, length or quantity is a feature of sounds that are distinctively longer than other sounds. ... In spoken language, a chroneme is a basic, theoretical unit of sound that can distinguish words by duration only of a vowel or consonant. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... In linguistics, prosody refers to intonation, rhythm, and vocal stress in speech. ... Intonation, in linguistics, is the variation of pitch when speaking. ... In linguistics, speech synthesis, and music, the pitch contour of a sound is a function or curve that tracks the perceived pitch of the sound over time. ... For other uses, see Rhythm (disambiguation). ... In verse, many meters use a foot as the basic unit in their description of the underlying rhythm of a poem. ... The horizontal axis shows frequency in Hz Loudness is the quality of a sound that is the primary psychological correlate of physical intensity. ... In linguistics, the timing in a language comprises the rhythmic qualities of speech, in particular how syllables are distributed across time. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ...

Contents

Types of stress

The ways stress manifests itself in the speech stream are highly language dependent. In some languages, stressed syllables have a higher or lower pitch than non-stressed syllables — so-called pitch accent (or musical accent). In other languages, they may bear either higher or lower pitch than surrounding syllables (a pitch excursion), depending on the sentence type. There are also dynamic accent (loudness), qualitative accent (full vowels), and quantitative accent (length, known in music theory as agogic accent). Stress may be characterized by more than one of these characteristics. Further, stress may be realized to varying degrees on different words in a sentence; sometimes the difference between the acoustic signals of stressed and unstressed syllables may be minimal. Pitch accent is a kind of accent system employed in many languages around the world. ... In music, an accent is an emphasis on a particular note created by length, as in an agogic accent, pitch, as in a pitch accent, and dynamics, such as dynamic accents. ... The horizontal axis shows frequency in Hz Loudness is the quality of a sound that is the primary psychological correlate of physical intensity. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... Music theory is a field of study that investigates the nature or mechanics of music. ... In music, an accent is an emphasis on a particular note created by length, as in an agogic accent, pitch, as in a pitch accent, and dynamics, such as dynamic accents. ...


In English, stress is most dramatically realized on focussed or accented words. For instance, consider the dialogue

"Is it brunch tomorrow?"
"No, it's dinner tomorrow."

In it, the stress-related acoustic differences between the syllables of "tomorrow" would be small compared to the differences between the syllables of "dinner", the emphasized word. In these emphasized words, stressed syllables such as "din" in "dinner" are louder and longer.[1][2][3] They may also have a different fundamental frequency, or other properties. Unstressed syllables typically have a vowel which is closer to a neutral position (the schwa), while stressed vowels are more fully realized. In contrast, stressed and unstressed vowels in Spanish share the same quality—unlike English, the language has no reduced vowels.


(Much literature emphasizes the importance of pitch changes and pitch motions on stressed syllables, but experimental support for this idea is weak. Nevertheless, most experiments do not directly address the pitch of speech, which is a subjective perceived quantity. Experiments typically measure the speech fundamental frequency which is objectively measurable, and strongly correlated with pitch, but not quite the same thing.)


The possibilities for stress in tone languages is an area of ongoing research, but stress-like patterns have been observed in Mandarin Chinese.[4] They are realized as alternations between syllables where the tones are carefully realized with a relatively large swing in fundamental frequency, and syllables where they are realized "sloppily" with typically a small swing. Tone refers to the use of pitch in language to distinguish words. ...


Stressed syllables are often perceived as being more forceful than non-stressed syllables. Research has shown, however, that although dynamic stress is accompanied by greater respiratory force, it does not mean a more forceful articulation in the vocal tract. Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... Articulation may refer to several topics: In speech, linguistics, and communication: Topic-focus articulation Articulation score Place of articulation Manner of articulation In music: Musical articulations (staccato, legato, etc) In education: Articulation (education) In sociology: Articulation (sociology) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... Sagittal section of human vocal tract The vocal tract is that cavity in animals and humans, where sound that is produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered. ...


Timing and placement

Further information: Timing (linguistics)

English is a stress-timed language; that is, stressed syllables appear at a roughly constant rate, and non-stressed syllables are shortened to accommodate this. Other languages have syllable timing (e.g. Spanish) or mora timing (e.g. Japanese), where syllables or morae are spoken at a roughly constant rate regardless of stress. In linguistics, the timing in a language comprises the rhythmic qualities of speech, in particular how syllables are distributed across time. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ... Mora (plural moras or morae) is a unit of sound used in phonology that determines syllable weight (which in turn determines stress or timing) in some languages. ...


Some languages have fixed stress. That is, stress is placed always on a given syllable, as in Finnish and Hungarian (stress always on the first syllable) or Quechua and Polish (stress always on the penult: one syllable before the last) or on third syllable counting backwards (the antepenult), as in Macedonian (see: Stress in Macedonian language). Other languages have stress placed on different syllables but in a predictable way, as in Classical Arabic and Latin (where stress is conditioned by the structure of the penultimate syllable). They are said to have a regular stress rule. Quechua (Runa Simi in Quechua; Runa, human + Simi, speech, literally mouth; i. ... Generally speaking, the penult is the next to the last item in a series but it most specifically means the next to the last syllable in a word. ... The Macedonian language (Македонски, Makedonski) is a language in the Eastern group of South Slavic languages and is the official language of the Republic of Macedonia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


French words are sometimes said to be stressed on the final syllable, but actually French has no word stress at all. Rather, it has a prosody whereby the final or next-to-final syllable of a string of words is stressed. This string may be equivalent to a clause or a phrase. However, when a word is said alone, it receives the full prosody and therefore the stress as well. In linguistics, prosody refers to intonation, rhythm, and vocal stress in speech. ... In grammar, a clause is a word or group of words ordinarily consisting of a subject and a predicate, although in some languages and some types of clauses, the subject may not appear explicitly. ... Look up phrase in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


There are also languages like English, Italian and Spanish, where stress is (at least partly) unpredictable. Rather, it is lexical: it comes as part of the word and must be memorized, although orthography can make stress unambiguous for a reader, as is the case in Spanish and Portuguese. In such languages, otherwise homophonous words may differ only by the position of the stress (e.g. incite and insight in English), and therefore it is possible to use stress as a grammatical device. For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ...


English does this to some extent with noun-verb pairs such as a récord vs. to recórd, where the verb is stressed on the last syllable and the related noun is stressed on the first; record also hyphenates differently: a réc-ord vs. to re-córd. The German language does this with certain prefixes — for example úm-schrei-ben (to rewrite) vs. um-schréi-ben (to paraphrase, outline) — and in Russian this phenomenon often occurs with different cases of certain nouns (земли́/zemli (genitive case of the Earth, land or soil) and зе́мли (soils or lands — plural form)). Initial-stress-derivation is a phonological process in English, wherein verbs become nouns or adjectives when the stress is moved to the first syllable from a later one -- usually, but not always, the second. ... One of the reasons for the complexity of the rules of word-breaking, or hyphenation algorithm, is that different dialects of English tend to differ on the rule: American English tends to work on sound, while British English tends to look to the origins of the word and then to... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... In linguistics, a prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


It is common for dialects to differ in their stress placement, as in British English and American English. British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ...


Historical effects of stress

It is common for stressed and unstressed syllables to behave differently as a language evolves. For example, in the Romance languages, the original Latin short vowels /e/ and /o/ have generally become diphthongs when stressed. Since stress takes part in verb conjugation, this has produced verbs with vowel alternation in the Romance languages. For example, the Spanish verb volver has the form volví in the past but vuelvo in the present (see Spanish irregular verbs). Italian shows the same phenomenon, but with /o/ alternating with /uo/ instead. This behaviour is not confined to verbs; for example, Spanish viento "wind" vs. ventilación "ventilation", from Latin ventum. The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, apophony (also ablaut, gradation, alternation, internal modification, stem modification, stem alternation, replacive morphology, stem mutation, internal inflection) is the alternation of sounds within a word that indicates grammatical information (often inflectional). ... Spanish verbs are a complex area of Spanish grammar, with many combinations of tenses, aspects and moods (up to fifty conjugated forms per verb). ...


Degrees of stress

Main article: Secondary stress

'Primary' and 'secondary' stress are distinguished in some languages. English is commonly believed to have two levels of stress, as in the words cóunterfòil [ˈkaʊntɚˌfɔɪl] and còunterintélligence [ˌkaʊntɚ.ɪnˈtɛlɪdʒəns], and in some treatments has even been described as having four levels, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary, but these treatments often disagree with each other. It is possible to describe English with only one degree of stress, as long as unstressed syllables may occur without vowel reduction. The secondary stress is the degree of stress weaker than a primary accent placed on a syllable in the pronunciation of a word. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Stress and vowel reduction

In many languages, such as Russian and English, vowel reduction may occur when a vowel changes from a stressed to an unstressed position. In English, many unstressed vowels reduce to schwa-like vowels, though the details vary with dialect. Other languages, such as Finnish, have no unstressed vowel reduction. English phonology is the study of the phonology (ie the sound system) of the English language. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ...


Notation

Different systems exist for indicating syllabification and stress. Syllabification can be described as the separation of a word at the end of a line to improve the lines appearance in text. ...

  • In IPA, primary stress is indicated by a high vertical line before the syllable, secondary stress by a low vertical line. Example: [sɪˌlæbəfɪˈkeɪʃən] or /sɪˌlæbəfɪˈkeɪʃən/.
  • In English dictionaries which do not use IPA, stress is typically marked with a prime mark placed after the stressed syllable: /si-lab′-ə-fi-kay′-shən/.
  • In ad hoc pronunciation guides, stress is often indicated using a combination of bold text and capital letters. Example: si-lab-if-i-KAY-shun or si-LAB-if-i-KAY-shun
  • In Russian and Ukrainian dictionaries, stress is indicated with an acute accent on a syllable's vowel. Example: вимовля́ння.
  • In Dutch, ad hoc indication of stress is usually marked by an acute accent on the vowel (or, in the case of a diphthong, the first two vowels) of the stressed syllable. Compare achterúítgang (deterioration) and áchteruitgang (back exit).
  • In Modern Greek, all polysyllables are written with an acute accent over the vowel in the stressed syllable. (The acute accent is also used to distinguish some monosyllables in order to distinguish homographs (e.g., η ("the") and ή ("or")); here the stress of the two words is the same).
  • In Portuguese, stress is sometimes indicated explicitly with an acute accent (for i, u, and open a, e, o), or circumflex (for close a, e, o). In diphthongs, when marked, the semivowel (or the semivowels) never receives the accent mark. Stress is not marked with diacritics when it can be otherwise predicted from spelling, i.e., it is only marked on uncommon pronunciation of pattern of letters.
  • In Spanish orthography, stress may be written explicitly with a single acute accent on a vowel. Stressed antepenultimate syllables are always written with this accent mark, as in árabe. If the last syllable is stressed, the accent mark is used if the word ends in the letters n, s, or a vowel, as in está. If the penultimate syllable is stressed, the accent is used if the word ends in any other letter, as in cárcel. That is, if a word is written without an accent mark, the stress is on the penult if the last letter is a vowel or n, s, but on the final syllable if the word ends in any other letter.

Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... This article is not about the symbol for the set of prime numbers, â„™. The prime (′, Unicode U+2032, ′) is a symbol with many mathematical uses: A complement in set theory: A′ is the complement of the set A A point related to another (e. ... Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means for this [purpose]. It generally signifies a solution that has been tailored to a specific purpose, such as a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol, and specific-purpose equation and things like that. ... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... This article discusses the unit of speech. ... Look up homograph in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Portuguese (  or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain) and northern Portugal from the Latin spoken by romanized Celtiberians about 1000 years ago. ... Semivowels (also glides, more rarely: semiconsonants) are non-syllabic vowels that form diphthongs with syllabic vowels. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ...

Notes

  1. ^ M. E. Beckman, Stress and Non-Stress Accent, Dordrecht: Foris (1986) ISBN 90-6765-243-1
  2. ^ R. Silipo and S. Greenberg, Automatic Transcription of Prosodic Stress for Spontaneous English Discourse, Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS99), San Francisco, CA, August 1999, pages 2351-2354
  3. ^ G. Kochanski, E. Grabe, J. Coleman and B. Rosner, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, volume 118, number 2, pages 1038-1054, doi:10.1121/1.1923349
  4. ^ Kochanski, G., Shih, C., Jing, H.; Quantitative Measurement of Prosodic Strength in Mandarin, Speech Communication 41(4), November 2003, DOI: 10.1016/S0167-6393(03)00100-6

See also

Accent in poetry refers to the stressed portion of a word. ... In music, an accent is an emphasis on a particular note created by length, as in an agogic accent, pitch, as in a pitch accent, and dynamics, such as dynamic accents. ... In linguistics, the antepenult is the third syllable from the end of a word ( -dic- is the antepenult of per-pen-dic-ul-ar). The antepenult precedes the penult or second-to-last syllable which, in turn, precedes the ultimate or final syllable. ... Initial-stress-derivation is a phonological process in English, wherein verbs become nouns or adjectives when the stress is moved to the first syllable from a later one -- usually, but not always, the second. ... Generally speaking, the penult is the next to the last item in a series but it most specifically means the next to the last syllable in a word. ... Pitch accent is a kind of accent system employed in many languages around the world. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... The secondary stress is the degree of stress weaker than a primary accent placed on a syllable in the pronunciation of a word. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ... In linguistics, the timing in a language comprises the rhythmic qualities of speech, in particular how syllables are distributed across time. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In the phonology of stress-timed languages, the weak form of a word is a form that may be used when the word has no stress, and which is phonemically distinct from the strong form used when the word is stressed. ...

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